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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 238, July 20, 1373. 


of Entercommumration 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 238, July 20, 1878. 




5th S. IX. JAN. 5,78.] 





NOTES : The True Story of the Cenci Family, 1-New Year's 
Gifts, 3 Abyssinian and Irish Legends, 4 Naval Artillery 
in Ancient Times : Fire- Arms A. c. 1100 Lowland Aberdeen, 
5 "Mucked to death "Charlotte Bronte : Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning New Works on Words Wanted " Cleanliness 
is next to Godliness " Obsolete Words in the English 
Bible, C. 

QUERIES: "Inkle-weaver," &c. McMahon Families Sea- 
men and Tattoo Marks, 7 Early Britain Superstition in 
Yorkshire Dr. Johnson's Meteorological Instrument The 
Mayor of Huntingdon and the Sturgeon T. Britton Leigh, 
of Co. Warwick Schomberg Arms Brodhurst, 8 -Lewis 
Bruce, D.D. " Are" St. Tyrnog G. and H. Cabot The 
Circus Register of Premonstratensian Abbeys Authors 
Wanted, 9 Mary Robinson's Grave at Old Windsor, 19. 

REPLIES : Booksellers in St. Paul's Churchyard, 9-Latin 
Versions of Foote's Nonsense Talk, 11 The First Local 
Newspaper A Botanical Puzzle, 12 "Quern Deus vult 
perdere," &c, 13 "The Toast," by Dr. W. King "The 
midnight oil," 14 " Rubbish " " Fifteenths " Elwill 
Family, 15 Dr. Watts's Psalms Edward Hyde, Earl of 
Clarendon Curious Custom, 16 Rev. W. Garnett Portrait 
of Beatrice Cenci A Pseudo-ChristChristmas Service for 
the Gift of a Manor De Stuteville Family, 17 The Constan- 
tinian Order of St. George" Stag "Silversmith's Work 
The "De Imitatione Christi "Gregory Clements the Re- 
gicide Ley lands of Lancashire Authors Wanted, 18. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


The note which appeared in these columns a 
few weeks ago on this subject was necessarily 
brief, as its only purport was to call attention to 
the latest Italian publications on the history of 
the Cenci. Since then it has occurred to me 
that some notes on the Cenci family, their 
trial and execution, may be interesting to 
those who are not likely to see the books re- 
ferred to, as the accounts till now accessible to 
English readers are most grossly incorrect. It 
appears that a MS. extant in the Minerva Library 
at Eome is the foundation of a notice in the 
Quarterly Review >, in an article " Italian Tours," 
published in April, 1858. The story, as related 
there, is a tissue of misstateinents, the guilt of 
Beatrice being the solitary fragment of truth to be 
found in it. But worse still, in Hare's Walks in 
Eome a book in the hands of every traveller in 
Italy the account of the tragedy is taken from 
Ademollo, who assumes the innocence of Beatrice. 
To tell the story correctly, according to lately dis- 
covered* documentary evidence, shall be the aim 
of this paper ; and some of the MSS., though not 
trustworthy in facts, will help in details. These 
different MS. versions of the story seem to have 

* D'Albono's volume on the Cenci is not cut of print, 
and is published by Nobile, Naples. 

been founded on one common original, with varia- 
tions and glosses by other hands. But they are 
valuable as traditionary accounts of the family, &c. T 
and certainly some of the touches in them could 
only have been given by an eye-witness, who 
might be ignorant of the events that preceded the 
trial, though he had seen the execution, and was 
familiar with the features and personal appearance 
of many of the actors in the sad drama. 

The subject falls naturally under five heads : 
the family of Count Cenci ; the murder ; the trial ; 
the execution ; the survivors. 


Francesco Cenci, Magnifico Eomano, was born, 
as he deposes himself, Nov. 11, 1549, and succeeded 
at thirteen to the wealth amassed by his father, 
who was clerk and treasurer of the Camera Apo- 
stolica. An idea of his fortune may be gained from 
the fact that for composition for his father's 
frauds he paid 58,000 scudi, and for fines imposed 
on himself for various crimes 125,000 sc. His 
appearance is described thus in a MS.: "Short, 
well made, large expressive eyes, but the upper 
eyelid drooping a little, a large prominent nose, 
thin lips, and a charming smile." 

Though stained with nameless crimes, and 
knowing no bounds to his passions, he cannot 
have been the bold infidel ordinary accounts have 
made him. In his will, dated Nov. 22, 1586, 
after directing that his body shall be laid in the 
little church of S. Tommaso, which he had rebuilt, 
he provides an endowment for a chaplain, and 
leaves several bequests to hospitals and for the 
dower of poor girls. He was notoriously grasping 
his step-daughters speak of his notoria tenacity, 
and of a most restless disposition. Bernardo, 
his son, describes his father as continually changing 
house, as he took a fresh fancy into his head. 

He married at fourteen Ersilia Santa Croce, of 
the great Roman family of that name. She died 
in April, 1584, leaving him seven surviving 
children ; and though the first years of their mar- 
ried life, owing perhaps to a lawsuit about her 
dowry, do not seem to have been happy, as his 
first will, in 1567, attests, yet there is not the 
slightest evidence that he poisoned her, according 
to the common story, to marry Lucrezia Petroni. 
On the contrary, he remained a widower nine 
years, not remarrying till Nov. 9, 1593. 

Between 1567 and 1573 he was, from time to 
time, under surveillance in his own house, or in 
prison for assaults ; and Sept. 14, 1572, was 
banished from Rome for six months. From 1591 
to 1594 he was, at times, again in prison, and on 
trial, for blacker deeds. His evidence is given in 
full by Cavaliere Bertolotti. From it we learn 
the reason of his former imprisonments ; his age ,- 
date of marriage ; that during the sedia vacante 
all men used to go about armed ; that he suffered 


[5th s. IX. JAN. 5, 78. 

from rogna, known in Italy as well as Scotland ; 
that he lived at the Ripetta, and then at the 
Dogana, in Casa Patrizi ; that he dealt ready 
blows on the slightest provocation, &c. ; with 
much other unmentionable matter. At first he 
denied his crimes ; but later he sent a memorial 
to the Pope practically admitting his guilt, and 
requesting to treat with his Holiness through 
friends and relations. Accordingly, on June 12, 
1594, a penalty of 150,000 sc. was inflicted, which 
was afterwards reduced to 100,000, of which half 
was paid in August and the rest in instalments 
the same year. To effect this he had to contract 
large loans, some of which were not repaid at his 
death, but which seem to have been satisfied out 
of the property then confiscated. After 1594 no 
further proceedings against him have been found. 

His possessions comprised some places interest- 
ing to the traveller in Italy : Torre Nuova, with 
its pines and vast farm buildings, so well known 
to the hunting man at Rome ; the Castle of Nemi, 
now the property of the Orsini, which still guards 
its lake, lying like a mirror below, over which still 
earlier a temple of Diana kept watch, whose priest 
none could be, according to old legend, unless he 
had killed his predecessor ; the Castle of Falcog- 
nano, and the farms of Testa di Lepre and Castel 
Campanile, in the Roman Campagna. Besides 
these he held the Castle of Assergio and other 
estates in the Abruzzi, and the two Palazzi Cenci 
in Rome one at the Ghetto, the other in the 
Piazza San Eustachio. 

Of Lucrezia, his second wife, there is little to be 
said. She was the widow of a Velli, with three 
daughters. MSS. describe her as about forty-four, 
short, with dark eyes, a fresh pink and white 
complexion, very stout, with auburn hair, but 
little of it. 

Giacomo, the eldest son, and accomplice with 
Beatrice and Lucretia in the murder, was already 
out of favour with his father in 1586. Count 
Cenci, in his will made at that date, precluded him 
from any share in the estate beyond his leggitima, 
except 100 scudi, " and this for just and reasonable 

He had married Lodovica Velli without his 
father's consent, but documents show still worse 
was behind. A paper exists, signed by him, in 
which he promises to repay money unduly appro- 
priated ; among other items, a month's pay for his 
sisters in the convent of Monte Citorio, which he 
had kept back, and thirty scudi to replace tapestries 
which he had stolen from the guardarobba to which 
only his father and he had access. In 1594 Count 
Cenci threw him into prison for a supposed 
scheme of parricide, which however was trumped 
up by a servant whom he had chastised. His dis- 
position, however, remained unchanged, and in 
his last moments he confessed to another fraud on 
his father a bill forged for 13,000 sc. 

Beatrice, the younger daughter, was baptized on 
Feb. 12, 1577 (this register was only discovered 
early last year), and was consequently past 
twenty-one at the time of the murder. MSS. 
describe her thus, in general agreement with each 
other : 

" Elle etait petite, avait un joli embonpoint, et des 
fossettes au milieu des joues, de fafon que morte et 
couronnee de fleurs on cut dit meme qu'elle riait. Elle 
avait la bouche petite, les cheveux blonds et naturelle- 
ment boucles." 

Another MS. : 

" Erano i capelli del puro color d' oro, piutosto corti 
che lunghi, ma cosi naturalmente inanellati, che compa- 
rivano fatti ad arte." 

From a professed acquaintance with her the first 
writer says (transl.): 

"Elle avait eurtout une gaite, une candeur, et un 
esprit comique, que je n'ai jamais vu qu'a elle." 

The traditions of her beauty are incidentally 
confirmed by an answer of one of the assassins on 
his trial. Asked whether he knew Beatrice, he 
said " Yes " ; asked under what circumstances, he 
replied, " Havendo grande desiderio di guardare 
la sua bellezza." Beatrice kept house for her 
family, and accounts still exist showing the sums 
paid to her monthly, which were large. Her love 
story with Monsignor Guerra will be proved to be 
a fiction ; but though she had a dowry of 20,000 sc. 
she remained unmarried. Her father kept her in 
a kind of imprisonment at Petrella. " Come car- 
cerata e sotto chiave," she says in her deposition ; 
but her young brothers Bernardo and Paolo were 
treated much in the same way. Bernardo, when 
asked on trial why they had left Petrella about 
six weeks before the murder, says, " My father 
kept us shut up in the Rocca, and would not let 
us go out." For this severe treatment of Beatrice 
we shall perhaps later find a reason. 

Bernardo, the last of those implicated in the 
tragedy, though apparently innocent, was the 
youngest but one of the sons, and was born 
August 16, 1580. In figure, face, and hair he 
bore a marked resemblance to his sister. His 
advocate Farinacci made him out to be only six- 
teen, and imbecile, but there appears no more 
foundation for the latter statement than for the 

The other children were Antonina, the elder 
daughter, Rocco, Cristoforo,and Paolo, the youngest 
son, all of whom but Antonina died before the 

Antonina is commonly said to have presented 
a memorial to the Pope detailing her father's 
cruelties, which the Pope answered by marrying 
her to Carlo Gabrielli, of Gubbio. Still more, I 
find in one MS. , which has the correct date of the 
marriage and the real name of the husband, 
Luzio Savelli, Baron of Riquano, the specific state- 
ment that the Pope committed the matter to Car- 

5"' S. IX. JAN. 5, 78.] 


dinal Eusticucci, Vicar of Rome. The cardinal 
then sent for Count Cenci. obliged him to sign the 
marriage contract, while in the mean time Antonina 
was fetched, and married then and there in the 
cardinal's chapel. Unfortunately for the truth of 
this story, a steward's account is extant, in which 
the count is charged for carriages for an excursion 
to Riquano two months before the marriage, and 
forty baiocchi are put down for the dolls Antonina 
gave to the child of Luzio Savelli. Certainly 
it sometimes happens that " trifles light as air are 
confirmation strong." Who would have thought 
that the entry of the hire of carriages on an ex- 
cursion, and the gift of two dolls to a child, would, 
after 270 years, clear the dark memory of Count 
Cenci from a false accusation ? Yet these trifling 
entries prove that the engagement was entered 
into with the father's consent, and that Antonina 
was on a visit to her future husband's family two 
months before her marriage. She appears to have 
died shortly before the execution of her family in 

Rocco and Cristoforo were two mauvais sujets. 
The latter was killed in a brawl about a 
woman, in 1598, on the little island of S. Bar- 
tolomeo. His murderer was banished ; but before 
the sentence was carried out Giacomo and Ber- 
nardo forgave him their brother's death. Accord- 
ingly, in the same year, his mother petitioned the 
Pope to allow her son to return to Rome, next 
year being the Jubilee. This document, found by 
Bertolotti, gives a strange insight into the life of 
the period. She begs for her son's return, as she 
is old and infirm ; besides, " he is ready to marry a 
tall and handsome girl (zitella vistosa e grande), 
whose father is bankrupt, and mother in bad 
health, and whose virtue will otherwise be in 
danger, as she is twenty years old." 

Rocco was killed in 1595 by an Orsini ; but in 
1594 he had been implicated with Monsignor 
Guerra, a first cousin of his father, in a robbery of 
silk hangings, linen, tapestry, and a silver basin 
from Count Cenci's house. The depositions given 
by the Fiscale are published by Bertolotti. Cer- 
tainly the Cenci family washed their dirty linen 
in public. Paolo, Antonina, and Beatrice Cenci 
gave evidence. The words of Beatrice are in- 
teresting, and not very lover-like : 

" I think that M. Guerra helped Rocco to take and 
carry away the articles in question, because Rocco alone 
could not carry them away ; still more, I say that I 
think the aforesaid M. Guerra was the contriver of the 
whole affair, and I say so believing it to be the truth." 

The unfortunate Count Cenci has even been 
charged with the death of Rocco ; but from the 
notes of the inquiry, published by Bertolotti, it is 
quite evident the murder was the result of an old 

The last of the family was Paolo, a weakly boy, 
who died about ten weeks after the murder, and 

was apparently not implicated in it. All the sons 
had been in debt, whether owing to their scanty 
allowance or to their own extravagance it is im- 
possible to determine. Rocco sends a petition 
from Padua, which town MSS. have changed into 
Salamanca, alleging that he is utterly destitute 
a statement which seems confirmed by other evi- 
dence ; and we find that in 1595 the Pope, taking 
the matter into his own hands, really ordered some 
rents belonging to the father to be applied to the 
maintenance of the sons. The dissensions and 
misery of the family life are sketched by Bernardo, 
who says in his deposition, " My father and my 
brothers Giacomo and Cristoforo never spoke." 
Add to this the tyranny exercised by Count Cenci 
over the younger sons and Beatrice, and the for- 
gery already committed by Giacomo, which perhaps 
threatened detection, and we see that things were 
ripening for the parricide. K. H. B. 

(To oe continued.} 


This is a subject which has been well nigh 
exhausted, but towards the illustration of which 
there is always some trifle presenting itself to be 
added to the already huge collection. From the 
time when branches of vervain, with fruit, honey, 
and good wishes, were acceptable gifts among the 
classical people of old, to the period when the 
custom became an imposition a tax which the 
people paid to superiors, there was no very great 
interval. Some circumstances connected with the 
custom are noteworthy. It is difficult, for instance, 
to discover how the yearly flinging of little pieces 
of money into Curtius's lake could be a testimony 
on the part of the citizens of their good wishes for 
the long life and prosperity of Augustus. Of the 
new year's gifts contributed to this emperor by the 
chief citizens, it cannot be said that he made un- 
praiseworthy use. It is asserted that of money Au- 
gustus never put into his own purse, for his private 
use, more than a penny of the sum presented by 
each donor. With the rest he substituted gods of 
gold for those of wood, and set up divine figures 
in villages which had been lacking such protection 
and symbols. Perhaps the most welcome tribute 
Augustus ever received was the heap of gold which 
was placed at his feet by universal Rome for the 
rebuilding of his Palatine House, which fire had 
destroyed. Augustus knew how to accept with 

On the other hand, Caligula had no such know- 
ledge. He was at once a mean and truculent 
beggar. On the birth of his daughter he declared 
that he should be ruined by family expenses ; and 
that as to maintaining the grace and glory of the 
imperial condition, it was out of the question, 
unless pecuniary aid was afforded. The imperial 
hint was so very broad, that the weight and value 


[5 ll 'S. IX. JAN. 5,78. 

of the popular " benevolence " were in due propor- 
tion, for this tender creature would have been as 
a beast of prey to the citizens of rank if they had 
been incapable of comprehending the imperial sug- 
gestion. Caligula never forgot to make a very 
significant one towards the close of the old year, 
namely, that he should be prepared to receive all 
gifts from his loyal people at the opening of the 
new year. It must have been a strange sight to 
see this greedy tyrant stationed under the entrance 
to his palace, ready to receive the gifts of every 
imaginable sort which were brought by his lieges 
with full hands and full laps. Caligula had a sen- 
sual delight in walking over gold with his bare 
feet, or in rolling himself among the glittering 
heaps. He gave nothing in return for the dona- 
tions he received ; indeed, the custom of making 
them was one of which he had ordered the restora- 
tion. Tiberius had abolished this new year's 
usage, on the ground that some substantial 
acknowledgment was due to the givers, and that 
he really could not afford to pay it. 

In the most splendid and abominable of the 
days of the French monarchy, the Gallic Tiberius, 
Louis XIV., was lavish with his presents, to make 
which, indeed, he had but to dip into the people's 
pockets. In 1672 he delighted that queen of 
French husseydom, Madame de Montespan, with 
a new year's gift which disgusted the whole nation. 
It consisted of two covered goblets and a salver of 
embossed gold, profusely ornamented with emeralds 
and diamonds. The value was ten thousand 
crowns. To the same woman, or rather as flattery 
to the king, Madame de Maintenon in 1670 
gave, as a new year's gift to their illegitimate son, 
the Due de Maine, a quarto volume printed in 
gold letters. The cover was inlaid with emeralds, 
and the lettering on the back stated that the 
book contained the various works of an author 
seven years of age "CEuvres diverses d'un auteur 
de sept ans " : the author was the little duke him- 
self. The Courrier de I'Europe says that the most 
exquisite and most admired gift ever made at 
Versailles was that of Madame de Thianges to the 
above Due de Maine, in 1685, and which is thus 
described : 

" C'etait une chambre raesurant un metre de chaque 
cote, toute doree. Au-dessus de la ports etait ecrit en 
grosses lettres : Chambre du Sublime. Au dedans, un 
lit et un balustre avec un grand fauteuil dans lequel 
<itait assis le due de Maine, fait de cire et d'une grande 
ressemblance; aupres de lui, M. de La Rochefoucauld, 
auquel il donnait des vers a examiner ; autour du fau- 
teuil M. de MarciUac et Bossuet ; a 1'autre extremite 
Madame de Thianges et Madame Lafayette lisaient des 
vers. Au dehors du balustre, Boileau, arme d'une 
fourche, empechait sept a huit mauvais poetes d'appro- 
cher. Racine etait auprds de Boileau, et un peu plus 
loin La Fontaine, auquel il faisait signe d'approcher." 
The above gift to a gentleman twenty-two, years old 
seems to have been a pretty wax-work, with por- 
traits of distinguished personages. The Courrier 

adds to its French illustrations of "Etrennes" 
the reply of Cardinal Dubois to his butler, who 
asked his master for a new year's gift : " Certainly, 
I make you a present of all of which you have 
robbed me, you rascal, throughout the preceding 




In M. de Cosson's interesting Cradle of the Blue 
Nile he gives the following legend : 

" The native traditions affirm that St. Areed was first 
struck with the idea of composing the Abyssinian church 
music by seeing three birds singing on a tree, their num- 
ber reminding him of the Holy Trinity. He was inspired 
with the notion of inventing a musical instrument, and 
forthwith invented a sort of rattle, which is used to this 
day by the priests to accompany their chants. De- 
lighted with his new musical instrument, St. Areed went 
to the king and began to perform. History relates that 
the king was so absorbed in the charms of the music, 
that he inadvertently rested the point of his spear on 
St. Areed's great toe, and, gracefully reclining his weight 
on it, penned the worthy saint to the ground. My own 
opinion is that the astute monarch resorted to this as 
a last and desperate resource to induce the saint to bring 
his performance to an end ; but, if this were his inten- 
tion, he was disappointed, for St. Areed was so carried 
away with delight at his own harmonies, that he never 
even noticed the accident, though the ground was 
covered with his blood. This story is depicted in two 
paintings in one of the native churches." 

Irish traditions relate that, when St. Patrick 
was baptizing one of the pagan kings of Ireland, 
the saint's crozier slipped downwards and pierced 
the foot of the convert, who from motives of 
reverence, or else believing that the wound in- 
flicted on him was a part of the ceremonial rites, 
never moved or murmured, but endured the pain 
until they were over. In the Abyssinian legend 
the saint of that country is made the sufferer 
through his zeal for the Church ; in the Irish legend 
the newly converted king is the sufferer ; but 
there is an odd likeness between the two traditions 
of Christian missionaries in the south-east and 
south-west. In another part of the same work 
M. de Cosson gives some curious Abyssinian folk- 
lore about blacksmiths and all workers in iron. 
The Abyssinians, he says, regard them with awe, 
believing that they can transform themselves into 
hyenas, and can cause people to be possessed with 
an evil spirit by means of an incantation performed 
by bending a piece of grass into a circular form. 
A mythical Irish personage, the Gobhan Saer, 
who is supposed to have built many old churches 
in the course of one night by magic, was, I believe, 
a blacksmith as well as an architect ; and the 
placing an iron coulter of a plough in the fire 
while milk is being churned is believed to be a 
sovereign spell against the witch who has charmed 
away the butter-making powers of the Irish dairy- 
woman. The wife of a most respectable Protestant 
farmer in Ireland once told me a long story of the 
success of this spell in her own farmhouse. Ee- 

5'i> S. IX. JAN. 5, 78.] 


garding St. Areed's birds, it is worth noting that 
not only singing, but talking, in fact, preaching 
birds figure largely in the old Irish legends about 
St. Brendan and other Irish saints. In the 
Journal of the Eoyal Historical and Archaeological 
Association of Ireland, a few years ago, there was 
an account of a very curious ancient instrument, 
to all appearance a musical one, which was dug up 
in some county in Ulster. It had small figures of 
three birds attached to it with rings which could 
be moved up and down. It was shaped like a 
modern flute, but by some was conjectured to have 
been an instrument used by pagan priests in 
divination. M. A. H. 

ARMS A.C. 1100. The following statement, sug- 
gestive of discussion at the Christmas fireside, is 
forwarded in the hope that it may be acceptable to 
the readers of " N. & Q." The statement is taken 
from a work recently published in Paris (Les 
Premiers Habitants de I'Occident, par M. d'Arbois 
de Hubainville), and is to this effect : 

The most ancient colony in Spain is Gadeira, 
alled by the Romans Gades, and at this day 
Cadiz. If we adopt the chronology of Velleius 
Paterculus, the date will be about 1100 A.C., and 
if we are to follow the calculation of the Spaniard, 
Pomponius Mela, the foundation of the colony will 
go back so far as to be coincident with the siege 
of Troy. The Phoenicians encountered resistance 
in this place, and Macrobius has preserved a legend 
which refers to Theron, the Iberian King of Nor- 
thern Spain, coming thither with a fleet to take 
possession of (and of course to spoliate) the temple 
of Hercules. The Latin name of Hercules is here 
the designation of the Phoenician god Melkarath, 
in whose honour the founders of the colony had 
erected a temple on the eastern side of the little 
island on which the city is built. The Phoenicians 
came out to encounter the enemy in their long 
ships. The battle lasted for some time, without 
any signal success on either side ; but all of a 
sudden the Iberians were seized with a panic of 
terror an unexpected fire consumed their ships to 
ashes ! The Iberians believed that they saw lions 
upon the prows of the Phoenician ships, and that 
these lions poured out against them flashing rays 
of fire, by which their ships were burned. 

Such is the statement of M. Hubainville, ch. iii. 
pp. 39, 40. The account given by Macrobius of 
the burning of the Iberian fleet is in these words : 

" Subito in fugam versae eunt regise naves; 

simulque improvise igne, correptse conflagraverunt, 
paucissimi, qui superfuerant, hostium capti indicaverunt 
apparuisse sibi leonesproris Gaditanaeclassis superstates, 
ac subito suas naves immissis radiis quales in solis capite 
pinguntur exustas." Saturn., lib. i. ch. xx. p. 207 
{Leyden, 1695). 

Thus it will be seen that the Iberian fleet was 

destroyed by means of fire that had been dis- 
charged from the ships of the Phoenicians. The 
" lions' heads " were, most probably, the orna- 
mental orifices to the engines from which the fire 
was ejected, and the destructive material must have 
been of a similar substance to that of the " Greek 
fire," the invention, as is generally supposed, of a 
later time, attributed to Callinicus, and which is 
described as being " blown out of long tubes of 
copper." If this be so, the incident mentioned by 
Macrobius is the earliest record of ships employing 
artillery, as they do in modern times, for the 
destruction of an enemy. WM. B. MACCABE. 

LOWLAND ABERDEEN. Strangers reckon Aber- 
deen as belonging to the Highlands of Scotland. 
They have of late, perhaps, had some excuse for 
this, since its militia regiment has been named the 
Aberdeen Highland Light Infantry. Neverthe- 
less, the city of Aberdeen and more than three- 
fourths of the county have been for some centuries 
entirely devoid of Celtic character. Indeed, there 
are few districts in which the feeling of antagonism 
of race has been kept up more strongly, or at least 
used to be so some years ago, than the Lowlands of 
Aberdeen. I do not know whether the feeling has 
been modified of late years ; but at the period to 
which I allude, some thirty years ago, Highlanders 
were often characterized as " sweer Hieland 
breets" lazy Highland brutes. And still less 
flattering epithets were often added. 

My present object is to inquire whether any 
readers of "N. & Q." can complete or give a dif- 
ferent version of some rhymes which used to be 
shouted out by boys in reproach of their Highland 
neighbours : 

" Hielanman, Hielanman, far ware ye born 1 

Up in the Hielans amang the green corn. 

Hielanman, Hielanman, fat gat ye there ? 

* -i'c * * * 

Canna get nae thing but bowins and leeks. 
Lauch at the Hielanman wanting his breeks 1 " 

In some versions siddies or sids, the corn seeds out 
of which sowins, a kind of flummery, is made, is 
substituted for sowins, and in others ingans or 
sibbies, an old word for onions, is used. In another 
version the last three lines are run into two, thus : 
" What got you there ] Sibbies and leeks. 
Lauch at the Hielanman wanting his breeks ! " 

My own notion is that there should be six com- 
plete lines. 

I fear that this year there will be only too much 
of green or unripe corn in the Highlands. As to 
the allusion to leeks, it seems to have been intro- 
duced mainly as a word to rhyme with " breeks." 
In former times the Highlanders had scarcely any 
vegetables, and now they grow very few. I have 
never heard of leeks being characteristic of High- 
landers, as of their Kymric brethren in Wales. 

I. M. P. 

Curzon Street, TV. 



[5"> S. IX. JAN. 5, 78. 

" MUCKED TO DEATH." During the last twenty- 
seven years I have often been struck with the pre- 
valent use of the word "muck" by the peasantry of 
Huntingdonshire and Kutland. Its general sense 
would appear to mean dirt ; but it is applied in a 
variety of ways. The other day, in Eutland, I was 
talking with an old cottager who had recently been 
left a widower, and I was inquiring about one of 
his married daughters, who had promised to come 
and live with him, and " do for him." The old 
man represented his household arrangements to be 
in a deplorable state, and ended the recital of his 
woes by saying, " If she don't come soon I shall 
be mucked to death." The words "muck" and 
" mucky " are usually pronounced " moock " and 
" moocky." When I said to an old Huntingdon- 
shire farmer, "What a state the roads are in!" 
he lifted up his hands (as well as his voice) 
and exclaimed, "Moocky, moocky, woonderful 
moocky !" This was forcible, if not elegant. A 
Huntingdonshire woman, whose weekly duty it 
was to clean the parish church, complained to me 
of the school-boys, " They owdacious boys make 
muck all over the church." To the same effect a 
Rutland cottager the other day, when I asked 
him to walk into my study, politely excused him- 
self by pleading that he was " all over muck," 
meaning that his clothes were covered with mud 
from the ploughed field. It may be noted that a 
farmer's dream of heaven was that of a place 
where there were " heaps o' muck." 


BROWNING. Jane Eyre was published in 1847 ; 
Aurora Leigh in 1856 or 1857. I note the fol- 
lowing points of resemblance between the two 
stories, conceding that, as a poem, apart from its 
narrative, Aurora Leigh is abundantly original. 

Jane Eyre is pressed by her cousin, St. John 
Eivers, to marry him, but she declines the offer, 
on the ground that he does not require a wife, but 
merely some one to help him in his works of 
benevolence. A similar situation occurs between 
Aurora and her cousin Romney. 

Jane Eyre, an orphan, is left to the care of her 
aunt by marriage, who dislikes and ill treats her, 
and dies after a short illness. Aurora Leigh, being 
an orphan, is taken charge of by her aunt, who 
misunderstands her and is severe with her, and 
who dies suddenly. 

The proposed marriage between Jane Eyre and 
Mr. Rochester is interrupted in church, and Jane 
becomes a fugitive. The intended espousals of 
Marian Erie to Romney Leigh are prevented by 
the flight of Marian, whose disappearance is 
announced in church to the crowd assembled to 
witness the ceremony. 

Rochester has his house burnt over his head. 
Romney Leigh has his house burnt over his head ; 

and each is struck with blindness whilst en- 
deavouring to rescue one of the inmates. 

Lastly, Jane Eyre is married to Rochester, and 
Aurora Leigh becomes the wife of Romney Leigh. 

J. W. W. 


" It would be both entertaining and instructive were 
any one to collect the words in English invented by 
particular authors, and to explain the reasons which 
may either have occasioned or hindered their being in- 
corporated with the body of the language. In some 
cases no want of the word has been felt ; in others the 
formation has been incorrect, or unsupported by any 
familiar analogy." Guesses at Tmth (ed. 1876), p. 219. 

" It would form an interesting essay, or rather series 
of essays, in a periodical work, were all the attempts to 
ridicule new phrases brought together, the proportion 
observed of words ridiculed which have been adopted and 
are now common, such as strenuous, consents, &c., and a 
trial made how far any grounds can be detected, so that 
one might determine beforehand whether a word was 
invented under the condition of assimilability to our 
language or not." Coleridge's Lectures on Shakespeare* 
&c. (ed. 1874), p. 266. 


1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

some time ago in the Jewish World that this was 
in the Talmud. On Sunday, Dec. 3, a Jewish 
lecturer on the Talmud said : 

"This well-known English phrase had been taught 
by the Rabbins of the Talmud many centuries ago, both 
as a religious principle and a sanitary law." 

No doubt this was the spirit of the laws in the 
Pentateuch. But perhaps the Jews may have 
had the principle from the Egyptians. Plutarch 
says in his Isis or Osiris, or the Ancient Religion 
and Philosophy of Egypt : 

" You are in the first place to understand this, that 
these people make the greatest account imaginable of all 
endeavours that relate to health : and more especially in 
their sacrifices, purgations, and diets ; health is then no 
less respected than devotion. For they think it would be 
an unseemly thing to wait upon that Nature that is pure, 
and every way unblemisht and untoucht, with crazy and 
diseased minds and bodies." 


[This saying, quoted by Wesley, has been traced in 
" N. & Q." to others of similar significance in the Tal- 
mud, in Aristotle and St. Augustine. See " N. & Q-,' r 
2 nd S. ix. 446; 3 rd S. iv. 419 ; vi. 259, 337 ; vii. 367 ; 4> 
S. ii. 37, 68, 213.] 

Some works on this subject have been noticed ; 
but mention has not been made, so far as I recol- 
lect, of the earliest : A Short Explanation of 
Obsolete Words in our Version of the Bible, and 
of such as are there used in a Peculiar or Un- 
common Sense, by Rev. H. Cotton, D.C.L., Oxford, 
Parker, 1832. ED. MARSHALL. 

5 th S. IX. JAN. 5, '78.J 



[We must request correspondents desiring information 
en family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 


" They chat together, drink and fill, 
And like two inkle-weavers swill." 

Poems on Several Occasions, by N(icholas) Amhurst, 
sometime of St. John's College, Oxford, London, 1720, 
8vo., p. 115. 

I heard the other day in Berkshire of two persons 
who had struck up a close intimacy, it was sup- 
posed, to outwit their neighbours : " Oh, they are as 
thick as inkle-weavers just at present, but how long 
it will last," &c. Inkle is used in Shakspeare 
several times, and means a coarse bad kind of 
tape ; but I should be glad to have any other re- 
ferences pointed out in which the weavers of inkle 
are in confidential and convivial comparisons. 

(MS. Commonplace Book of Joshua Peart, of the 
City of Lincoln, Gentleman, 1726, 4to., pp. 165). 
This line occurs in a somewhat homely lyric called 
"The Gossip's Song," beginning, "Two gossips 
they luckily met." It is probably to be found in 
some printed collection of the period. What does 
the line which I have extracted mean ? The say- 
ing was probably proverbial. In Shakspeare, and 
elsewhere, a wisp of straw is mentioned as appro- 
priate to be shown or mentioned to a scold or " a 
callet " ; and the Horatian fenum habet in cornu, 
meaning he is an ugly customer, literally an ox 
whose horns require to be blunted with hay, may 
perhaps each help to explain our quotation. 

" Death lies in ambush like an enemy, 

And brasheth where our sconces weakest be. 

Whether an icecle or drop of water, 

Or gnat, or Londons Scholler- killing letter. 

A thousand trickes we see of cunning death ; 

He finds or makes a way to stop our breath." 
" Lychnocausia sive Moralia Facum (sic) Emblemata," 
Lights Morall Emblems, authore Roberto Farlseo Scoto- 
Britanno, London, 1638, sm. 8vo., No. 53. 

" Scholler " is " scholar," of course, for we have 
(supra, No. 46), "The schollar's badge are sallow 
looks and blanch." But what does the phrase 
mean, or to what does it allude 1 

" Nor gold nor silver parchment lace 
Was worn but by our nobles : 
Nor would the honest, harmless face 
Weare rufies with so many doubles." 
"The Map of Mockbeggar Hall" (Roxlwghe Ballads). 
What kind of lace was this ? HORATIO. 

McMAiioN FAMILIES. I am informed that the 
annals of the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, at 
Cassel, France (Departement du Nord), exhibit 

in the list of canons of that church three Irish 
ecclesiastics named McMahon, or "Mac-Mahon." 

The first and best known of the three is Arthur 
Augustin de Mac-Mahon, who was Provost of the 
Collegiate Chapter for the long period of twenty- 
eight years. He was raised to that dignity by a 
royal ordinance on March 24, 1682, his immediate 
predecessor in it having been an Irish priest whose 
name is recorded as " Mac-Wyer or Magguire." 

The second canon of the name of Mac-Mahon 
was Hugh (junior). He was a near relative of the 
provost, and was one of his heirs. The third 
canon of the name was Arnould. 

It would appear from documentary evidence 
that the Provost Mac-Mahon was " Archbishop of 
Armagh, and Primate of Ireland," who had taken 
refuge in exile from the persecution that threatened 
him at home. On this and other points I seek 
for confirmatory details. His testamentary execu- 
tor was Hugh Mac-Mahon, Bishop of Clogher, 
who went over to Cassel, and on Feb. 14, 1713, 
signed the contract of sale of the late provost's 
house. This house is the present presbytery-house 
of Cassel, situate in the Grande Place, at the 
corner of the Rue d'Aire. 

The arms of the three Canons Mac-Mahon were 
Or, an ostrich sable, holding in its beak a horse- 
shoe of the same, pierced argent ; in the sinister 
corner of the chief a star azure. 

The number of Irish dignitaries in the Chapter 
of Cassel may be regarded as an instructive, and 
is probably by no means an extraordinary, illus- 
tration of the operation of the penal laws in Ire- 
land. Other readers may perhaps be able to cite 
parallel cases of equal interest, which I should be 
pleased to see. My primary object, however, is 
to beg the favour of informatioA from Irish sources 
as to the Provost Mac-Mahon, Archbishop of 
Armagh ; Hugh, Bishop of Clogher ; and their 
family, and the possible relationship between that 
family and the present President of the French 
Republic, Marshal de Mac-Mahon. The armorial 
bearings of the latter are not those of the three 
canons. For any information on these points, or, 
failing details, for any references to probable sources 
of information, I, and I am sure my correspondent, 
should feel much obliged. 

26, Bedford Place, Russell Square. 

mercial Traveller , ch. xi., on the wreck of the 
Royal Charter, there is this remark : 

" It is not impossible that the perpetuation of this 
marking custom may be referred back to their desire to 
be identified if drowned and flung ashore." 

Is there any foundation for such a supposition I 
or is the custom to be traced, as other authorities 
have it, to a traditional use of the old British 
habit of staining the skin ? Is it a common 



. IX. JAN. 5, 78. 

custom with the seaman of other nations'? and 
have any writers specially treated of it, elsewhere, 
that is, than as it occurs in dictionaries ? 


EARLY BRITAIN. The anonymous geographer 
of Ravenna has left a list of the British names 
(under Latin forms) of some old British cities and 
strongholds, but to the sites of many of them there 
seem to be no clues but the meanings of their names. 
Can any of your readers tell me what towns or earth- 
works answer to the following names ? 

(1.) Ptinctuobice, Br. Pwnc-twy-bic, now Ponc- 
dwy-big, Mount two peaks. 

(2.) Bannio, Br. Ban, a prominence, high 
ground. Is Banbury on a ban ? 

(3.) Conderco, Con-derch, high point. The Peak 
of Derbyshire, or what one ? 

(4.) Dolcindo, Dol-cynad, the steep ground by 
the meadow or lealand. 

(5.) Melarnoni, Mod-ar-non-wy, the bare hill 
by the Non (or Nen) stream. Could it be by the 
river Nen 1 Non means a stream. 

(6.) Vindomi, Gwyn-dom, the White mound. 
Said to be St. Mary Bourne. Has it such a 
mound 1 Not, I allow, a very singular mark. 


llectory, Winterborne-Came, Dorchester, Dorset. 

has singularly disappeared at Swinton, near Shef- 
field. The canal has been unsuccessfully dragged, 
and the Swinton folk are now going to test the 
merits of a local superstition, which affirms that a 
loaf of bread containing quicksilver, if cast upon 
the water, will drift to, keep afloat, and remain 
stationary over, any dead body which may be 
lying immersed out of sight. Does this singular 
superstition exist elsewhere 1 


Sir John Hawkins says that Johnson wrote the 
dedication to the king for George Adams's treatise 
on the use of the globes, for which he was gratified 
with a very curious meteorological instrument. 
What was this instrument ? Was it amongst the 
doctor's effects at his death ? Wh ^A u n* nn 9 
A.nd where is it now ? 


GEON. Mr. Pepys says that on May 22, 1667, 
" coming from Westminster with W. Batten, \ve saw at 
White Hall stairs a fisher-boat with a sturgeon that he 
had newly catched in the River ; which I saw, but it 
\vag but a little one; but big enough to prevent my mis- 
take of that for a colt, if ever I become Mayor of Hunt- 

What is the story? and who was the Mayor of 
Huntingdon to whom the diarist refers ? 


Who had it then ? 
C. A. WARD. 

Upon what authority is it stated that Britton 
was born at Higham Ferrers 1 Cole, in his history 
of that place, appears to doubt it, and says " we 
do not find any entry of him in the register." Are 
there any other catalogues of his library except the 
undated one (? 1694), contents sold by auction at 
Tom's Coffee House by John Bullord, a copy of 
which is in the Brit. Mus. Library, and another 
in the Bodleian, and that of books sold " at Paul's 
Coffeehouse the 24th of January, 1714/15, by 
Thomas Ballard," copies of which were to be ob- 
tained " at his late Dwelling-Cottage near Clerken- 
well " ? or is any catalogue known of his musical 
instruments or other property ? 


Grove Road, Holloway, N. 

LEIGH, OP co. WARWICK. In 1643 Sir Thomas 
Leigh, Bart., of London, was created Baron Leigh 
of Stoneleigh, co. Warwick. The second Lord 
Leigh, grandson of Sir Thomas, had four sons and 
two daughters. The tale told here is that the 
eldest son, Thomas, the heir to the estate and peer- 
age, who was born Feb. 3, 1682, murdered his 
father's footman and fled from his ancestral home, 
to which he never returned. He would be at the 
age of eighteen when it is alleged he committed 
the murder (circa 1700). Shortly afterwards it is 
asserted that Thomas Leigh was living in this 
town, and the name is to be found on our church 
registers. I should be glad if any of your 
Warwickshire readers could confirm, from con- 
temporary records, the legend of Thomas Leigh's 
crime, and ascertain if for the offence he was out- 
lawed or in any way, directly or indirectly, 
punished. JOSIAH KOSE. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

SCHOMBERG ARMS. Seckendorf, in his History 
of Luther anism, says : "Rhenani (Schombergii) 
stellam liliatam in scuto gerunt, quam vulgo 
Clivensem vocant, Misnenses leonem, alia 
Helvetici" What were the other arms the Swiss 
Schombergs bore ? Where can I find any account 
of their families ? How were the Schombergs of 
Ober-Wesel related to, or sprung from, the house 
of Cleves ? OTTO. 

learned in family histories, tell me which of these 
two is the correct spelling of the name I bear ? 
The name is not a very general one, but is more 
frequently met with in Staffordshire than else- 
where. I never saw it spelt without the a in any 
other case than my own, but it has always been 
our custom, so far as I can trace, to spell it so. 
I should also like to know whether or not the 
family was originally a Staffordshire one. I believe 
it has been settled in that county for something 
like 150 years. It is probable that those who spell 

5"' S. IX. JAN. 5, '78 J 



the name in either fashion are derived from a 
common, though perhaps somewhat remote, 


LEWIS BRUCE, D.D., Vicar of Rainham, Essex, 
was heir male of the Braces of Earlshall in 1769. 
Was he ever married, and, if so, to whom, and did 
he have any male descendants ? W. B. A. 

inhabitants of North America, whether born in 
the United States or Canada, pronounce " are " 
with the a long, so as to rhyme with " fare." Is 
this the old English pronunciation, surviving in 
our former and present colonies though extinct at 
home ? Clearly it has analogy in its favour, and 
I do not know of an exception to the long sound 
of a before an r followed by e. The rule, I take 
it, is the same, whatever the intermediate con- 
sonant. We shorten the a in " have," but this 
may be an innovation. If are is the old English 
pronunciation, can any of your readers say when 
the short sound of are was introduced, and when 
it became current 1 DAWSON BURNS. 

ST. TYRNOG. The parish church of Llandyrnog, 
three miles from Denbigh, N. Wales, is dedicated 
to St. Tyrnog. I can find nothing about this saint, 
and should be obliged if any of your readers can 
enlighten me. ARTHUR MESHAM. 

[Butler does not mention this saint.] 

G. AND H. CABOT, OF BOSTON. In the bio- 
graphy of C. Sumner, by Pierce, in vol. i. pp. 258, 
310, and 360, there are references to his friends 
George and Henry Cabot, of Boston. What con- 
nexion has this name with that of the navigators ? 


THE CIRCUS. Are there any other books, in 
any language, on the modern circus, in addition 
to Mr. Frost's Circus Life and Circus Celebrities 
(Tinsley Brothers, 1875) ? 


Lotos Club, N.Y. 

In Peck's collections for a supplement to the 
Monasticon Anglicanum, now in the British 
Museum, are numerous extracts from a MS. 
register, the marginal reference to which is " Reg. 
Prem." The extracts are generally of great in- 
terest, and often consist of quaint English letters. 
In Pegge's Beauchief this register is mentioned in 
a note as being (circa 1790) in the British 
Museum. I am told it is not in the Museum now, 
and possibly the reference in Pegge is an error. 
I am very anxious to know where it is, and, as the 
register is of such vast antiquarian importance, I 
am surprised that I cannot find any clue to its 
whereabouts. It surely must be well known, and 

I should be very thankful to any one who could 
give me the reference to it. It probably consists 
of many volumes. S. 0. ADDY. 



Tales of the Forest : containing the Lotus- Walker and 
the Spoiler's Doom, by Snellius Schickhardus (London, 
Madden, 1853, 8vo.), includes "Songs of the Exile" 
subjects Indian two mythical cuts, and a note : " This 
volume was printed in 1842. Circumstances prevented 
its publication at that time." J. O. 

Letters, Conversations, and Recollections of S. T. Cole- 
ridge, in 2 vols. (Moxon, 1836). Joseph Cottle's book is 
called Early Recollections of Coleridge. 



(5 th S. viii. 461, 489.) 

The subject which DR. SIMPSON has started is 
one of considerable interest, and one which pro- 
bably many would be glad to see completely carried 
out, not only in relation to St. Paul's Churchyard, 
but also to other parts of the City. A mere list of 
the booksellers and signs in the cathedral yard, 
with only brief explanatory notes, would occupy 
many pages of " N. & Q." In the two lists already 
given the first date is 1593, but the churchyard 
had been noted for its booksellers for many years 
previously. Probably the first bookseller there was 
Julian Notary, who dwelt " at the sygne of the 
Thre Kynges, without Tern pell barre," in 1510, 
and who in 1515 had removed to St. Paul's, 
where he published The, Chronicles of England, 
at the sign of the Three Kings, " in powlys chyrche 
yarde, besyde ye weste dore, by my lordes palyes." 
Not long after Henry Pepwell was a noted book- 
seller, at the sign of the Holy Trinity in St. Paul's 
Churchyard. His will bears date 1539, and in it 
he desired to be buried in the crypt of St. Faith. 

The following list contains a few of the more 
prominent names and signs of booksellers who had 
shops in St. Paul's Churchyard between 1515 and 
1590. The books which they sold may readily be 
found in Ames. 

Date. Sign. Bookseller. 

1515. The Three Kings. Julian Notary. 

1520. The Holy Trinity. Henry Pepwell. 

1523. The A. B. C. Rychard faukes. 

1525. The Meremayde. John Rastell. 

1527. The George. John Raynes. 

1531. The Saynte Nycolas. John Toye. 

1536. Ye Maiden's Head. Thomas Petyt. 

1537. The Lucreece. Thomas Purfoote. 
1539. The St. Michael. Michael Lob'ey. 
1544. The Brazen Serpent. Reynold Woulfe. 
1544. At the West Door. Wyllyam Teletson. 
1548. The George. William Beddell. 

1548. The Hill. William Hill. 

1549. The Star. Thomas Raynald. 

1550. The Byble. Richard Jugge. 



[5th s. IX. JAN. 5, 78. 

Date. 811,11. Bookseller. 

the Black Bear and the Old (or original) Black 

1550. The Spread Eagle. Wal'erLyrme. 

Bear, in 1690. 

1550. The Swanne. John King. 

When a bookseller moved he sometimes, if his 

1550. The AVhite Horse. Andrew Hester. ->* 
1550. In the Church. Yard. Richard Wyer. 
1551. The Lamb. Abraham Veale. 

trade was good, took his sign with him ; but not 
unfrequently he abandoned it, and adopted the 

1551. The Rose. John Wight. 

sign of the house to which he moved. About the 

1551. The Red Lion. Wyllyam Bonham. 

year 1650 Sam. Gellibrand changed from the sign 

1553. The Holy Ghost. John Cawood. 

of the Brazen Serpent to the Golden Ball, but I 

1553. The Bell. Robert Toy. 
1553. At the West Door. John Kingston. 
1556. The Hedgehog. William Seres. 

am unable to say whether this was a change of 
house or of sign only. There were curious changes 

1558. The Sun. Anthony Kitson. 

at the time of the Restoration. Thus, Hardy's 

1559. At the North Gate. James Burrel. 

book on The Epistle of St. John, Part II, bears 

1559? The Cock. John Turke. 
1561. In the Church Yard. Rycharde Watkins. 
1563. The Crane. Lucas Harrison. 
1565] The Black Boye. Henry Sutton. 

on the title-page, "and are to be sold at Joseph 
Cranford's shop, the Castle and Lion in St. Paul's 
Church Yard, 1659 "; but at the end of the volume 

1569. The Lucreece. Thomas Purfoote. 

there is an advertisement of " books to be sold at 

1570. The King's Arms. William Norton. 

Joseph Cranford's shop, at the sign of the King's 

1570 ] The Key. Thomas Racket. 
1571. The White Horse. William Williamson. 
1572. The Three Welles. H. Binneman. 

Head and Bible in St. Paul's Church Yard." 
In working out DR. SIMPSON'S suggestion it 

1573. The Helmet. Humphrey Toye. 

would be necessary to note the earliest and latest 

1573. At the West Door. Richard Johnes. 

publication of each bookseller and of each sign. 

1574. The Green Dragon. Francis Cradock. 
1575. The White Greyhound. John Harrison. 
1575. The Grasse-hopper. Christopher Barker. 
1576. The George. Tho. Sturruppe. 

In doing this it is not always safe to trust to a 
single date. For example, A Discourse concerning 
Auricular Confession bears on its title-page, 

1576. The Brazen Serpent. John Shepherd. 

" London, Benj. Tooke, at the Sign of the Ship in 

1576? The Red Dragon. Edward Aggas. 

St. Paul's Church Yard, 1648"; yet on reading 

1577. The Black Beare. Thomas Woodcock. 
1577. At the S. West Door. Henry Disle. 
1578. The Three Lillies. Richard Day. 

the book it will be found to contain references to 
J. Boileau's Historia Confessionis Auricularis as 

1579. The Parat. And. Maunaell. 

a work just published. Now, Boileau's book was 

1579. At the North Door. Edward White. 

printed in Paris in 1683 ; hence it is clear that the 

1580? The Cock. Robert Redborne. 

date of B. Tooke, at the Ship in St. Paul's Church- 

1580 ] The Saint Austen. Heugh Syngleton. 
1581. The Bible. Myles Jenyngs. 
1582. The Blacke Boy. Timothie Rider. 

yard, is a misprint ; it should be 1684, and not 
1648. The dates which are given in the preceding 

1582. The Mare-maide. Nich. Ling. 

list are believed to be those in which books were 

1583. The Crane. Tobie Smith. 

first sold at the respective signs. 

1584. The Swan. Gerrard Dewes. 


1587. The Helmet. Thomas Cliarde. 

Sutton, Surrey. 

With respect to the note of Dibdin, quoted by 

DR. SIMPSON (viii. p. 489), as to the signs de- 
scending by will from father to son, I think there 

In addition to the names and signs given by 
DR. SIMPSON may be named the following, which 

is perhaps a mistake. The passage in Joan 

I find attached to some of my old plays : 

Woulfe's will, dated July 1, 1594 (Ames's Typo- 

Date. Sign, &c. Old Play. Publisher. 

graph. Antiq., 1785, p. 597), where she leaves to 

1638. At his house in The Mattyr'd Printed by J. 

her son " The chapel hotise and the brazen serpent," 
did not mean, as is generally supposed, the house 
and the sign, but two independent houses one 

Paul's Church Souldier (H. Okes, sold by 
Yard,atthesigne Shirley). FrancisEgles- 
of the Mary-gold. field. 
1646. At the signe of The Gollins. Humphrey 

known as the Chapel House and the other known 

the Prince's Mosely. 

as the Brazen Serpent. At the dissolution of 

Armes, &c. 

monasteries Raynold Wolfe purchased from the 

1658. ThePrintingPress The Old Samuel Speed. 

king the chapel house and ground near St. Paul's, 

in St. Paul's Couple. 

on which he built several nouses. On the books 

1637. TheWhiteLyonin Microcosmus. Charles 

that he printed he stamped the foreign device of 

Paul's Church- Greene. 

the brazen serpent, and he adopted the same as 


the badge of his shop ; but there was no copyright 


in the sign, and he did not leave it in his will, 
Jan. 9, 1573-4, to his wife, and she could not 

There is in the Bodleian Library a folio broad- 

have left it to her son twenty years later. It 
was because any one might take a known sign and 
adopt it that the term '* old " was often added to 

SICIG. GDt/ltlGCl 

"The Description of a Monstrous Pig, | the which 
was farrowed at Hamsted besyde London, the xvi day of 
October, | this present yeare of our Lord God M,D,LXII. 

a sign to distinguish it from a new comer : thus 

[Followed by two rough woodcuts and description.] Im- 

IX. JAN. 5, 78.] 



printed at London by | Alexander Lacy for Garat Dewes, 
dwellyng in Poules church yard, at the East | end of 
the Church." 

Arues says that Gerard Dewes (no doubt the 
same person) kept a shop at the sign of the Swan, 
and used the following rebus : " Two in a garret 
casting Dews at dice." 

Ames also says that Eaynold Wolfe " settled 
his printing-office in Paul's Churchyard, and set 
up the sign of the Brasen Serpent." 

A further examination of the above- quo ted work 
would yield a long list of early printers, and 
therefore booksellers, who dwelt under the shadow 
of the old cathedra], the first named being Henry 
Pepwell, who sold books at the sign of the Trinity, 
in Paul's Churchyard, about the year 1502. 


42, Grove Road, N. 

(5 th S. viii. 366.) There is at least one other ver- 
sion into Latin hexameters besides that quoted by 
CUTHBERT BEDE. There are two misprints, 
" equisse " for eguisse, and " Gargule " for Garyule. 
The following version into Thucydidean Greek 
lately appeared in the Cheltonian : 

'Eto-eA$oucra 8e KLvrj ? TOV K^TTOV, ws Tre/x/xa 
aVo frfXtov Trotrjcrova-a, Xayavov <>vXXov aVe- 
i^iAov. 'Evrav^a 8e //,eyaA?7 Tts apKro? Kara, 
Trjv dyvtav oSonropovcra TV-y%av6V, Kat Sta T'/}s 
OvptSoSTrjv ptva evreOeiKvta, To rrjv KOVtai/, <r), 
Hy ei/etVat. Kat 6 IJLZV ourws IreAeurr^o-ev, >} Se, 
<os t^V dvotas, TW Kovpet ey^yaaro. 'E/caAouvro 
8e es TOVS ya/jtovs ot IIpay/xaTO-Kptvei?, KOI ol 
ITtKKavot, Kat ol Fw/^Atrat, Kat 8r) KOL avTos o 
IIaviavSpo{;ju,os 6 Meyas 6 ITT' aKpov o~/xtKpov 
</>epwv Kepartoi'. "E7ratov Se evravOa vravrcs 

AnTTTlKO-SwdfJiCVO-KivSa, COO~T Kttt aVo TOJV fJL- 

fiaSwv <epeo-$at TT)V KQVIV T?)V TroAejaiK^yv. 

The following version by a friend has lately 
come under my notice : 
j3?j 8' t/zevat K^TrovSe yvvtj' <nr6v8ov(ra 


TTOLTrvve [At] \OLCTIV, Aa^avoto Se (frv 
*a 8' ai/ai^av apxrov /xeya 

Acoo-a/xevT] To Se //,// rot o-/za Trapeti/at' 
() /xtv Motp' eo-^e, veov Ae 

vv/x<^>euovo~', ar^ 8' ap' e'-^v 
a 8' 7ropo-ui/avTO ya/iov rapt 
Fw/?AtAtot, IltKavot, o-v 8' a/x,' aurots o 

^o-^a jueyas /xeyaAws IIana^8po5, 

Kparos a;r' aKporarov TreTruKacrju.ei/oi'' eV^a Se 


Aaa/?ai^e/>tV TOV ratpov oyv, ef^' avrov dAwvaf 
<V^a 8' toots //.eya ^av/xa' KOVI? iVeye^e 7ro8ottV 

While on the subject of curiosities in Latin and 

Greek versification, may I be allowed to refer 
CUTHBERT BEDE to Prof. Kennedv's Between 
Whiles (Cambridge, Deighton, Bell & Co.), p. 164 
I shall be happy to send the extract either to 
" N. & Q." or to any reasonable number of cor- 

Will any correspondent oblige me privately with 
the meaning of " Cum jure atque cum signo," in 
^4itZ. G?e#., xvii. 9 ? P. J. F. GANTILLOX. 

5, Fauconberg Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Without entering into any invidious criticism of 
the translations by the Eton Boy of Punch and 
Q. M. R., I think it may please CUTHBERT BEDE 
and those who have read what he has given to 
have another and, to my mind, a better transla- 
tion : 

" Protenus ilia foras sese projecit in hortum 
Pluribus e caulis foliis resecaret ut unum, 
Dulcia conficeret coctis quo crustula pomis ; 
Quum subito attonitam vadens impune per urbem, 
Monstrum horrendum ursae visura est per claustra 


Inseruisse caput patulisqu : adstare fenestris 
' Usque adeo ne omnis saponis copia defit ' ? 
Ergo ilium leti vis improvisa repente 
Occupat. At miseram quas te dementia cepit, 
Tonsorem vinclo tecum sociare jugali ! 
Jamque aderat studio ludorum accensa juventua 
Jobliliana cohors. Garaniniaeque catervas. 
Impubesque manus Picaninnia. Quos super omnes 
Panjandri regale decus, cui parva coronat 
Bulla apicem, insigni et longe prcefulget lionore. 
Nee mora, certatum fictaa discrimina pugnse 
Certa lege cient, capiendi ut cuique facultas 
Sic capiat, capiunt capti, capiuntur et ipsi 
Captores profugique iterum fugientibus instant 
Tune vero adspicires ocrearum e calcibus imis 
Pulveris ignivomi medicatos sulfure rivos 
Effluere et longos per terram ducere tractus." 

This was given to me some time ago by a friend, 
who attributed it to " Tweed of Oriel." But as a 
specimen of what can be done with most unlikely 
words from which to render verse, let me give 
another. It was given to me some time ago by a 
Cambridge man, who said it was by one of the 
" Gepps " of Oxford. 

Foote's nonsense English need not be repeated ; 
but this is a translation of a Yankee advertisement 
which some years back went the round of all the 
papers : 

"If you want a real fine unsophisticated family pill, 
try Dr. Rumbolt's liver-encouraging, kidney-persuading, 
silent perambulator, twenty-seven in a box. This pill is 
as mild as a pet lamb, and as searching as a small-tooth 
comb. It don't go fooling about, but attends strictly to 
business, and is as certain for the middle of the night as 
an alarm clock." 

/' Si forte aegrotis poscas quse detur alumnis 
Egregiae pilulam simplicitatis? Adest. 

Haec jecur instigat, stimulos haec renibus addit 
Ambulat arcauas haec taciturna vias. 

Disce repertorem : medicus Rumboltius audit 
' Ter septem et senas pyxis aperta dabit.' 

Par agno pilul i est ; tenero quid mitius agno, 
Si quis amor domina? deliciaeque fuit. 



[t> s. IX. JAN. , 78. 

Ast eadem latebras ultro'penetrabilis imas 
Dente velut tenui pecten eburnus adit. 

Haec nunquam stultos iterat temeraria cursus, 
Sed studio semper res agit ipsa suas. 

^Es index certain crepitat non rectius horara 
Quam jubet haec media surgere nocte toro." 

That the boy or man who can do such transla- 
tions " need not despair of doing any piece " may, 
I think, be safely allowed. But the faculty is 
peculiar, and I doubt whether much advantage 
would be gained by setting such an exercise, unless 
it were done quite exceptionally to see whether 
any boy's mind had a turn for this peculiar work. 



140, 153, 179, 232, 330.) Now that the question 
of the first establishment of the Stamford Mercury, 
and its right to rank as the earliest of our English 
provincial newspapers, has again been opened in 
the columns of " N. & Q.," allow me to produce a 
bit of contemporary evidence bearing on the subject. 

Thomas Tanner, afterwards Bp. of St. Asaph, 
in a letter to Browne Willis, the Bucks antiquary, 
dated Norwich, Aug. 1, 1706, says : 

" The Norwich Newspapers are the principal support 
of our poor printer here, by which, with the Advertise- 
ments, he clears near 105. every week, selling vast num- 
bers to the country people. As far as I can learn this 
Burgess first began the printing news out of London; 
since I have seen the Bristol Postman, and I am told 
they print also now a weekly paper at Exeter." 

Francis B urges, who died at the early age of 
thirty in 1706, established his press, and probably 
his newspaper, at Norwich, in 1701 ; and, until 
we have something more authentically supported 
than the claim of either Stamford or Worcester, 
Norwich must be considered as the birthplace of 
the first provincial newspaper in England. 

MR. KAYNER says that he " only gave the first 
paper in each town," and considers that his list 
was " correct with the exceptions of Manchester 
and York" ; but here we see three more exceptions 
to his correctness. There may also be added to 
his list the St. Ives'Post, of which vol. ii. No. 1, 
was printed by J. Fisher, Jan. 20, 1718. And 
here let me note what has escaped the observation 
of Mr. Worth in his History of Plymouth, that 
the above mentioned Browne Willis, in hij 
Notitia Parliamentaria, vol. ii. p. 292, has 
recorded that "Here [i.e. at Plymouth, in 1716" 
are, by Reason of the great Concourse of People 
two Printing Houses to advertise Things, botl: 
which subsist chiefly by publishing News-Papers.' 

This interesting subject might be considerably 
enlarged upon ; but as I hope ere long to submi 
my observations to your notice more fully, in 
publisher's cloth, I will conclude with an endorse 
ment of MR. RAYNER'S remark, that " the subjec 
is surrounded with difficulties." 


If MR. PATERSON will read the correspondence 
vith reference to the age of the Stamford Mercury 
cattered through the volumes of " N. & Q.," I 
im certain that he will come to the conclusion 
,hat 1712 is the correct date of its commencement. 
Che claim for 1695, as the year in which it was 
irst printed, is of modern origin, and the manner 
u which the proprietors fell into the mistake has 
ilready been pointed out in " N. & Q." If the 
ige of a newspaper is to be considered established 
)eyond controversy, because the proprietors have 
iffixed " 1695 " on the title-page, what is to pre- 
vent a newspaper proprietor from affixing " estab- 
ished 1595 " upon his print? At all events, MR. 
PATERSON will have to throw over the Stamford 
Mercury in favour of the Worcester Journal, the 
atter print having recently affixed to its title-page 
' established 1690." There seems to be an ani- 
mated competition amongst ancient local prints 
7 or supremacy as regards antiquity. Those who 
do not believe in these seventeenth-century dates 
simply ask for proof from those who have faith 
in them, and it is hardly necessary to add that no 
proof is ever forthcoming. 

In reply to MR. DUNN, I would state that my 
date of the origin of the Nottingham Weekly 
Courant was the correct one. This paper first 
appeared on Monday, Nov. 27, 1710. The au- 
thority for this statement is excellent (see 
" N. & Q.," 3 rd S. i. 479). WILLIAM RAYNER. 

Blenheim Crescent, Notting Hill. 

MR. DUNN must certainly be in error in his 
correction of MR. RAYNER, in stating that the 
Nottingham Post was started in 1719. I have 
now before me a copy of the Nottingham Post, 
No. 42, July 11 to July 18, 1711. This seems to 
settle the matter. As neither the name of the 
author nor the page of the History of Nottingham 
is given by MR. DUNN, I have not referred to any 
of the histories of that place. 



A BOTANICAL PUZZLE (5 th S. viii. 146, 294, 
378.) The subject of the sudden appearance and 
capricious distribution of plants is no doubt " a 
botanical puzzle " not to be easily explained. But 
when plants present themselves on ground newly 
turned up, it does not follow that the seeds have 
lain dormant for a great number of years. Plants 
are always trying to extend their bounds, and in 
this they are greatly assisted by winds. As an 
observant poet has said : 

" How many plants we call them weeds 

Against our wishes grow, 
And scatter wide their various seeds 

With all the winds that blow." 
A particular soil or unoccupied spot will attract 
seeds blown about, and they will settle wherever 
they can find support. Thus old walls are covered 

5h S. IX. JAN. 5, 78.] 



by vegetation, and how soon a mass of rubbish 
abandoned to nature, or disused garden ground, 
gets covered with the goose-foot tribe and other 
weeds ! Stonecrops, mouse-ear chickweeds, &c., 
often cover the roofs of houses, where they were 
never planted except by natural causes. Snap- 
dragons and the red valerian are very common 
upon wall*, and hawkweeds are sure to mount 
upon them. 

The henbane is a plant that loves manured or 
freshly turned-up soil, and it consequently appears 
in such places in what seems a wonderful manner. 
When walking in the gardens at Wellcombe, near 
Stratford-on-Avon, I noticed luxuriant plants of 
the henbane growing close to the finest flowers ; 
and in the Worcester Arboretum I once saw hen- 
bane actually flourishing within cucumber frames, 
and in this latter case the seeds must certainly 
have been recently deposited, though not by the 
gardener. A clergyman told me that in his 
churchyard, in Herefordshire, some henbane had 
sprang up on mould thrown out of a grave, and 
he thought it must be from disentombed seed 
that had long lain in the ground ; but it is far 
more probable that a natural dispersion of seed 
from some plant not far away in an unnoticed 
place was the cause. No doubt, as every culti- 
vator knows, seeds are very uncertain in their 
germination in gardens, and will not come up at 
the time desired ; but how long seeds may remain 
under ground in a dormant state is not certainly 
known. I sowed a dozen or two of the seeds of 
vegetable marrow in my garden last spring, but 
only one came up, and I do not expect to see any 
more of them. 

Gardeners dislike old seeds as not likely to be 

Sfoductive ; and, in experiments made at the 
xford Botanic Garden, the produce from seeds, 
commencing with one year's age and going on to 
twenty, disclosed the fact of decreasing fertility 
with every advancing year, so that seeds twenty 
years old would not germinate at all. But these 
experiments were made with dry seeds, and pos- 
sibly in moist earth or under ground vitality may 
be longer preserved. 

1 Other plants beside the henbane are intruders 
upon garden or upturned soil, and it does appear 
rather mysterious how they could come where they 
were not sown ; but this is not to be arbitrarily 
determined without due consideration. Last sum- 
mer a lady applied to me to look at her garden, 
where she had caused a number of seeds of the 
vegetable marrow to be sown, but in their place 
some tall spreading plants had sprung up which 
she did not know. I found that they were the 
thorn-apple (Datura stramonium). Now the 
seeds of the Stramonium are so different from those 
of the vegetable marrow, that the one could not 
possibly have been substituted for the other ; and 
the lady assured me that she had never known 

the thorn-apple to appear in the garden before the 
present year. On mentioning this curious fact to 
a nurseryman, he said that the Datura came up 
occasionally in his grounds, and had done so last 
year, though he had never cultivated it. 

Every cultivator of even the smallest garden 
must have had experience how " ill weeds grow 
apace," and, like the tares mentioned in Scrip- 
ture as coming up with the wheat, really appear 
as if " an enemy had done this " spitefully. But 
natural causes by winds and tempests distribute 
the seeds of noxious weeds, however vexatious it 
is, and the industry of man must counteract the- 
operations of nature. It is remarkable that years 
ago Mrs. Barbauld noticed the henbane as an 
intrusive garden weed, for, in one of her prose 
hymns, one of the advantages to be found in that 
happy celestial "home" she is there depicting for 
the human family is, that " the poisonous henbane 
will not grow among sweet flowers." 



With reference to MR. JACKSON'S remarks on 
the spontaneous appearance of henbane, as de- 
scribed by me, in North Lincolnshire, I may say 
that it has certainly never been cultivated in thi& 
district within the memory of man ; nor is there, 
as far as I am aware, any tradition of its cultiva- 
tion for medicinal or any other purposes. The 
most curious circumstance connected with the 
erratic appearance of this plant is its occurrence 
in situations which have not been previously dis- 
turbed for very long periods of time, such as the 
sites of old banks and hedgerows, woodlands, and 
old pasture land, known to have been in pasture 
for many generations. It is probable, therefore, 
that the seed has lain dormant not for eight or ten 
years, but for several centuries. While on the 
subject of hedgerows, I may remark that many of 
our fine old fences, particularly such as mark the 
boundaries of parishes, are of immense antiquity,. 
and undoubtedly take us back to Saxon times. 
The rough banks, overgrown with blackthorn, 
wild-brier, and hazel, which formerly fringed so 
many of our hedges, making excellent cover for 
game, and sheltering hundreds of fieldfares and 
redwings in the winter, have now, to the sorrow 
of the lover of the picturesque, almost entirely 
disappeared under the modern system of farming. 
With them is fast disappearing from Lincolnshire 
the term " mud-fang," by which they were desig- 

Great Cotes. 


(5 th S. viii. 449.) The Greek version of this pro- 
verb was first pointed out by MR. T. J. BUCKTON 
in " N. & Q.," 1 st S. vii. 618 ; viii. 73. It is met 
with in a Scholium on the Antigone of Sophocles, 
11. 615-20, as an old Greek saying, whence 



[5th s. IX. JAN. 5, 78. 

Sophocles confesses to have borrowed the thought. 
The Scholium is as follows : 

<ro(f>ias yap VTTO rcvos aotSifiov KCU 

orav 8' 6 Sdiuwv avSpl rroparvvri 

\ ^ n\ i " * o \ ' 

TOV vow epAa^e Trpwrov co /jovAevercu, 

It is cited also by Athenagoras (!M Legat, p. 106, 
ed. Oxon.). Erfurdt quotes, in addition, a frag- 
ment of .ZEschylus preserved by Plutarch (De 
Audiend. Poet., p. 63, ed. Oxon. ; Euseb. prcepar. 
Evang., lib. xiii. c. 3) and by Stokeus (p. 62, ed. 
Schow) : 

0eos fiev airictv (favet /^porots, 
orav KOLKUHTCLI Sw/za 7ra[jnrrj8'i]v OeXy. 
And also four iambic lines by Lycurgus (c. Leo~ 
cratem, p. 198, E.) : 

orav yap opyrj cu/zovwv aTrrrj nv, 
rovr' avTo Trpwrov e^a^etpeirai (^pevw 
TOV eor$Aov ets <5e T?)V X^P 
tV eic)?}, //.^Sev wv d/zapravei. 

With these lines Heyne compares a trochaic frag- 
ment of Archilochus : rjfjLTrXaKOV KOI TTOV TIV' 
aAAov rjS' aAv; (wandering of mind) /a^o-aTO 
(Heyne, 4cZ Iliad, ix. v. 116, wc?e Soph., Trag., 
Erfurdt, cum Not. Herm., 1830). 

MR. BUCKTON also pointed out that the Latin 
version is found first in the edition of Euripides 
by Barnes, and the Greek wrongly ascribed to 
Euripides, who, from the date, could not have 
been the author. 

I would remark that the original passage in the 
text of the Antigone of Sophocles (not the 
Scholiast's comment) is by far the more poetical 
embodiment of the idea, and the poet's conclusion 
very striking in the case of such a victim : 

Trpacraa 6' oAiyocrrov y^povov exros aras, 
which MR. BUCKTON, reading Trpacro-etv, translates, 
" But that he (the god) practises this a short time." 
In this, however, I venture to differ from him, 
and should read, with Hermann, wpatnrei, and 
translate it, "But he (the victim) fares for the 
briefest time apart from calamity," i.e. his pros- 
perity is but short lived in Greek phrase, soon 
KaKws irpd<r<rei. E. A. D. 

[All other kind correspondents on this quotation are 
referred to " N. & Q.," I 8t S. i. 351, 388, 407, 421, 476 ; 
ii. 317 ; 2"" S. i. 301 ; 3 ri1 S. xii. 44, 99, 138, 294, 383, 471 ; 
4 S. xi. 243. At the reference in the 2 a S., and at that 
in the 4'i> S., BIBLIOTHECAR. CHF.THAM. has thrown a 
light on the age, if not authorship, of this saying which 
deserves to be kept in mind.] 

iii. 68, 247, 275, 319, 418, 438.) I have but just 
perceived the query of H. S. A. as to the locus in 
quo of a magazine article upon this very curious 
and most readable satire, entitled By-ways of 
History: History of an Unreadable Booh I 
hasten to inform him, with the hope that even 

after this lapse of time the information may still 
be of avail, that he will find it in Bentley's Mis- 
cellany for June, 1857, pp. 616-625. Your 
Philadelphia correspondent, MR. GASTON DE 
BERNEVAL, follows Lowndes in confounding the 
author of this book, Dr. William King, Principal 
of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, with Dr. William 
King, Advocate of Doctors' Commons, &c., whose 
humorous and satirical works were edited, 
annotated, and published (1776, 3 vols., 8vo.) by 
John Nichols of London, who prefaced them with 
an interesting memoir of the author ; and of 
whom Pope makes Lintot say, in the letter to 
Lord Burlington in which he describes his journey 
to Oxford with the bookseller, " I remember Dr. 
King could write verses in a tavern three hours 
after he could not speak." Of the former Dr. 
William King, author of The Toast, we have the 
very interesting but neglected Anecdotes of his 
own Times (second edit., 1819, 8vo., pp. 252), 
edited by P. E. Duncan, LL.D., who died Nov. 12, 
1863, and of whom an obituary will be found in 
the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. Ixi., N.S., p. 122. 

My own copy of The Toast forms one of the 
numerous pieces in Latin prose and verse which 
make up the handsome quarto volume entitled 
Opera Gul. Kinq, LL.D., Aulce B. M. V. apud 
Oxonienses olim Princip., and of which, according 
to a statement of Dr. Bullock, the executor of Dr. 
King, only fifty copies had been preserved, and 
were dispersed among the old friends of the author. 
Mine is a fine copy in half russia, uncut, and 
fetched ten guineas at the sale of Isaac Eeed. 



"THE MIDNIGHT OIL" (5 th S. viii. 491.) The 
history of this proverb is to be seen in Plutarch. 
In his Life of Demosthenes, after speaking of his 
care in composition, he says : 

" For this many of the orators ridiculed him, and 
Pytheas in particular told him, ' That all his arguments 
smelled of the lamp.' Demosthenes retorted sharply 
upon him : ' Yes, indeed, but your lamp and mine, my 
friend, are not conscious to the same labours.' " The 
Langhornes' Trans., vol. v. p. 273, Lond., 1819. 

Plutarch also notices the same anecdote in his 
treatise, Eeip. Gerendce Prcecepta: 

" Pytheas said, ' That the speech of Demosthenes 
smelt of lamp-wicks, and sophistical subtlety, with keen 
arguments, and periods exactly framed according to rule 
and compass.' " 

Plut., Opp. Moral, Par., 1621, p. 802, E. The 
proverb, " Lucernam olet," is in the collection of 
Erasmus, and appears in translation as " It smells 
of elbow-grease" (Parcemiologia, by J. Clarke, 
Lond., 1639, p. 92). The notion of the lamp, or 
oil, occurs in other phrases, as, " Aristophanis 
et Cleanthis lucerna " ; " Epicteti lychnulus " ; 
" Venusina lucerna." ED. MARSHALL. 

This phrase first occurs, I think, in Gay's Trivia, 

5"> S. IX. JAN. 5, 78.] 



bk. ii. 1. 558. Speaking of the bookstalls in th 
streets of London he says : 

" Walkers at leisure learning's flowers may spoil, 

Nor watch the wasting of the midnight oil." 
The same author makes use of this phrase in th 
introduction to his Fables. The words " midnigh 
oil " are also used by Shenstone, Cowper, Lloyd 
and others. FREDERIC BOASE. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W. 

The following are earlier than Lamb : 
" Whence is thy learning ? Hath thy toil 

O'er books consumed the midnight oil ? " 
Gay's The Shepherd and the Philosopher (introduction 
to the Fables), 11. 15, 16. 

" I trimmed my lamp, consumed the midnight oil." 
Shenstone's llth Elegy, seventh stanza. 


The use of oil (oleum) for literary night-work is 
common and semi-proverbial in the Latin classics. 
So " oleum et operam perdere " (Plaut., Poen., 
i. 2, 119). Cicero (and plenty more) repeat the 
same phrase. Having got so much from the 
ancients, the addition of " midnight " is not far to 
seek, and no great originality would be evinced in 
the combination. Bacon talks of his " midnight 
studies." HORATIO. 

"KUBBISH" (5 th S. viii. 423.) MR. PICTON 
would derive rubbish from Italian robaccia (the 
pejorative of roba), poor stuff, old goods (Altieri). 
He says that the history of the word cannot be 
traced further back than the middle of the six- 
teenth century, overlooking the article in the 
Promptorium Parvulorum which I have quoted 
in my Dictionary : " Robows, or coldyr, petrosa, 
petro (i.e. chippings of stones)." And Way, in 
his note on the word, cites a payment in the Ward- 
robe accounts of the year 1480 to " John Carter, 
for carriage away of a grete loode of robeux that 
was left in the strete after the reparacione of a 
hous apparteigning to the same Wardrobe." 
Horman, in his Vulgaria, says : " Batts and great 
rubbryshe serveth to fyl up the myddell of the 
wall." By Palsgrave, Minshew, Cotgrave, Florio, 
Sherwood, it is treated as synonymous with rubble, 
signifying fragments of old stone or brick, a sense 
obviously anterior to that of the Italian robaccia, 
worthless goods : " Robrisshe of stones, platras " 
(Palsgrave); "Kovinazzo or ruinazzo, rubble, 
rammel, rubbish of broken walls " (Florio) ; 
"Kottame, all manner of broken things, as 
splinters, shards, fragments, or rubbish " (Florio). 

When we look at the earliest of the forms 
above cited, robows and robeux, and also the 
application of the word to the rubble used in build- 
ing, we may fairly suspect it to have been originally 
borrowed from the French repous, a technical term 
of masonry signifying concrete or rubble work : 
"A filling in with rubbish or rubble, repous" 
(Sherwood). H. WEDGWOOD. 

Universal negatives are dangerous things. MR. 
PICTON in his interesting and learned note asserts 
that the word rubbish " cannot be traced in our 
language further back than the middle of the six- 
teenth century." And yet that word, of course in 
an antiquated form, is of much earlier occurrence. 
In the Promptorium Parvulorum, about 1440, we 
find : " Robows, or coldyr. Petrosa, petro " ;. 
coldyr, Prov. Eng. colder, being the refuse of corn, 
and petro the clippings of stone, " petrones sunt 
particule que abscinduntur de petris " (Catholicon 
Anglicum, 1483). The old word, therefore, was 
evidently synonymous with our rubble, detritus, 
mason's refuse. Mr. Way identifies this robows 
with robeux (MS. 1480), rubbrysshe (Horman, 
1519), robrisshe (Palsgrave, 1530), all denoting 
rough and broken stones. Moreover, is robaccia 
a sixteenth-century word in Italian, with the 
meaning assigned to it, "coarse, rough stuff"? 
It certainly does not occur in Florio. 

Lower Norwood, S.E. 

"FIFTEENTHS" (5 th S. viii. 490.) Tenths and 
ifteenths meant such a proportion of property, not 
so much per cent. It happens that a tenth is ten 
3er cent., but a fifteenth is only six and two-thirds 
}er cent. " Tandem finis Parliamenti erat taxa 
.evanda ad opus Eegis, id est, decima de clero, et 

quinta-decima de populo laicali" (Walsingham, 

Hist. Anglic., ed. Biley, ii. 177). In some cases 
enths were subscribed by towns, and fifteenths by 
he less wealthy rural population (Lambarde's 

Peramb. of Kent, ed. 1656, p. 55). Cf. " And a 
ifteneth and a dyme eke " (Richard the Redeles, 
:*ass. iv. 1. 15). I extract these references from 

my Notes to Piers Plowman, where more on the 
ubject will be found. I hope it will appear that 
hese Notes contain a good deal of information 
elative to affairs of the fourteenth century. 

2, Salisbury Villas, Cambridge. 

This tax was imposed 14 Ed\v. III. (1340-41), 
hen it was enacted that foreign merchants, and 
11 others which dwell not in cities nor boroughs, 
nd also all who dwelt in forests and wastes and 
live not of their gain nor store," should be 
ssessed at the value of a " fifteenth." 


ELWILL FAMILY (5 th S. viii. 369.) Your corre- 
pondent A. H. will find that there were four 
aronets of this race, commencing with Sir John 
Iwill of Exeter, merchant, who was the son of a 
rocer of that city by his wife, an heiress of Pole, 
le was educated at the university, and designed 
y his father for a clergyman ; was knighted at 
"ensington, April 28, 1696 ; was Sheriff of Devon 

William & Mary, and on Aug. 25, 1709, was 
reated a baronet. He died in 1717, having been 



[5th S. ix. JAN. 5/78. 

for many years Eeceiver-General for DevoD. By 
his first wife, Frances, daughter of Sir John Bamp- 
fylde, of Poltimore, Bart., he had two sons, John 
and Edmund. Sir John married secondly the 

daughter and heiress of Leigh, of Egham, co. 

Surrey, by whom, according to one authority 
(Halsted), he had no issue, while, according to 
another (Le Neve), it was his first wife who was 
childless. Sir John died in 1717, and was suc- 
ceeded in the baronetcy by his elder son, John, 
who married Elizabeth, sole daughter and heiress 
of Humphrey Style, Esq., and through her he 
acquired Langley Park in Beckenham, co. Kent. 
Lady Elwill survived till 1731, but Sir John died 
in 1727, leaving no issue. The monuments of this 
pair are on the north wall of the aisle of Becken- 
ham Church. The second Sir John was succeeded 
in title and estate by his only brother, Edmund, 
who sold Langley Park to Hugh Eaymond, Esq. 
The El wills appear to have maintained a connexion 
with Devonshire, where they had scattered landed 
property, including the manor and barton of Pin- 
hoe, the place of residence of the first baronet. 
Sir Edmund Elwill died in 1740, and was succeeded 
by Sir John, fourth and last baronet, who married 
Selina, relict of Arthur. Lord Banelagh, and 
daughter of Peter, the next brother of Allen, first 
Earl Bathurst. Sir John Elwill died at Totnes, 
March 1, 1778, and on the 5th of that month his 
remains were carried through Exeter in funeral 
procession on the way to his seat at Egham, pre- 
paratory to interment in the family vault. It is 
said that the hearse containing the body of Sir 
John Elwill was the first carriage that passed into 
Exeter over the new Exe Bridge. By the marriage 
of his heiress, Selina Mary, his estates passed into 
the Bathurst family, as mentioned by your corre- 
spondent, who will find fuller particulars in Le 
Neve's Pedigrees of Knights, 454 ; Halsted's 
Kent; Lysons's Devon; Lysons's Environs of 
London; Oliver's Exeter, 171 ; Reports on Devon- 
shire Charities, 1826 ; Nichols's Collect. Top. et 
Gen,, v. 341 ; and other authorities. 



This gentleman was not the first but the fourth 
baronet. The title was conferred upon his grand- 
father, Sir John Elwill, Knt., of Exeter, by Queen 
Anne on August 25, 1709, and became extinct on 
the death of Sir John, the fourth baronet, March 1, 
1779 (London Magazine, 1779, p. 139), or March 1, 
1778, according to Burke's Extinct Baronetage. 
He represented Guildford in the Parliaments 
elected 1747, 1754, and 1761. 


The fourth baronet, grandson of the first, who I 
think held some appointment under the county of 
Devon, mar. Selina, dau. of Peter Bathurst, Esq., 
and relict of the Earl of Eanelairh, but dying 

s.p. m. March 1, 1778, the title became extinct. 
The arms borne by this family were : Erm., on a 
chev. eng., betw. three double-headed eagles displ. 
gu., each gorged with a ducal coronet or, as many 
annulets of the last. JOHN MACLEAN. 

Bicknor Court, Coleford, Glouc. 

A. H. will find all the information he asks for 
in Burke's Extinct Baronetage. If he has not 
access to that work, I shall be glad to extract the 
article for him. E. A. WHITE, F.S.A. 

Old Elvet, Durham. 

DR. WATTS'S PSALMS (5 th S. viii. 409.) In the 
Psalms as given in the large edition of Dr. Watts's 
Works in six vols., " with selections from his MSS. 
in 1753," the fourth rendering of Psalm 1. is headed, 
" To a new tune." This carries back this peculiarity, 
which was at a later date omitted, to the fifteenth 
edition, 1748, the last during his life. 


My copy is dated 1747, " printed for I. Oswald, 
at the Eose and Crown, near the Mansion House, 
and J. Buckland, at the Buck in Paternoster Eow, 
near St. Paul's," and in it appear the words, " To 
a new tune," to the rendering of Psalm I. begin- 
ning, " The Lord the Sov'reign sends his summons 
forth." W. PHILLIPS. 

The words " to a new tune " and " to the old 
proper tune," as given by M. D., under Psalm L, 
from his twentieth edition, 1756, are not interpola- 
tions, for I find them exactly as quoted in my first 
edition of 1719. J. 0. 

viii. 409.) The most authentic thing about 
Clarendon is the Life he wrote of himself, as 
a continuation to his Hist, of the Rebellion. The 
best edition is that of 1875, 2 vols., 8vo., printed 
from the original MS. in the Bodleian. Then 
there is T. H. Lister's work on the life and adminis- 
tration of the earl. Also there is S. W. Singer's 
Correspondence of Henry Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, 
and Lawrence Hyde, Earl of Eochester. The Hon. 
Agar Ellis wrote an inquiry into his character, 
1827, and tried to prove him an unprincipled man 
of talent. The late Lord Clarendon was his de- 
scendant. He belonged to the Hydes of Dinton, 
Wilts. Notices of him occur in Burnet's Hist, of 
his own Times, and in Evelyn and Pepys. 

C. A. WARD. 


CURIOUS- CUSTOM (5 th S. viii. 446.) A custom 
somewhat akin to that spoken of by MR. E. T. 
MAXWELL WALKER existed recently at Penzance, 
in Cornwall. In that town it was usual for the 
mayor and corporation, with the mace-bearers and 
constables in attendance, to go once a month in 
state to St. Marv's Church. At the commence- 

5th S. IX. JAN. 5, 78.] 



merit of the first lesson all the constables went out 
of church to visit the licensed houses, to see that 
they were complying with the then law in closing 
during the period of divine service. Some time 
before the commencement of the sermon the con- 
stables returned to the church, so as to be in readi- 
ness to accompany his worship on his homeward 
journey. The new licensing law has now done 
away with the actual necessity of this observance, 
and with an increase of the police force all the 
men are not required in the municipal procession. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate, S.W. 

KEY. WILLIAM GARNETT (5 th S. viii. 408.) It 
is possible to explain that which puzzles MR. 
GARNETT. Matriculation is the admission to the 
university, not to the college, and the Eev. William 
Garnett may have had his name down for a time 
at Trinity, and yet never have matriculated. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 


A William Garnett took his A.M. degree at 
Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1797. Could this 
have been the above gentleman 1 SYWL. 

PORTRAIT OF BEATRICE CENCI (5 th S. viii. 407.) 
Cav. Bertolotti, who has written on the Cenci 
family, is equally desirous with H. C. C. to dis- 
cover who was the painter of the portrait, and the 
earliest mention of it. Very curiously, however, 
he does not seem to be aware it was formerly in 
the Colonna Gallery, and he has published in 
Giornale di Erudizione Artistica, vol. v. fasc. 9, 
10, Firenze, a catalogue of the pictures in the 
Barberini collection in 1623, where he thinks he 
has recognized the portrait under the title of a 
Madonna Egiziaca, by P. Veronese. When he 
becomes aware of his mistake, he will probably 
find and publish a list of the Colonna Gallery of 
the same date. I believe the earliest mention of 
Guido being employed in Eome is found on 
July 25, 1609, when he was paid four hundred 
scudi for some work done at the Vatican. 

K. H. B. 

In the collection of a relative of mine is a 
modern picture, painted by a Milanese artist, of 
considerable merit, though the subject is of the 
gloomiest kind Beatrice Cenci after torture. She 
is about to be immured in a cell, whilst two figures, 
habited like Familiars of the Inquisition, and 
whose faces are hidden by cowls, support her 
slender figure. Her countenance retains traces of 
great beauty, though racked by suffering. On 
one side stands an ecclesiastic with his hood 
thrown back, who has evidently been administering 
spiritual consolation to Beatrice Cenci, and at the 
door of the prison stands a man habited as a sol- 
dier of that period, with his hand on the key. The 
picture is of considerable size, and the figures in it 

are about one-third the size of life. What its date 
may be I do not know ; but to my knowledge it 
has been in the possession of the present family 
more than thirty- five years. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

A PSEUDO-CHRIST (5 th S. viii. 488.) Beesley's 
History of Banbury, p. 91, contains this sentence : 

" In 1219, according to Kny ton, in a council of bishops 
held at Oxford, a blasphemous impostor, who had assumed 
the name and pretended to the wounds of Jesus, was 
condemned and was crucified at Adderbury." 

This is probably another version of the circum- 
stance stated by ED. D., although there is a 
difference of four years in the date, and Alderman- 
bury has been substituted for Adderbury, which 
is a large village seventeen miles north of Oxford, 
and nearly four miles south of Banbury. 

Steeple Aston, Oxford. 

MANOR (5 th S. viii. 486.) Peter le Brus gave 
Henry Percy the manor of Kildale, which became 
the principal residence of the Percys in Cleveland. 
It was from hence, doubtless, and not from Pet- 
worth, that he would pay his Christmas visit to 
Skelton Castle, a short ride. Skelton Castle passed 
to the family of Fauconberg on a division of the 
Brus estates, a few years after this donation of 

I heard from a venerable Westmoreland states- 
man, now deceased, a modern instance of a "jocular 
tenure " almost parallel. " Fifty years ago I was 
great friends with Mounsey, that they called King 
of Patterdale. He offered to let me the fishing 
of Easedale Tarn. What rent V ' Five shillings.' 
'Too much.' 'What will you give?' 'Three 
halfpence.' ' Then you must come to Patterdale 
and pay it on a fixed day.' ' And you must give 
me my dinner.' So we agreed." W. G. 

DE STUTEVILLE FAMILY (5 th S. viii. 447.) The 
Lattons of Chilton, co. Berks, derived their descent 
from this family at least, according to Ashrnole. 
Many of them were buried in the adjoining church 
of St. Michael, Blewbury, where a number of their 
brasses, including shields of arms, if not swept 
away by recent " restoration," still remain. These 
bear, among other quarterings, " Ermine, three 
cross-bows or," by the name of " Sycheville." 
Whether this may be a perversion of Stuteville I 
cannot say, but I have never been able to meet 
with any family of Sycheville or Sychevyle. 


A list of Stutevilles (originally from Estoute- 
ville in Normandy), barons by tenure from the 
time of the Conquest, is given in Nicolas's Synopsis 
\f the Peerage of England, and the account includes 
Nicholas, brother and heir of Ptobert de Stuteville, 



[5"' S. IX. JAN. 5, 78. 

the fifth baron, who died in 1205, s.p. A family 
of Stutevilles, or Stotevilles, was seated at an early 
period at Dalham in Suffolk, and there continued 
for many generations. The pedigree is extefnt, 
and their arms are said to have been : Per pale 
arg. and sab., a saltire engr. ermines and erm. 
Crest : Paly of six, erm. and ermines, disposed 
feather-wise. Other grants of arms, differing 
entirely from the above, were made to the Stute- 
villes of Devon, Somerset, and Essex. For further 
particulars it might be well to refer to Add. MS. 
17,732, Brit. Mus. Collection, and to Chart. Cat. 
v. iii. WM. UNDERBILL. 

66, Lausanne Road, Peckham. 

The crest of this family is a camel's head couped 
proper. HIRONDELLE. 

OF ST. GEORGE (5 th S. viii. 349.) In M. Maigne's 
Abrege Methodique de la Science des Armoiries 
(Paris, I860, p. 319) is the following, under the 
head of orders of the Two Sicilies : 

" 3 Ordre Constantinien, ou de Constantin, appele 
aussi Constantinien des Deux Siciles, pour le distinguer 
d'un ordre du meme nom qui appartient au duche de 
Parme. Cree, a ce que Ton croit, le 5 aofit, 1699, par 
Jean-Frangois Farnese, due de Parme ; plusieurs ecri- 
vains lui donnent, il est vrai, une origine plus ancienne, 
mais ils se gardent bien d'en fournir la preuve. En 
1734, Don Carlos, due de Parme, etant devenu roi de 
Naples, incorpora cet ordre a ceux du royaume, et en 
renouvela les statuts en 1759 ; mais, le 23 aoiit, 1816, 
I'archiduchesse Marie-Louise d'Autriche, ex-imperatrice 
des Frangais et duchesse de Parme, le retablit pour ses 
etats, et, pour eviter toute discussion au sujet de la pro- 
priete de la grande maitrise, les deux maisons souve- 
raines de Naples et de Parme convinrent de conferer 
concurrement les insignes de 1'ordre, qui n'admet, sauf 
quelques exceptions, que des membres de la noblesse. 

" Cinq classes : Ecuyers, Freres servants, Chevaliers 
du merite, Chevaliers de justice, Chevaliers grand-croix. 

" Ruban : rouge. 

" Les Chevaliers portent la croix a la boutonniere ; 
les grands-croix, en echarpe avec plaque."* 


" STAG " (5 th S. viii. 226, 298, 478.) Cock tur- 
keys in their second year and onwards are very 
generally called stags in Norfolk. N N. ' 

SILVERSMITHS' WORK (5 th S. viii. 369.) I have 
bound up, under the title of Pugin's Designs of 
the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, published 
by Ackerman & Co., London, April 4, 1836, two 
parts on the subject, the first part being generally 
Designs for Gold and Silver Smiths, &c., the second 
part, Designs for Church Plate. It is very likely 
that Mr. B. Quaritch, the London bookseller, 
would inform Z. whether these treatises can be 

* " L'ordre de Constantin est designe, dans les anciens 
auteurs, sous les noms de : Ordre des angeliques, Ordre 
des chevaliers dores, Ordre des angeliques dores sous 
.'invocation de saint George, Milice Constantino de 

had separately, and also give him further informa- 
tion on such Designs. F. S. 

489.) I have a copy which corresponds exactly 
with that which MR. KREBS describes, except that 
the first book wants the engraving of Simeon in 
adoration. This has no doubt been torn out, as 
each of the other three books has its engraving. 
On the other hand, there is opposite the title-page 
an engraving of an angel standing by a cross, on 
the top of which is a crown. The title-page itself 
runs : 

" Thomas a Kempis | Canonici Regularis | Ordinis S. 
Augustini | De | Imitatione | Christi | Libri Quatuor. | 
Editio Nova, Figuris | Illustrata. | Colonise | Sumptibus 
Balthasaris | ab Egmond, 1711." 


228, 353.) 

" Gregory Clements is hardly worth mentioning. He 
was at first a merchant, but, failing in that, he sought to 
thrive by a new trade in bishops' lands, wherein he got 
a considerable estate. He was turned out of the Rump 
Parliament for lying with his maid at Greenwich, but 
was taken in again when they were restored after Oliver's 
interruption. His guilty conscience and his ignorance 
would not suffer him to make any plea at the or any 
speech or prayer at the gallows." The Indictment, &c., 
of Twenty- Nine Regicides, &c., preface, p. ix, London, 
for the Booksellers in Town and Country, 1739. 

C. W. J. 

LEYLANDS OF LANCASHIRE (5 th S. viii. 468.) 
There is a pedigree of Ley land of the Grange, 
Hindley, in Foster's Lancashire Pedigrees, pub- 
lished in 1873. C. J. E. 


"Omne ignotum pro magnifico esfc." 
This occurs in the Vita Agricolce of Tacitus, cap. xxx. 
He puts it into the mouth of Galgacus, the British gene- 
ral, in the speech to his soldiers before the last fatal 
battle at the Grampian Hills : " Nos terrarum ac liber- 
tatis extremos, recessus ipse ac sinus famse in hanc diem 
defendit, nunc terminus Britanniae patet, atque omne 
ignotum pro magnifico est." E. A. D. 

This occurs in Tacitus, Jid. Agric. ViL, c. xxx. Taci- 
tus elsewhere uses a similar expression. Ibid., c. xxv., 
there is, <f Ad manus et arma conversi Caledoniam inco- 
lentes populi, paratu magno, majore fama, uti mos est 
de ignotis"; and in Ann. iv. 23, "Sed missis levibus 
copiis quas ex longinquo in majus audiebantur." He 
had been anticipated by Thucydides, who, in the speech 
of Nicias, vi. 11, 4, has, TO. yap Sid TrXtiarov Trdvrtg, 
'ifffj.ev QavfiaZoiisva, Kal ra irtipav i'/Ktara r 


"Pity is akin to love." 

Dryden ha? this thought expressed in his ode, Alex- 
ander's Feast, 1. 96 : 

" 'Twas but a kindred sound to move, 

For pity melts the mind to love." 

But was Dryden the author of the thought, or had it- 
grown into a proverb in his day 1 E. A. D. 

5. s. IX. JAX. 5, '78.] 



Shenstone says : 

" I Lave heard her with sweetness unfold 

How that pity was due to a dove ; 
That it ever attended the bold, 

And she called it the sister of love." 


Southern's OroonoTco, Act ii. sc. 1. See " N. & Q.," 
1" S. viii. 89. W. T. M.. 


Scholce Academical. Some Account of the Studies of the 
English Universities in the Eighteenth Century. By 
Christopher Wordsworth, M.A. (Cambridge, Deighton, 
Bell & Co.) 

THE one only fault to be found with this interesting 
volume lies in the circumstance that it is not in the 
same form as the author's former work, in two vols., 
Social Life in the English Universities in the Eighteenth 
Century. This premised, nothing but praise remains. 
The present volume is not only more important than its 
predecessors, but it is, what one would hardly expect, much 
more amusing. We have here, in full detail, "the history 
and method of the old Cambridge test and examination 
for the first degree in arts, and of mathematics... A place 
is given to the trivials (grammar, logic, and rhetoric), 
which under the more ancient regime led the under- 
graduate in his four years' march. Classics and moral 
philosophy (the subsidiary studies of the old Tripos) close 
this portion of the work.' v This accurately describes 
the serious history recounted by Mr. Wordsworth. The 
reader of it will perhaps be surprised to find how much 
constantly hard and important work was successfully 
got through in what some have thought an easy and 
rather idle era. We must add in all fairness that there 
is many a humorous trait flashing across these scholarly 
pages about scholars. Richard Person and the good 
work he did are fully recorded, with all honour, in the 
Scholce Academicce. 

The Invention of Printing. A Collection of Facts and 
Opinions descriptive of Early Prints and Playing 
Cards ; the Block Books of the Fifteenth Century ; 
the Legend of Lourens Janzoon Coster of Harlem ; 
and the Work of John Gutenberg and his Associates. 
Illustrated with Fac-similes of Early Types, by Theo. L. 
de Vinne. (Triibner & Co.) 

THE above title-page concisely describes the contents of 
this beautiful volume. By the words " second edition," 
on the same page, we see that the work has been appre- 
ciated by the public. It is one which undoes a good 
deal of imaginative history as to the invention and pro- 
gress of the art ; at the same time it contains new and 
attractive details, attractively narrated. We hope the 
second edition may be as successful as the first. 

Note-Boole of Sir John Northcote, some time M.P. for 

Ashlurton, and afterwards for the County of Devon; 

containing Memoranda of Proceedings in the House 

of Commons during the First Session of the Long 

Parliament, 1640. From the MS. Original in the 

Possession of the Right Hon. Sir Stafford Northcote, 

Bart., M.P. Transcribed and Edited, with a Memoir, 

by A. H. A. Hamilton. (Murray.) 

IN the well-told sketch of the life of the above Devonshire 

gentleman, Mr. Hamilton gays that, though Sir John 

Northcote's name is not to be found in biographical 

dictionaries among those of the busy politicians of his 

time, he was nevertheless a man of mark. Brief as the 

entries in the note-book are, they show that he who 

made them was a man of ready observation, and not 

without foresight. The volume will have an honourable 
place among the chronicles of the same period. 

WITH the new year Messrs. Cassell, Petter & Galpin 
have commenced the issue of two new serials, Science for 
All, illustrated, and an illustrated History of the Russo- 
Turlcish War. 

window, in memory of Bishop Pearson, Bishop Walton, 
and Thomas Fuller, was unveiled on the 1st inst. in the 
church of St. Martin, Eastcheap. The window is in the 
Renaissance style, and at its base is the following inscrip- 
tion : 

" In D. 0. M. gloriam, et in recordationem 


Sacrae Theologize Professoris 

Qui Anglorum laude dignorum vitas depinxit 

Ecclesiae Britannicae annales composuit, 


Episcopi Cestriensis 
Qui Fidem Catholicam interpretationeluculentaexplicuit, 


Episcopi Cestriensis 

Qui compluribus linguis divinas scripturas edidit. 
Discrimina donorum, idem spiritus. 1 Cor. xii. 4." 
The inscription was written by Archdeacon Hessey. 

THE CITY GATES. While Temple Bar is in course of 
destruction, the following paragraph may have a certain 
interest for some of the readers of " N. & Q." : " As 
the reign of George II. drew to a close, in the autumn 
of 1760, a change came over the City of London, which, 
to many, indicated a new era ; namely, the destruction of 
their City Gates, in the preservation of which timid 
Whigs saw safety from the assaults of Jacobites. READ 
announced the fate of those imaginary defences in the 
' Journal ' of August 2nd : ' On Wednesday the materials 
of the three following City Gates were sold before the 
Committee of Lands to Mr. Blagden, a carpenter in Cole- 
man Street ; namely, Aldgate for 1571. 10s., Cripplegate 
for 91/., and Ludgate for 14SJ. The purchaser is to begin 
to pull down the two first on the first day of September, 
and Ludgate on the 4th of August, and is to clear away 
all the rubbish, &c., in two months from these days.'" 
London in the Jacobite Times (Bentley & Son, 2 vols.). 

printing, for subscribers only, the three very rare works 
of this outspoken satirist of the Jacobite times. The 
only copy of his Satyricall Dialogue that I can get at 
has had its head-lines cut off by' one of those binders 
who have done so much to mangle the book-treasures of 
antiquity. Another copy of the book was sold at Mr. 
Corser's sale. Messrs. Sotheby kindly tell me that it 
was bought by Lilly, but was not in his sale. Can any 
" N. & Q." man tell me to whom Lilly sold his Corser 
copy ('twas not to Mr. Huth), or where it is now, or 
where any other copy is? I want a transcript of the 
head-lines, and am keeping back my proofs for them. 
The Mastif Whelp and Neaste of Waspes are already 
printed. ' F. J. FURNIVALL. 

3, St. George's Square, N.W. 

inform me where I can find a copy of the inscription on 
Mary Robinson's grave at Old Windsor"? The writing on 
the tomb is so much effaced that it is impossible to read 
it. I have found a copy of the verses on the tomb, which 
are given in Mrs. Robinson's Memoirs, by her daughter, 
but I cannot come across the prose epitaph, which gives 
dates of her birth, death, &c. The tomb is now being 
restored, and any of your readers who would supply the 
information would confer a great favour. J. G. 



[5<h S. IX. JAN. 

THE Atlienceum is in - its jubilee year. 

The first 

number was published on Wednesday, January 2, 1828, 
the editor being Mr. Silk Buckingham, who shared the 
proprietorship with Mr. Colburn, the publisher. Among 
succeeding editors were Mr. John Sterling, Mr. pilke 
(editor and proprietor), Mr. T. K. Hervey, and Mr. W. 
Hep worth Dixon. 

Jiuttcerf to C0rre4p0nirent#. 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

over again cases in which subjects are proposed to be 
mooted that have been the text of long and almost 
exhaustive discussion in the earlier volumes of " N. & Q. " 
Our readers will therefore forgive us if we urge upon 
them the duty of searching the back indexes of " N. & Q." 
before ventilating their questions in its current columns, 
as then they would write with the latest information on 
the subject which interests them. 

SIKES AND SYKES (5 41 > S. viii. 468.) MR. EDWARD 
SIKES (14, Belmont Terrace, Huddersfield) writes : " I 
shall be most happy to give your correspondent infor- 
mation to the best of my knowledge on his writing to me 
at my address. Our family have been in Huddersfield 
for a long time." MR. G. W. TOMLINSON (24, Queen 
Street, Huddersfield) writes to the same effect, and adds, 
"from the nature of r the reply it would be better to do it 

Paragon, Clifton, Bristol) writes : " If your correspon- 
dent (5 th S. viii. 400) will communicate with me I shall 
be able to refer him to a gentleman who is greatly in- 
terested in this subject, and has also in his possession a 
large number of pedigrees, dating from the seventeenth 

MR. H. SMITH (Bray, Ireland) writes: "I pasted 
a collection of book-plates in the first instance on sheets 
of paper of a uniform size, arranging them in alphabetical 
order, and kept the collection in a portfolio. As I 
purpose having the sheets bound together in book form, 
may I ask is this arrangement the best, or should I class 
the collection in order of precedence, from Duke to 
Esquire, with index at end ? " 

N. C. (Chelmsford.) A Latin dictionary would answer 
the first query. To the second, we reply that Apsley 
House and old St. George's Hospital were originally of 
red brick. For the third, see any cookery book. The 
others could be answered by any intelligent child. 

W. G. B. (Glasgow.) Many thanks for the courtesy in 
letter marked " private." Absence from town prevented 
us from profiting by it. 

ABIIBA (2, Paragon Buildings, Cheltenham) will feel 
very much obliged to THUS for a copy of the pedigree 
which he has kindly proposed to send. 

S. L. We should say that the Irish name Morrow is 
the foolishly English-shaped form of the purely Irish 

R. B. P. and W. H. B. Letters forwarded. 

E. C. B.- Received. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


Now Heady, with 120 Portraits, Plates, and Woodcuts, 
4to. 42s. 



" Few residences can boast a greater antiquity, or have wit- 
nessed more striking changes, than SUDELRY CASTLE. A 
mansum, or manor-house, before the Cor a baronial 

castle in the time of Stephen, then alternate^ going to decay, 
or rising into additional magnificence, w't., stately towers to 
overlook the vale again suffering from neglect, and once more 
right royally restored and beautified to receive the widowed 
Queen as Seymour's Bride, with all her lordly retinue." 


is a thoroughly pleasant book, delightful to read and beauti- 
>k upon, with its large, clearly printed pages and variety of 
3uted illustrations. One chief pleasure of reading Mis. 

" This is a thorouc 
ful to loo 
well-executed illustrations. One chief pleasure" _______ 

Dent's book is the variety of social matters which are touched upon 
and illustrated." Athenceum. 

" A production of some interest in its class, in regard to the feeling 
and intent under which the book has been brought out. It is the 
attempt of the lady of the household who now holds Sudeley Castle to 
give an account, as full and connected as possible, of the past history 
of the Manor and its neighbourhood.. ..Apparently no pains have 
been spared in making it, in a literary and archaeological point of 
view, as complete as possible, by researches wherever any information 
could be gleaned, and by the addition of numerous and mostly well- 
executed illustrations of the buildings and other remains connected 
with the history ; while the appearance of the book is such as to make 
it an attarctive addition to any library or drawing-room table." 


" We are greatly indebted to the taste and zeal of the author of this 
interesting book, who seems to have pressed into her service the skil- 
ful aid of clever, and in some cases kindred, photographic artists and 
draughtsmen, and has illustrated her pages with thousands of curious 
relics worthy of preservation. Not the least valuable part of her col- 
lections is that which consists in charters and other like documents, 
and in records of such customs as the Winchcombe curfew, the 
whipping-post, and the ducking-stool." Saturday Review. 

"This volume is interesting as the fruit of a labour of love, on 
which evidently much time and pains have been bestowed in the en- 
deavour to preserve some of 'the thousand historic associations with 
which Sudeley Castle abounds.' To such labour we constantly owe 
works, which neither simple delight in historical research nor mere 
commercial enterprise would ever supply ; and the spirit which ani- 
mates it always gives to its results a certain charm of graceful and 
affectionate sympathy, entirely independent of their intrinsic lite- 
rary value. "We wish that for every building or locality of historic 
interest every castle and manor-house, every cathedral and abbey 
some one would be found to do what Mrs. Dent has done for Winch- 
combe and Sudeley." Guardian. 

" These ' Annals of Winchcombe ' will be preserved with some- 
pleasure by the antiquary, and, owing to its many illustrations, may 
take its place amongst ornamental works." Morning Post. 

" The industry displayed in Mrs. Dent's works is immense ; and the 
volume will give her a highly honourable place among local his- 
torians. In its varied details it addresses itself to general readers as 
well as to the antiquary and the artist. Nothing seems to have 
escaped Mrs. Dent's notice. The story of Sudeley itself is excellently 
told, and will find a sympathizer in every reader." Notes and Queries. 

" Mrs. Dent has given us a beautiful book of more than 300 pages. 
wherein she relates all the vicissitudes which during the period of 
more than a thousand years have befallen Winchcombe and Sudeley 
Castle." The Rock. 

"Mrs. Dent pursues the history of Winchcombe and the Castle of 
Sudeley from the earliest times downards with great variety and 
wealth of illustration. The volume is one of both local and general 
interest, and the author has executed her task in a manner highly 
creditable. She has spared no pains to arrive at the most accurate 
and minute information with regard to her own neighbourhood, and 
the many historic il personages who were brought into connexion with 
the Castle."- Tablet. 

" The history of AVinchcombe and Sudeley, a decayed borough and 
an ancient castle in Gloucestershire, form the subject of an exceed- 
ingly interesting volume of local topography, written without the 
dryness of detail usually belonging to such books, and illustrated 
completely and graphically with views of every object of interest 
connected with the locality. Every page will well repay perusal, and 
we commend it to our readers as one of the mott amusing books of 
its kind." 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street. 

5'h s. IX. JAN. 12, 78.] 





NOTES: The True Story of the Cenci Family, 21 Chau- 
ceriana 23 Swinton of that Ilk The Courts of Fleet 
Street, 24- John Keats-" Whig" and "Tory," 25 -Marriage 
of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria Town Crosses Wym- 
berley of Pinchbeck, co. Lincoln Synonym for a Wedding 
Festivity, 26. 

QUERIES : Pegge's Monastic Visitation Birding - Piece- 
Common Aryan Words for Agricultural Institutions Bp. 
Young Annibal Caracci "Scottish Scenery," &c , 27 
Aurora Borealis Heraldic Raffaelle Theological Books 
from Spain " Threestones " Robotham " Read" Green- 
field Fam" ' Yere Essex Cromwell London Fogs The 
Widow 01 ^. " y f .Bacon Heraldic The Clubs of Dublin, 28 
Destruction d * ( onstantinople " Chroniques de 1'CKil de 
Boeuf " Wages and Population India-rubber Shoes -Book- 
plateProphecies about Turkey St. Ishmael J. Burnet 
Tiger Dunlop RIios, or "Little England beyond Wales " 
Authors Wanted, 29. 

REPLIES : Works on the Trading Routes from East to West, 
A.D. 476-1492, 29 John Cooke, the Regicide, 31 Carol s- 
The Workhouse known as the Bastille Apsley Family of 
Thakeham, Sussex, 3J "The Lounger "A. Fleming, 33 
Printed Calendars of Post Mortem Inquisitions and 
Escheats Autographs of Sir J. Reynolds Inquisitions 
Post Mortem -Lake Thirlmere, 34 Evergreens at Christmas 

Serle's Gate, Lincoln's Inn " Civet Cat" Cocker's 
"Arithmetic," 35 " Ladies' Smock" Booksellers' Signs 
"The Third Part of the Pilgrim's Progress," 36 The 
Mistletoe The Shepherds of Bethlehem Flemish Hugh- 
enden vel Hitchenden Arms of Abp. Hervey Scott Family 

Queen Elizabeth, 37 Caracciolo " Esquire " The 
"Honourable" Mrs. Byron Authors Wanted, 38. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


(Continued from p. 3.) 

Rocca Petrella, where the murder took place, 
lies between Tagliacozzo and Rieti, in the wild 
valley of the Salto. It did not belong to Count 
Cenci, but was a fief of the Colonna family, though 
Francesco Cenci lived there for portions of the 
last three years of his life. According to one MS. 
the castle had a tower, and on the first floor a long 
gallery, open and ruinous, which joined some 
fabbriche beyond. Along this gallery on the 
night of Sept. 9, 1598, the murderers, Olimpio and 
Marzio not the women dragged their ghastly 
burden. The charge that Beatrice had hounded 
them on to kill her sleeping father, by saying 
she would do the deed herself if they were afraid, 
was, according to another MS., indignantly denied 
by Beatrice in the words, " Impossible ! not even 
a tigress could do such a thing ; think then if a 
daughter could ! " 

The dead body was thrown from the gallery on 
to an elder tree, where the next morning it was 
found, and buried after being exposed in the little 
church. What happened after shall be told in 
Bernardo's own words, who was with his brother 
Giacomo at Rome. A contadino had brought a 
letter to the Palazzo Cenci from Beatrice, 

announcing her father's death. The two brothers 
left Rome at once. When they arrived at the 

"we found a crowd before the entrance We stayed 

there about a day, but Signora Lucrezia and Beatrice 
told us nothing about our father's fall, nor how it 

happened; they only wept My father was already 

buried when we arrived, and we did nothing about the 
funeral rites except to give fifteen scudi to Don Marcio, 

who undertook the matter No one came to the Rocca 

to offer any kindness, respect, service, or sympathy. I 
did not see where he was buried, for I did not wish to- 
do so." Bernard. 1 Const. 

The next day they left the Rocca. 

"When we left, many of the people of the place 
accompanied us on foot for about a mile. With us 
Olimpio C&lvetti came also on horseback, and his 
daughter Vittoria riding too, as she was only about eight 
years old, the muleteers following with our baggage." 

These extracts give a graphic picture of the Rocca 
after the murder, the sons not giving a look to 
their father's grave ; the paltry payment for the 
funeral ; the fact of no one coming to the Rocca 
to pay respect to the deceased ; the silence of the 
weeping guilty women ; their departure, accom- 
panied by their poorer neighbours, who perhaps 
loved them ; while in their following rode the 
murderer Olimpio and his little daughter, who, 
as we shall see, was to be dowered with the price 
of blood. 

They arrived in Rome, and joined the family of 
Giacomo at the Palazzo Cenci, and within three 
days the brothers took possession of their father's 
honours and estates. At the same time they put 
on mourning for him, which was paid for in 1601 
by the Pope, on the petition of the drapers who 
had supplied it, and Giacomo ordered a magnificent 
hanging worked with the Cenci arms, as the ful- 
filment of a vow to Our Lady of Weeping, whose 
church was opposite his palace. But in their 
fancied security they could not escape the memories 
of the black deed that had rid them of a hateful* 
presence. The words of Bernardo show the in- 
timacy that complicity in guilt forced on them 
with their father's murderer. When asked if 
before the murder, when Olimpio came to the 
Palazzo Cenci, he had his meals with the family or 
alone, Bernardo answers, "Alone ; I never was at 
table with him." After the murder he allows 
Olimpio " dined with me, my brother, my sister 
Beatrice, and Signora Lodovica, my sister-in-law ;; 
we ivere all at table together" 

Suspicion, however, was aroused before Christ- 
mas. The authorities at Naples had ordered the 
arrest of both Marzio and Olimpio, on Dec. 10, as 
being implicated in the crime. Marzio was taken 
before long, and his confession afterwards re- 
tracted, according to tradition was the cause of 
the arrest of the Cenci. Gaspari Guerra, of Fano> 
sent a memorial to the Pope in 1601, alleging he 
had not been paid for the capture of Marzio in. 


IX. JAN. 12, 78. 

winter, among the snow, on the mountains 
through whose confession, he averred, the authors 
of the crime were brought to justice. Thus ended 
the year 1598 ; and, though the family knew 
inquiries were being made at Petrella, they did 
not attempt flight : as one MS. says, "God refused 
them this idea that might have saved them." 


Some time at the beginning of January the 
brothers, if not the women, were already in prison. 
The first examination of Bernardo bears date 
Jan. 16, and the judges began with him as the 
youngest, and most likely to confess or contra- 
dict himself. Cav. D'Albono publishes the six 
examinations from his MS. copy of part of the 
trial. From these we find that to May 2 he 
firmly maintains his ignorance of any plot against 
his father's life. There is then an interval ex- 
tending to August 7, on which day, after repeating 
his denial, when confronted with Giacoino it 
would seem for the first time he confirms his 
brother's confession of their mutual guilt. What 
could have prompted so sudden a confession it is 
impossible to imagine, as Farinacci distinctly 
declares torture had not been used at this exami- 
nation. All we know is that since his last appear- 
ance before his judges, on May 2, fresh suspicions 
had been aroused. Olimpio, the second assassin, 
formerly custoch of Rocca Petrella, and dismissed 
by Count Cenci, who had also toccato l } onore 
how is not known was killed on May 17. This 
fresh murder was committed by three men, one of 
whom had been steward of Giacomo Cenci. In 
some way or other, which the evidence does not 
explain, Monsignor Guerra was later implicated in 
the crime of the Cenci, and every one has imagined 
that he and Giacomo procured the murder of 
Olimpio, in order to dispose of a dangerous witness 
against them. Bertolotti adopts this idea, that 
Giacomo availed himself of a proclamation from 
Naples, setting a price on the head of Olimpio, to 
have him killed, and thus frustrate justice in its 
own name. But^this theory seems untenable, as 
in the very proclamation cited by Bertolotti the 
name of the steward appears as, with the two others, 
receiving a commission from the Viceroy to take 
Olimpio alive or dead. Another of the three had 
also been in service at the Palazzo Cenci, according 
to the evidence, which is strange, to say the least. 
Full particulars are given of the murder, which 
was committed in a most cold-blooded fashion. 
While Olimpio stopped a moment, to give the 
tired steward a lift on his horse, he was instantly 
stunned, and his head, cleft by an axe, was cut off, 
and carried to the viceregal tribunal. 

This occurred on May 17. How or when evi- 
dence was obtained against Monsignor Guerra 
cannot be ascertained. The MSS. declare that, in 
consequence of his being implicated in Olimpio's 

murder, he fled instantly to France, disguised as 
a charcoal burner. Instead, however, we find that 
he executed a deed as late as June 11 in the 
palace of Cardinal Montalto, at Rome ; and in his 
evidence, when taken in 1602, he says he left 
Rome about the middle of July, in the cardinal's 
coach and six, ostensibly to pay a visit at Tivoli, 
whence he fled on horseback to Celano, in the 
kingdom of Naples. 

Perhaps this flight made suspicion against the 
family still stronger ; at any rate, on August 7 both 
Giacomo and Bernardo confessed their guilt. The 
confession of Bernardo is subjoined, but we must 
remember his brother later declared him entirely 
innocent : 

" If I have in past time denied all, I now say that 
what my brother affirms is true ; that is, about the 
coming of Olimpio some days before my father's death, 
and his consultation with Giacomo, Paolo, and myself, 
when he told us he intended to kill my father because 
he had ' toccato 1' onore,' and sent him away from the 
Rocca : also that Beatrice our sister was dissatisfied with 
my father's treatment, as he kept her so shut up that 
she would not bear that life any longer, ' non voleva 
stare piu a quella vita,' and therefore had determined to 
have him killed, and wished Olimpio to do the deed, to 
which Beatrice was anxious that we should give our 

He then further confesses that Beatrice and 
Lucrezia gave him details of the murder, which 
were confirmed by Olimpio when he came to Rome 
later, and at the foot of his deposition he writes, 
" lo Bernardo Cenci ho deposto per la verita, 
come sopra." 

As for Beatrice, till August 10 she seems to 
have denied everything, even under torture. But, 
strange to write, on that day, when questioned 
without torture, she confesses to having parleyed* 
with Olimpio : 

"I told him to do nothing without the consent of 

my brothers He said, 'Your brothers will agree 

willingly.' So it was settled that he should go to Rome 

and speak to them He came back to Petrella, and 

told me he had spoken to Giacoino only, as he would not 
have any dealings with boys, and that he had promised 
Giacomo to kill our father, and that he would keep faith 
with him, as it would be disgraceful riot to do so." 

The same day she denies having made any promise 
of reward to Olimpio, " non havendo mente a mia 
disposizione." The next day she was called face 
to face with the others, and then admitted having 
consented to, if not originated, the promise of a 
dowry of 2,000 scudi to his little daughter, as the 
price of the murder. The trial was now practically 
over, the confessions had been made or extorted, 
and the Pope is said to have ordered the usual 
punishment of parricides to be inflicted. 

A careful study of the documents relating to the 
trial shows : 

1. That no charge of unnatural conduct on 

* The confession of Beatrice is the only part of her 
examinations found in D'Albono's MSS. 

5th s. IX. JAN. 12, 78.] 



the part of Count Cenci was ever advanced 
by the family. Farinacci, their advocate, alone 
depended on the foul accusation to save Beatrice, 
whose guilt he assumed in the opening words of 
his defence, considering that if he could save her, 
he could save the rest, who were guilty in a minor 
degree. Her ..imprisonment by Count Cenci may- 
have been caused by some clandestine attachment 
he had discovered, which had resulted in the birth 
of thefanciullo we shall hear of later. It cannot 
be supposed that any over-refinement in those 
days would have prevented some confirmation 
being given of Count Cenci's criminal passion, by 
his wife at least, when the lives of four persons 
were at stake. Tradition asserts that Beatrice 
always denied the existence of such a passion, and 
Scolari claims her as a martyr who died rather 
than stain her good name. Yet how shall we 
explain that her own advocate put forth this plea? 
In a letter to Farinacci she says : " If I had 
done myself any injury [suicide ?] I should have 
fallen under the malediction of the Holy Father." 
In another, to Cardinal Aldobrandini, she speaks 
of herself as 

" martyrized and oppressed by my own flesh and blood, 
from which oppression having besought deliverance 
oftentimes of the Blessed Virgin, all my prayers and 
devotions were of no avail, find if I had done myself any 
injury I should have fallen," &c. 

These dark hints may only mean that her life was 
unbearable, and the mystery must remain a 
mystery still. 

2. The guilt of Beatrice as designer of, or at 
least abettor in, the plot is certain. She throws 
the blame on Olimpio, saying that he was always 
suggesting it to her ; but we cannot suppose that 
Olimpio, however he might have suffered at Count 
Cenci's hands, would, to avenge himself, propose 
a scheme of murder to the daughter. We must 
remember that Giacomo had his own injuries, his 
scanty maintenance, his imprisonment, his exclu- 
sion from inheritance, and Beatrice her forced 
captivity, probably made worse by blows, to spur 
them on, while they found a ready tool in the 
injured Olimpio. 

A woman of twenty-one who could endure the 
rack without flinching could not have been made 
of too tender stuff. The days, too, in which she 
lived were days of blood. Her father had laid an 
ambush for a near relation at his own palace door ; 
two brothers had died by the assassin's hand ; and 
men were then wont to avenge the honour of their 
wives or daughters by the death of both lovers. 
Perhaps Beatrice may have thought that her own 
life was not safe, and that a murder committed by 
another, who had his own wrongs to avenge, was 
no longer a parricide. Be it as it may, I leave 
the question to the judgment of my readers, and 
pass on. K. H. B. 

(To le continued.) 


"Any many a Jakk of Dover hasfcow sold 
That hath be twyes hoot and twyes cold." 

The Coke's Proloye, 22. 

Urry has: "Jack of Dovyr, Jack-a-dover, 1239, 
i.e. a fowl or joint of meat done over again, as is 
explained, ib. 1240." Bailey renders " Jack of 
Dover" a "joint of meat dressed over again." 
Tyrwhitt says : "The general purport of this phrase 
is sufficiently explained in the following line ; but 
the particular meaning I have not been able to 
investigate." Urry makes a guess from the 
second line, and Bailey and Tyrwhitt follow suit. 
At the very first it struck me that as the term 
" Jack " is frequently applied to large things, the 
Dover sole, which is both large and far-famed, 
might be very well termed " Jack of Dover." On 
referring to one of the old numbers of " N. & Q.," 
I find that MR. JOHN ADDIS, writing on this 
word crux, says : " See a note in Hazlitt's ShaJc- 
speare Jest Books, ii. 366, which seems to settle 
that the Jakk is a ' sole.' " 


" And thine urinales, and tbi jordanes, 
Thine Ypocras, and thine Galiounes." 

The Prolooe of the Pardoner, 19. 

Skinner renders jordains, double urinals ; Wright 
gives jordanes, chamber pots ; Tyrwhitt says : 
" This word is in Walsingham, p. 288, 'dme ollse, 
quas Jordanes vocamus, ad ejus collum colligan- 
tur.' This is part of the punishment of a pre- 
tended phisicus et astrologus, who had deceived 
the people by a false prediction. Hollinshed calls 
them two Jordan 'pots, p. 440." The word is from 
French jarron, dim. of Jarre, a jar, large pitcher ; or 
i.q. Spanish jarron, a large jug, an urn, auguien. 
of jarra, a jug, jar, pitcher ; from Arabic jarrah, a 
jar. Indeed, from the French or Spanish words 
we have also the slang term jerry. 


" God save the lady of tbys pel, 
Our oune gentil lady Fame." 

The House of Fame, 220. 

Speght gives pel; Urry and Tyrwhitt, pell, a 
house, cell ; Skinner renders pell, a palace ; Bailey, 
a house. If it means " house," it is from 0. Er. 
pila, " porte, entree " ; but I prefer Mr. Morris's 
rendering, " castle," " fortress." This agrees with 
Chalmers, who says : " Pil in the British and 
Cornish, as well as in ancient Gaulish, signifies a 
stronghold or fortress, a secure place. There are 
a number of old forts called by this name ; as the 
Peel of Gargunno, the Peel of Gardin, the Peel of 
Linlithgow, Peel Castle in E. Kilbride, Lanark- 
shire. The term pil or peel is unknown to the 
Irish language or the Scoto-Irish, as well as to 
the Teutonic." The Cornish has also "pil, a 
hillock, a sea-ditch, a trench filled at high-water, 


[5> S. IX. JAN. 12, 78. 

a manor, a lordship," teste Lh. Arch. ; and Dr. Pughe 
renders the Welsh pil, " a small inlet of the sea 
filled by the tide ; generally called camlas in 
North Wales." B! S. CHARNOOK. 


I met the other day with a document which 
interested me much a lease in the Scottish 
vernacular, by " Jon of Swynton, lord of that Ilk," 
to the Prioress of the Cistercian nunnery of Cold- 
.stream-on-Tweed. John of Swinton leases to 
them all his land of " litill Swynton " for ten years, 
from Whitsunday 1424. The amount of rent is not 
given, merely " the raward mad and for to be mad to 
me both temporal and spiritual" the latter no 
doubt prayers for his welfare. The deed is undated, 
but it is executed at Dunbar, in all likelihood about 
the term when the tenants took possession. Now 
this was an historical personage ; none other than 
the John Swinton who figured at the battle of 
Bauge (April 3, 1421), where he is said by some 
historians to have overthrown Thomas of Clarence, 
the brother of Henry V., with his lance, and is 
usually styled " Sir John," though it is evident 
from this lease he was not a knight even in 1424. 
From the mention of Dunbar it is likely he was 
on the eve of sailing for France, where he was 
killed at Verneuil (August 27, 1424). The same 
MS. vol. in which I met with the above lease (the 
Register of Coldstream, Harl. MSS., Brit. Mus.) 
reveals another fact in the early history of this old 
Border family. The first presumed "Swinton" was 
Eruulf, who obtained from David I. a charter of 
Swinton, " meo militi Hernulfo " (Coldinghauie 
Charters, No. xii.), In the " Qtisequidem," or 
deduction of title from previous owners, it is said 
that it had belonged previously to Liulf, son of 
Edulf, and Udard his son. But not a word is 
said of any relationship between these three persons 
and Ernulf, the new grantee, which would have 
been stated had there been any. Yet they have 
usually in the Swinton pedigree been set forth as 
the grandfather, great-grandfather, and father of 
Ernulf. In another grant of David I. to Ernulf 
(Cold. Charters, No. xiii.) the lands are said to 
have been held by " Udard the Sheriff." Still no 
relationship is given between the two. Indeed, 
hitherto there has been no evidence that Ernulf 
ever used the surname of Swinton. He evidently 
had none before he got the lands. This was pointed 
out by the learned John Riddell, yet he, though 
he must have had this MS. chartulary or a tran- 
script (Adv. Library) in his hands, does not, 
so far as I have seen, notice the fact that in 
the eleventh charter, which is granted by " C. 
'Comes " (Cospatric, the third Earl of March, who 
died before 1166), the fourth witness is " Era[ulfus] 

de Suint[on]." This is an interesting addition to 
the Swinton pedigree. 

There is in the same volume a lease, dated 
July 22, 1426, by William Drax, Prior of Colding- 
hame, to the Prioress of Coldstream, of the same 
lands, for " al ye tym yat ye land is in warde till 
us," at a rent of forty shillings annually. This 
shows that John Swinton was dead, and his heir 
a minor, wherefore the superior lords, the prior 
and convent of Coldinghame, had the right to take 
the profits of the lands till the heir's majority. 
This interesting MS. is soon to be printed by the 
Grampian Club, under the editorship of "A. S. A.," 
a gentleman not a stranger in these columns. 



As one of the principal City thoroughfares, with 
many historical associations. Fleet Street has been 
brought prominently under notice by Mr. Noble 
and others ; and its frays, pageants, churches, 
celebrated houses, and still more celebrated resi- 
dents, have each in turn received a full measure 
of attention. But, as it has been pointed out, 
Fleet Street, wealthy as it is in these respects, is 
rich also in another way in the number of its 
courts, branching out on both sides, and not by 
any means to be confounded with the narrow pas- 
sages remaining in the neighbourhood, and known 
as alleys. 

These courts, originally named, for the most 
part, from the signs of taverns or other well-known 
nouses to be found in days of yore between Fleet 
Bridge and Temple Bar, are twenty-three in num- 
ber, and may be roughly described as cricket-bat 
shaped, with the handles turned towards the main 
thoroughfare. Their titles show, as might be 
expected, a great diversity, and therefore it is 
somewhat remarkable that, while we find the 
Crane, Falcon, Popinjay (Poppin), and Hen and 
Chickens, as well as the Red Lion, Boar's Head, 
the Hind, and the Hare, there exists at the same 
time no allusion to fish of any kind not even to 
the extent of a solitary mermaid. Royalty is 
represented by Three King Court and Crown 
Court ; while episcopacy appears in references to 
the Mitre, St. Dunstan, Salisbury, and Peter- 
borough. The Bell also seems to have an eccle- 
siastical significance, and the Bolt may be assumed 
to pertain to martial matters or the chase, or both. 
The classical student is conciliated by allusions to 
Apollo and Hercules' Pillars ; and family names 
are discerned in Child's Place and in Pleydell and 
Johnson's Courts. Finally, to wind up the list, 
Racquet Court and Wine Office Court speak to us 
of recreation, and serve to enforce the old warning 
concerning the deteriorating effect of all work and 
no play. 

Touching the court last named, a story is told 

s. IX. JAN. 12, 78.] 


which, as it is not given in Mr. Noble's interesting 
volume, may be worth recording. It is said that 
the brilliant and facetious Dr. Maginn had, upon 
41 certain occasion, been dining out, and was pro- 
ceeding homeward, when he was suddenly brought 
to a standstill by what may be called, in the lan- 
guage of history, " an intestine commotion ending 
in a general rising." Whilst steadying himself by 
leaning for support against Temple Bar, he was 
accosted by a stranger, who inquired the way to 
Wine Office Court. "My dear sir," said the 
doctor, with a rueful pleasantry, " allow me to 
express my great regret that I am unable to fur- 
nish the information you seek. Unfortunately I 
do not know Wine Office Court, but there," 
pointing to the roadway, "is wine off' his stomach." 
Up to the commencement of the present cen- 
tury the majority of the Fleet Street courts was 
composed of private houses, occupied for the most 
part by persons of fairly good position, who com- 
bined a liking for city life with a taste for peace 
and quietness, and who could say with Cowper : 
" "Tis pleasant, through the loopholes of retreat, 
To peep at such a world ; to see the stir 
Of the great Babel, and not feel the crowd ; 
To hear the roar she sends through all her gates 
At a safe distance, where the dying sound 
Falls a soft murmur on th' uninjur'd ear." 

But this has all been changed, and trade, growing 
too big for the crowded highway, has pushed up 
side streets and through other openings, and thus 
it has come to pass that the old residents, with 
their families, have long since fled to the suburbs 
or more distant places, and the once retired spots, 
where trees were planted and gardens cultivated, 
have been given up to printers, engravers, binders, 
and other zealous caterers for the ever-increasing 
demands of a book-coveting and newspaper-loving 
public. WM. UNDERBILL. 

Lausanne Road, Peckhatn. 

JOHN KEATS. In The Life and Letters of John 
Keats (Moxon, 1867), Lord Houghton says at 
p. 3, "He [Keats] was born on October 29, 1795"; 
and in a foot-note to the statement : 

"This point, which has been disputed (Mr. Leigh 
Hunt making him a year .younger), is decided by the 
proceedings in Chancery on the administration of his 
effects, where he is said to have come of age in October, 
1816 (llawlings v. Jennings, June 3, 1825)." 
In the shorter memoir prefixed to The Poetical 
Works of John Keats (Moxon, 1868), Lord 
Houghton repeats the same date (p. x). On look- 
ing through Leigh Hunt's papers to-day, I found 
a, copy of The Literary Pocket-Booh; or, Com- 
panion for the Lover of Nature and Art (C. & J. 
Oilier), for the year 1821, which belonged to Mrs. 
Leigh Hunt, and on the fly-leaf of which is written, 
by Leigh Hunt : " To Marian Hunt, from her 
affectionate husband." In the pages for diary 

Mrs. Hunt has entered the birthdays of her 
numerous friends, such as 

January 22. " Lord Byron." 

February 10. " Mr. Lamb, born 1775." 

March 3. " Mr. Godwin." 

April 10. " Mr. Hazlit." 

April 27. " Mrs. Wolstonecroft." 

May 24. "Mr. Hogg." 

July 4. " Mr. Shelley born 1793." 

August 17. " Mrs. Novello." 

August 30. " Mrs. Shelly." 

September 6. "Mr. Novello." 

October 18. " Mr. Peacock." 

October 19. Mr. Hunt." 
And under date Monday, October 29, is, "Mr. 
Keats, born 1796 ; told me by himself at the time 
I entered the date in a former book." It was 
doubtless on this authority that Hunt, apud Lord 
Houghton, made Keats " a year younger" than his 
noble biographer. I am aware that a man cannot 
be regarded as able to give conclusive or even the 
best evidence of the date of his own birth, but it 
is interesting to know Keats's own belief in the 
matter, and in the absence of any certificate this 
is not without a certain value. Was a certificate 
of Keats's baptism (certificates of birth did not 
then exist) produced in the Chancery case 1 If so, 
a copy of it is easily attainable, or a biographer 
might do what Mr. Charles Kent has recently 
done, with the assistance of the Rev. Dr. Vaughan, 
in the case of Charles Lamb. In the absence of 
any documentary evidence, I should say that this 
entry by Mrs. Leigh Hunt is of some importance. 
I may add that under Friday, February 23, Mrs. 
Hunt has entered, " Mr. Keats died at Rome," 
" 1821 " being added by her in pencil. Under 
November 21 we get "Mr. Proctor"; and 
December 3, "Miss Lamb, 1764." In their due 
chronological order Mrs. Hunt has also entered the 
dates of the birth of her children, with, in most 
cases, the place of birth added. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

" WHIG " AND " TORY." In that curiously 
illustrative book, London in the Jacobite Times, it 
gays in vol. ii. p. 352 : 

" Lord Marchmont thought Johnson had distinguished 
himself by being the first man who had brought Whig 
and Tory into a dictionary." 

Now does this mean that Johnson was the first to 
give what his lordship thought the correct defini- 
tion, or that his dictionary was the first that 
contained these words? Johnson's Dictionary, 
according to Croker, was published on April 15, 
1755. Now I have before me 

" Dictionarium Britannicum, or a more Compleat 
Universal Etymological English Dictionary than any 
Extant. The Whole Revis'd and Improv'd by N. Bailey. 
London, printed for T. Cox at the Lamb, under the 
Royal Exchange, 1730." 
In this I find : 



[5th g. IX. JAN. 12, 78. 

" Whig, one of a party opposite to the Tories." 
" Whiggish (Sax. Whey) because (as some say) the 
name Whig was first given to the Field-Meeters in Scot- 
land, whose chief diet was sour milk a nickname the 
opposite to that of Tory, and is applied to those that 
were against the Court' interest in the time of King 
Charles IT., King James II, &c., and for it in the reign 
of King William and King George." 

" Tory, a name which the Protestants in Ireland gave 
to those Irish robbers, &c., that were^ outlaw'd for 
robbery and murder; also, the enemies of King Charles L, 
accusing him of favouring the rebellion and massacre 
of the Protestants in Ireland, gave his partizans the 
name of Tories; but of late the name has been trans- 
mitted to those that affect the style of High Churchmen, 
and since the death of King James II. to the partizans 
of the Chevalier de St. George." 
Is this the first edition of Bailey's Dictionary? 
Can any one give a definition published before 
1730? CLARRY. 

MARIA. The following extract, describing the 
rites observed at the wedding of Charles I. and 
Henrietta Maria, may fitly find a corner for itself 
in " N. & Q." It is taken from the treatise 
by Pope Benedict XIV., De Synod. Diceces., 
Eomse, MDCCLXVII., lib. vi. cap. v. 5 (vol. i. 
p. 154) :- 

" In Collationibus Ecclesiasticis Parisiensibus de 
Matrimonio, lorn. iii. lib. i. collat 2, 5, exhibetur ritus 
quo celebratae f'uerunt nuptiae inter Henricketam e Regio 
Francorum sanguine Principem, et Carolum 1., Magnae 
Britanniae Regem, quibus Apostolicam dispensationem 
Urbanus Papa VIII. in eum finem concesserat : quse 
nuptise descriptae habeiitur etiarn in Historia, seu Com- 
mentario, cui titulus Mercurius Gallicus, torn. ii. p. 359. 
Warrant itaque, matrimonium inter praadictam Catholi- 
cam Principem, & hzeretici Regis Procuratorem, extra 
Ecclesiam contractual fuisse ad limina Ecclesiae Metro- 
politans Parisiensis coram Cardinale magno Franciae 
Eleemosynario, a quo tamen benedictio nuptialis data 
non fuit: deinde Britannici Regis Procuratorem novam 
nuptam deduxisse usque ad ingressum Chori: ibi vero a 
prsedicto Cardinale celebratam solemni ritu fuisse 
Missam, adstantibus Rege, & Regina Franciae, & nova 
Magnae Britanniaa Regina, ac universa Regia Familia : 
sed praedictum Regis Anglias Procuratorem, quamvis 
ipse Catholicus esset, cum personam gereret Principis 
Anglicanas sectae addicti, in proximum Archiepiscopi 
Palatium interim secesisse, donee Missa terminaretur; 
qua demum expleta, ad reducendam ab Ecclesia Regiriam 

The proxy for Charles I. was the Due de 
Chevereux. JOHNSON BAILY. 

TOWN CROSSES. In a minute book belonging to 
the town of Melton-Mowbray, Leicestershire, I 
find the following as to two of these, formerly 
standing at the principal entrances to the town : 

"1584. It'm. The stockstone at Thorpe Crosse was 
sold to John Wythers for towe pense, and to plante or 
sett one Ashe tree or a thorne, and to renewe the same 
till yt please god theye growe. 

" It'm. The stocke stone at Kettlebye Crosse w l one 
stone standinge is solde to Willm Trigge for fyve shillings, 
and he to sett a Tree and husbond yt till yt growe as above- 

In addition to the above, the " stock stone " of 
the " Sage-cross " was standing a few years ago- 
(and may be there still) in the Beast Market, now- 
called Sherrard Street. 


The Bank, Leicester. 

As Marrat, in his History of Lincolnshire, vol. i. 
p. 226, only gives part of the monumental inscrip- 
tion on the Wymberley monument in Pinchbeck 
Church, and as now the inscription is wholly 
illegible, it seems but fitting to place on record 
in " N. & Q." the copy made of it by my ancestor,. 
Maurice Johnson, the antiquary, in 1735. The- 
inscription is as follows : 

" Orta 
Gulielmo Welde generoso Cestrensi 

Dorotheas Georgii Wright, Cant, Equitis 

Gulielmi Wimberli armigh. hujus co. et parochise 

Ssrum Innocentium die 

Chori triumphantis JEmula, 

suam sibi nee minoris Innoceritiaj 

stolam induta Primo puerperio 

ad coelitis emigravit 

quicquid habuit terrae hinc totum juxta deposuit 

aetatis anno 25 salutis lo'56. 
Tarn gloriose resurgat quam pulchre occubuit." 

Arms, Quarterly, 1 and 4, Azure, two bars, and in- 
chief three bucks' heads caboshed or Wymber- 
ley ; 2 and 3, Ermine, a fess nebulee sable 
Sharpe ; impaling Azure, a fess nebulee between 
three crescents ermine Weld. On the base of 
the monument : 

" Edam prae memoria Bevillis Johannis filiis Thomas 
Wymberley armigeri hinc proxime in vicina ecclesiae- 
Spaldensi in-hurnati anno MDCXVI. necnon Elizabethae et 

Franciscae uxorum 

filiabus Gulielmo Welbye 

prsenobili ordine Balnei Equitis Eque villa 


qui hie juxta jacerit sub spe 

On a blue marble, with the arms of Wymberley 
only, was inscribed on the floor of Pinchbeck 
Church : 

" Xuvias 

Hie deposuit Bevill Wymberley 

de Weston 


Obiit 14 die Mali anno { $ 20>rt 


case recently brought before the magistrates of 
a town in Worcestershire, one of the witnesses 
testified that certain events occurred at " a sweeten- 
ing job." Being asked what he meant by that 
phrase, he explained to the bench that " a 
sweetening job" was the festivity that followed 
upon a wedding. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

5th S. IX. JAN. 12,78.] 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

Samuel Pegge published transcripts of two MSS., 
copiously annotated, in one volume. One of these 
MSS. was the " Annales Elire de Trickenham," 
from Lambeth Library, and the other, " Com- 
pendium Compertorum per Doctorem Legh et 
Doctorem Layton in Visitacione regia provincie 
Eboracen. et Episcopatu Coventris et Lichf. 
cum aliis," from the library of the Duke of Devon- 
shire at Chatsworth. This volume, which is 
described as a 4to. in the Parentalia of Dr. Pegge's 
son, but as an 8vo. in Nichols's Anecdotes, is not 
in the British Museum, nor, strange to say, is 
there a copy at Chatsworth. I have failed to find 
a copy in several likely quarters, and as I am want- 
ing to see the book for immediate reference, and 
for collation with the Chatsworth MS., I should 
be greatly obliged to any of your readers who 
could refer me to any public library where it can 
be found, or who would be kind enough to lend 
me the book for a few days. J. CHARLES Cox. 

Chevin House, Belper. 

BiRDiNG-PiECE. Will some one be so good as 
to explain the difference between a birding-piece 
and a fowling-piece 1 That the terms were not 
synonymous is evident, for in a statement of arms, 
armour, and ammunition seized from dangerous 
and disaffected persons in 1684, we find that both 
descriptions of arms were taken from the same per- 
son, e.g. from "William Clutterbuck, of Estin- 
ton," co. Glouc., were seized, inter alia, one 
" fowling gunn " and one " birding gunn " ; from 
" Mr. Charles Trinder, of Burton on y e Water," in 
the same county, were taken, inter alia, one 
" fowling peice " and one " birding peice " ; and so 
from many others. Moreover, we find the names 
occurring together in old inventories. 

Bicknor Court, Coleford, Glouc. 

INSTITUTIONS. Professor Max Miiller (Science of 
Language, eighth edit., vol. i. p. 246) claims that 
the Aryans, before their first separation, had ad- 
vanced to a state of agricultural civilization (see 
also Bunsen's Egypt, vol. iv. p. 562). Now we 
know from the researches of Sir Henry Maine and 
others something about this common agricultural 
civilization ; the essential feature being the village 
community or cultivating household. In the earliest 
periods the whole community is shifted, at certain 
seasons, from one tract of land to another ; in the 
later periods, the allotments incident to every house- 
holder only, the village itself remaining fixed. In- 

stances of the former are found among the Afghans 
(Bengal Asiatic Society Journal, No. Hi., 1862, 
p. 270) ; of the latter, throughout India (Maine's 
Vill. Com., pomm), Russia (Rev. J. Long's Vill. 
Com. in India and Russia], Ireland (Maine's Early 
Hist, of Inst.}, England (Nasse's Agric. Com. of 
Eng.), Iceland (Dasent's Introd. to the Story of 
Burnt Njal), and generally through Germany and 
Scandinavia (see, for instance, J. S. Mill's Polit. 
Econ., chapter on peasant proprietors, and House 
of Commons Commercial Reports, No. 1590 (1876), 
p. 457, et seq., and Von Maurer's German works). 

I should be glad if any of your correspondents 
would furnish me with a list of common Aryan 
words indicating this common Aryan agricultural 
civilization. Professor Miiller, at vol. ii. p. 236, 
gives " corn " and " tree " ; but the list should 
surely be of some length. It should include words 
denoting some system of government, and perhaps 
the method of cultivation. 


he of Italian descent ? His arms, as given by Sir 
B. Burke : Per saltier, az. and gu., a lion pass, 
guard, or ; crest, a lion's head guard, or, between 
two wings ar., each charged with a fleur-de-lis az. 
Now I have an old " coat of arms," given me lately 
by a friend, which was borne by an Arthur Young, 
who was said to have been descended from an 
Italian family of rank that fled from Italy, on 
account of religious persecution, and settled in 
England. His arms : Gu., a lion statant passive 
or; crest, a lion's head guard, or, between two 
wings ar., each charged with a fleur-de-lis az. At 
the bottom are the initials A. Y. and the date 
1689, all painted on parchment. 

I should like to know whether, from the fact of 
their crests being identically the same, it shows 
conclusively a relationship. S. W. B. 

U.S. America. 

ANNIBAL CARACCI painted a dead Christ at 
the grave, surrounded with four women. Where 
is the original, and what its history ] The engraver 
was Jean Louis Roullet. I saw recently here a 
fine specimen of this masterpiece of drawing and 
engraving. If I am well informed only three 
copies are known to exist. Where are they, and 
who are their fortunate owners? On the lower 
left corner of the engraving are the words : 
" Annibal Caracci pinxit, Joan. Lud. Roullet del. 
& sculp*. Cum privilegio regis." G. A. M. 

by James Cririe, D.D. (Dumfries, Dalton), a large 
quarto vol. published in 1803. In his preface the 
author acknowledges that he has drawn his 
materials chiefly from the Statistical History of 
Scotland, but the work is curious as containing 



[5'hg. IX. JAN. 12/78. 

also " Loch Kettrin, a poem in which, being a work 
of fancy, the reins of imagination are held with 
a firmer hand." There appears to be a similarity 
of treatment between this Loch Kettrin and Sgott's 
Lady of the Lake, which was not published until 
1810. Is anything further known of Dr. Cririe, and 
is this his only production 1 C. H. 


AURORA BOREALIS. It is said that there is no 
natural phenomenon unnoticed by Shakespear. 
Are the Northern Lights the exception to prove 
the rule, or can any of your readers refer me to any 
mention of them by our great poet ? 



HERALDIC. The arms borne by Eichard Owen, 
of Morben, co. Montgomery, who, in the early 
part of the seventeenth century, married the 
heiress of Lewis Owen, of Peniarth, co. Merioneth, 
are given in Burke's Landed Gentry as Gules, a 
lion rampant reguardant or ; and by others as 
Argent, a cross flory engrailed sable between four 
Cornish choughs proper, with a boar's head in chief. 
What were the actual arms and crest borne by 
the said Richard Owen, of Morben 1 



Who was the prelate that declared Eaffaelle to 
be a less valuable member of society than a pin- 
maker ? C. A. WARD. 

May fair. 

bought some books in a Dublin sale room. The 
catalogues of Mr. Jones, the auctioneer, included 
some thousand volumes from Coimbra. I under- 
stood there were 100,000 volumes consigned to 
him, and many thousands to other book salesmen. 
What were the circumstances which led to the 
dispersion of such a large library, which contained 
many choice and valuable books ? 



" THREESTONES." What meaning is attached 
(Druidical or otherwise) to the word " threestones/' 
or, as it is in Scotland, " threestanes" 1 M. G. 

ROBOTHAM. Arms were granted in 1560 to 
Robert Robotham, of " Roskell, in the co. of York, 
for services done to K. Edward VI. 1. Where- 
abouts is Roskell ? 2. What were the services 
rendered, and where are they recorded ? 3. Where 
are the pedigrees before that date ? 


Woodbine Cottage, Leeds. 

THE WORD " READ." What a perplexing word 
is "read"! When I meet with it I frequently 

take it in the present, when it is intended in the 
past sense, and vice versa. Lord Byron used to- 
write the word in the past tense " redde," but his 
example has never been followed. Ought not the 
past form to be either " red," after the analogy of 
the verb " to lead," or " readed," after that of the 
verbs " to bead " and " to knead " ? J. W. W. 

information respecting this family ? Richard Green- 
field married a sister of the Rev. Dr. Odam, Rector 
of Charleton, Devon. The family resided near 
Exeter about the year 1775. They held property 
in Tedburn St. Mary and in Charleton, Devon. 
Are there any descendants of the family now 
living, either male or female ? 


Kilvey, Swansea. 

liament for 1634 and 1662 he was member for 
county Down, and was afterwards created Earl of 
Ardglass. Was he of the same family as the Pro- 
tector, or related in any way ? E. Q. 

Claughton, Cheshire. 

LONDON FOGS. Is there any mention of London 
fogs to be found earlier than the following, from 
Evelyn's Diary for the extraordinarily severe 
winter of 1683/4, which is quoted in Lady Russell's 
Life, vol. i. p. 115 I 

" London, by reason of the excessive coldness of the 
aire hindering the ascent of the smoke, was so fill'd with 
the fuligenous steame of the sea-coale, that hardly could 
one see crosse the streetes, and this filling the lungs with. 
its grosse particles exceedingly obstructed the breast, se- 
as one could hardly breath." 

Can any of your readers refer me to any satis- 
factory account of this disagreeable phenomenon ? 
Is it found elsewhere, as in Manchester, in the 
same intensity ? If not, can it be traced in part 
to the natural features of London, e.g., to the hills 
on the north or to the river 'I Has it been observed 
to depend at all on the state of the wind or of the 
tide? R. E. B. 


marry ? Where did she reside ? When did she 
die ? PHYLLIS. 

HERALDIC. Whose arms are the following ? 
Sable, a chevron ermine, between three beavers 
passant argent, collared argent and sable. Crest : 
On a coronet, a pelican with wings elevated and 
vulning her breast, argent, collared argent and 
sable. Motto : " Assiduitas." They are on a 
book-plate which has been in my family about 
a century. Probably a Cheshire or Derbyshire 
family. " W. H. 

THE CLUBS OF DUBLIN. Will some kind cor- 
respondent of " N. & Q." direct me to information 

5t- S. IX. JAN. 12, 78.] 



on the above subject 1 I allude particularly to 
Dublin club life in the last century, and especi- 
ally in the last half of it. A speedy reply will 
be much appreciated by THE INQUIRER. 

Pioz/i, writing in 1816 (Whalley's Memoirs, 1863, 
vol. ii. p. 430), mentions the proposed crusade 
against Turkey of three great Christian powers, 
and says : 

" I think there ia an account somewhere that Har- 
vey, who first discovered the circulation of the blood, 
did, in the year 1580, tell, in some lonj?-forgotten treatise 
of his, how an Eastern prophecy had before then assured 
mankind that a second attack of united Europeans 
would be decidedly fatal to Constantinople." 

Probably Mrs. Piozzi was confounding together 
William Harvey, 1569-1658, the great anatomist, 
and Gabriel Harvey, 1545-1630, the caustic 
Elizabethan wit ; but what was the prophecy to 
which she refers, and where is it to be found 1 


reputed author of this work is Touchard-Lafosse. 
Is this a real or an assumed name ; and where can 
I obtain any information concerning him ? 

J. K. 

WAGES AND POPULATION. Can you refer me 
to a report of a speech by the present or late 
Lord Derby, at a gathering of agriculturists, in 
which the statement is made that a permanent 
rise in agricultural labourers' wages was improbable, 
unless they adopted means for the limitation of 
their numbers, as had been done by the French 
peasantry? P. E. 

INDIA-RUBBER SHOES. I always supposed these 
useful articles a quite modern invention ; but in 
Miss Roberts's Women of the Last Days of Old 
France, she states (p. 382) that about 1796 a 
French emigre in Russia obtained resources from 
" manufacturing india-rubber shoes." 

W. M. M. 

BOOK-PLATE. Can any collector give me any 
information respecting a book-plate which repre- 
sents a man blowing down an arquebuse, with 
"R. T. Pritchett" at the bottom of it ? The engraving 
looks antique, but the paper is apparently modern! 


I find some doggerel verses about the Cock and 
Bull and Bear, quoted at the time of the Crimean 
war, and predicting the fall of Turkey twenty 
years afterwards 1 

2. What is the prophecy about a certain gate 
at Constantinople through which the "red Giaours" 
are to enter 1 De Quincey alludes to it. 

3. Is it true that the green flag of the prophet 
is lost? H. A. B. 

ST. ISHMAEL. I notice two churches dedicated 
to this saint in the diocese of St. Davids. Wa 
he a British saint, or by whom was Ishmael 
canonized? W. F. R. 

GOW. Can you procure me information about hi* 
pedigree ? He was born March 4, 1799 or 1800, 
and married a daughter of James Boaz, accountant,. 
Glasgow. JOHN BURNET, Jun. 

TIGER DUNLOP. In or about 1820 an energetic- 
character was known to old Indians in London by 
this name, and edited, I think, a literary journal. 
Can any correspondent name him and the title of 
his work, as well as the reason for his being so 
designated? J. 0. 

PEMBROKESHIRE. Camden says, "That part of 
the country which lies beyond the [Milford] 
Haven is called by the Britains Rhos," or, as he 
says further on, "Little England beyond Wales." 
What are the present names of the principal 
parishes of that district ? H. G. C. 


" I tremble from the edge of life, to dare 

The dark and fatal leap, having no faith," &c. 
I cannot ascertain who is the author of these lines, and 
the date is not unimportant, because they resemble some 
well-known lines of the Laureate's In Memoriam. 

J. R. S. C. 

" Thus painters write their names at Co." 
" Where the gaunt mastiff, growling at the gate." 
" That strain I heard was of a higher mood." 
" But though the treacherous tapster Thomas 
Hangs a new Angel two doors from us." 
" How war may best upheld, 
Move by her two main nerves, iron and gold, 
In all her equipage " (sic). 
All from Burke's Regicide Peace. S. 


EAST TO WEST, A.D. 476-1492. 

(5 th S. viii. 369, 435.) 

To the works already mentioned I may add : 

Ameilhon. Histoire du commerce et de la navigation 
des Egyptiens, sous le rdgne des Ptolemees. Paris, 1766, 

Arriani Periplus Ponti Euxini, et Maris Erythraei 
Periplus, Gr. et Lat. cum comment. Guil. Stuckii. 
Genevas, Vignon, 1577, fol. 

Audiat (L.). Pelerinage en Terre sainte au xv e siecle. 
Paris, 1870, 8vo. 

Bayer (Th. S.). Historia regni Graecorum Bactriani 
in qua simul Graecorum in India coloniarum vetus< 
memoria explicatur. Ace. Chr. Th. Waltheri doctrina 
temporum Indica. Petropoli, 1738, 4to. 

Benjamin Tudelenois. Itinerarium bebraice. Con- 
stantinopolis, 1543, 12mo. Cum versione latina et notis- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. u* a. ix. Ja . 12, is. 

Const. 1'Empereur, Lugd; Batav. ex off. Elzeviriana, 
1633, 8vo.; also, 32mo., same date, 2 vols. 

Brascha (Santo). Tutto il suo Itinerario di giorno in 
giorno al sanctissima cita de Jerusalem nell' anno 1480. 
Leonardus Pachel et Uldericus Scinczerizeler, 1481. 4to., 
black letter. 

Breydenbach (Bern. de). Sanctarum peregrinationum 
in montem Syon, ad venerandum Christi sepulchrum in 
Jerusalem opusculum. In civitate Moguntina, per 
Erhardum Renwich, 1436. Fol., black letter. Maps 
of Venice, Paros, Corfu, Modon, Candia, Rhodes, and 
plan of Jerusalem. There are several other editions. 

Breydenbach (B. de). Le Sainct Voiage et pelerinage 
de la Cite Saincte de Hierusalem fait et copose en latin. 

Traslate en frangoys par frere Jeha de Heroin. Lyon, 

1489. Sm. fol., woodcuts. 

Brunet de Presle (W.). Recherches sur les etablisse- 
ments des Grecs en Sicile. Paris, irnpr. royale, 1845, 
8vo., map. 

Brugsch (H.). Examen critique du livre de M. Chabas 
intitule Voyage d'un Egyptien en Syrie, en Phenicie, en 
Palestine, &c., au xiv siecle avant notre ere Paris, 
1867, large 8vo. 

Capodilista (Gabriele). Itinerario di Terra Santa, e 
del monte Sinai. 4to., no place nor date. [That journey 
was made in 1458.] 

Clermont-Ganneau (Ch.). Observations sur quelques 
points des cotes de la Phenicie et de la Palestine, d'apres 
1'itineraire du pelerin de Bordeaux. Paris, 18^5, 8vo. 

Depping (Geo. Bernard). Histoire du commerce entre 
le Levant et 1'Europe, depuis les croisades jusqu'a lafon- 
dation des colonies d'Amerique. Paris, Treuttel & 
Wiirtz, 1830, 2 vols., 8vo. 

Derenbourg (J.). Essai sur 1'histoire et la geographic 
de la Palestine d'apres les Thalmuds et les autres sources 
rabbiniques. Paris, 1867, 8vo. 

Essai historique sur le commerce et la navigation de 
la mer Noire. Paris, 1805, 8vo. (by M. Anthoine). 

Fabri (F. F.). Evagatorium in Terrae sanctse, Arabia) 
et JEgypti peregrinationem, ed. C. E. Hassler. Stutt- 
gardiaj, 1843-49, 3 vols., 8vo. 

Gail (fils). Dissertation sur le periple de Scylax, et 

sur 1'epoque presumee de sa redaction. Paris, 1825, 8vo. 

Guillain. Documents sur 1'histoire, la geographie, et 

le commerce de 1'Afrique orientale. Paris, 1856-57, 

3 vols., 8vo., maps. 

Hasselquist (F.). Voyage dans le Levant, contenant 
des observations sur 1'histoire naturelle, la medecine, 
1'agriculture, le commerce, et particulierement sur 
1'histoire naturelle de la Terre-Sainte. Paris, 1769, 
2 vols., 12mo. 

Henin (Chevalier d'). Histoire du commerce, de la 
navigation, et des colonies des anciens dans la mer Noire, 
traduit de 1'italien de Formaleorri. Venise, 1769, 2 vols., 
sm. 8vo. 

He?e (Joan, de, presbyter). A Hierusalem itinerarius 
describens di-positiones terrarum, moritium et aquarum, 
&c. Davetrie, par Richardum Pafraet, 1499. 4to., black 
letter; and other editions. 

Huet. Histoire du commerce et de la navigation des 
anciens. Lyon, 1763, 8vo. 

Ibn Batoutah. Voyage a travers 1'Afrique septen 
trionale et 1'Egypte au commencement du xiv e siecle 
public par M. Cherbonneau. Paris, 1852, 8vo. 

Ibn Khordadbeh. Le livre des routes et des pro 
vinces, public, trad., et annote par Barbier de Meynard 
Paris, 1865, 8vo. 

Itineraires de la Terre Sainte, des xiii e , xiv e , xv c , xvi 
et xvii e siecle, traduits de 1'hebreu, par E. Carmoly 
Bruxelles, 1847, 8vo., illustrations. 

Itinerarium Portugallensium e Lusitania in Indiam e 
inde in occidentem et demum ad aquilonem ex vernaculi 

ermone in latinum traductum, interprete Arcliangelo 
Madrignano mediolanense, 1508, sm. fol. 

Jardot. Revolutions des peuples de 1'Asie Mineure. 
nfluence de leurs migrations sur 1'etat social de 1'Europe. 
'aris. 1839, 2 vols., 8vo. 

Jolibois. Dissertation sur 1'Atlantide. Trevoux, 
843, 8vo. 

Labat (Dr. L.). Memoires sur 1'Orient ancien et 
moderne. Paris, 1840, large 8vo. ports, and map. 

La Brocquiere (Bertrandon de). Travels to Palestine, 

ind his return from Jerusalem overland to France in 

432 and 1433. Trans, by Th. Johnes from the French 

published by Legrand d'Aussy. At the Hafod press, 

lenderson, 1807, large 8vo., plates. 

Larcher. L'expedition de Cyrus dans 1'Asie superieure 
t la retraite des dix mille. Paris, 1778, 2 vols., 12mo., 

Lettres sur 1'Atlantide de Platon et sur 1'ancienne 
listoire de 1'Asie. Londres, 1779, 2 vols. 8vo. map. 

Ludolphus, rector in Suchen. De terra sancta et 
tinere hierosolymitano, et de statu ejus et aliis mirabili- 
us, quce in mari conspiciuntur videlicet mediterraneo. 
3m. fol., black letter, no place nor date. Several other 

Mauroy. Du commerce des peuples de 1'Afrique sep- 
;entrionale dans 1'antiquite, le moyen-age, et les temps 
nodernes, compare au commerce des Arabes de nos 
ours. Paris, 1845, Svo. 

Mauroy. Precis de 1'histoire et du commerce de 
'Afrique septentrionale. Paris, 1852, Svo. 

Michel (Francisque). Recherches sur le commerce, 
a fabrication et 1'usage des etoffes de soie, d : or et 
i'argent, et autres tissus precieux en Occident, princi- 
nalement en France, pendant le moyen age. Paris, 
2 vols., sm. 4to. 

Murad (Mgr.). Notice sur 1'origine de la nation 
Maronite, et sur ses rapports avec la France, sur la 
nation Druze et sur les diverses populations du Mont- 
Liban. Paris, 1844, Svo. 

(Eisner. Des effets de la religion de Mohammed, 
pendant les trois premiers siecles de sa fondation. Paris, 
1810, Svo. 

Oppert (J.). Memoires sur les rapports de 1'Egypte 
et de 1'Assyrie dans 1'antiquite, eclaircis par 1'etude des 
textes curieiformes. Paris, 1869, 4to. 

Pastoret (de). Dissertation sur 1'influence des lois 
maritimes des Rhodiens sur la marine des Grecs et des 
Remains, et de 1'influence de la marine sur la puissance 
de ces deux peuples. Paris, 1784, Svo. 

Pelerinage (un) en Terre Sainte au xv e siecle. Paris, 
1860, Svo. (Journey of Guillaume d'Orange.) 

Pugei de Saint-Pierre. Histoire des Druses, peuple 
du Liban, forme par une colonie de Francois. (Paris) 
1762, 12mo., plates. 

Rambaud (A.). L'empire grec au x e siecle. Con- 
stantin Porphyrogenete. Paris, 1870. 

Ramsay. Les voyages de Cyrus. Paris, 1727, 2 vols., 

Reinaud (J. T.). Relation des voyages faits par les 
Arabes et les Per^ans dans 1'Inde et la Chine dans le 
ix c siecle de 1'ere chretienne. Texte arabe et fran^ais. 
Paris, 1S45, 2 vols., 18mo. 

Reinaud. Relations politiques et commerciales ^de 
1'empire romain avec 1'Asie Orientale pendant les cinq 
premiers siecles de 1'ere chretienne. Paris, Impr. im- 
periale, 1863, 8vo., maps. 

Relation des voyages de Saewulf a Jerusalem et en 

Terre Sain te, pendant les annees 1102 et 1103, publiee 

dapres un MS. de Cambridge. Paris, 1839, 4to. 

Rey. Etudes pour servir a 1'histoire des Chales. 

Paris, 1S23, Svo. 

. IX. JAN. 12, 78.] 



Robiou (F.). Itineraire des Dix-Mille. Etude topo 
graphique avec trois cartes. Paris, 1875, 8vo. 

Sauvaire (H.). Histoire de Jerusalem et d'Hebron 
depuis Abraham jusqu'a la fin du xy e siecle de J. C 
Fragments de la Chronique de Moudjir-ed-Dyn. Paris 
1876, Svo. 

Sayons (Ed.). Les origines et 1'epoque paienne de 
1'histoire des Hongrois. Paris, 1874, 8vo. 

Thurot (Al.). Manuel de 1'histoire ancienne consi 
deree sous le rapport des constitutions, du commerce, ei 
des colonies des divers etats de 1'antiquite, traduit de 
I'Allernand de A. H. L. Heeren. Paris, 1836, large 8vo. 

Tucher (Hans). Wallfart und Reise in das gelobte 
Land. Hannsen Schonsperger, Augspurg, 1482, fol. ; or 
Nuremberg, same date, fol. There are several other 

Vincent (Dean). History of the Commerce and Navi- 
gation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean. 1807, 
2 vols., 4to., maps and plates. 

Vivien de Saint-Martin. Description historique et 
geographique de 1'Asie Mineure, comprenant les temps 
anciens, le rnoyen age, et les temps modernes, avec un 
precis detaille des voyages qui ont etc faits dans la 

Peninsule depuis 1'epoque des Croisades, precedee 

d'un tableau de 1'histoire geographique de 1'Asie depuis 
les plus anciens temps juequ'a nos jours. Paris, 1852, 
2 vols., 8vo., maps. 

Voyages faits en Terre-Sainte par Thetmar en 1217, et 
par Burchard de Strasbourg en 1175, 1189 ou 1225 ; par 
le baron Jules de Saint- Genois. 4to. 

Le saint voyage de Jerusalem, par le baron d'Anglure 
(1395). ^ Paris, 1858, sm. 8vo. 

Voyaige d'oultremer en Jherusalem par le seigneur de 
Caumont, 1'an 1418, public par le marquis de la Grange. 
Paris, 1858, 8vo., plates. 

Voyages faits principalement en Asie, dans les xii c , 
xiii e , xiv e , et xv e siecles ; avec une introduction par P. 
Bergeron. Leyde, 1729 ; or La Haye, 1735, 2 vols., 4to. 

Ayr Academy. 

JOHN COOKE, THE EEGICIDE (5 th S. viii. 407.) 
Ludlow says (Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 69) that 
" Mr;. John Coke (sic), late Chief Justice of Ireland, had 
in his younger years seen the best part of Europe, and 
at Rome had spoken with such liberty and ability 
against the corruptions of that court and church, that 
great endeavours were used there to bring him into that 
interest. He thought it no longer safe to continue 
among them, and therefore departed to Geneva, where 
he resided some months in the house of Signor Gio. 
Diodati, after which he returned to England and applied 
himself to the study of the law." 

In 1658 Cooko was living in England, and in a 
letter to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, H. Crom- 
well (Thurlow's State Papers, vii. 305), he explains 
why he had been so long absent from Ireland : 
" Intending all last year to have returned, had not 
my wife's consumptive condition and the death of 
my aged father retarded." There is also preserved 
in Thurlow (vol. vi. p. 666) a letter dated Dec. 9, 
1657, from Northampton, which is of some interest, 
though it contains no reference to his family. In 
that curious little volume, Rebels no Saints, 
London, 8vo., 1661, there are several letters of 
John Cooke's, one of which, dated Oct. 15, 1660, 
a day before his execution, contains these ex- 

pressions addressed to his little daughter, Free- 
love Cook : " Be obedient to thy dear mother, and 
good grandmother, and thy loving uncle and aunt 
Massey. Know that thy dear father is gone to 
Heaven to thy dear brother." There is a good 
deal of confusion in respect of his name in books 
of the time, being spelt Cook, Cooke, and Coke in 
English histories ; Couke and Cowke by Raguenet 
and Leti. EDWARD SOLLY. 

Noticing this query I have turned up the under- 
mentioned little vol., thinking it might supply 'an 
item about this notability in the direction required, 
but have been disappointed ; nevertheless, as it is 
a curiosity, perhaps you may deem it worth a niche 
in N. & Q. : 

" Monarchy no Creature of God's Making, &c. Where- 
in is proved by Scripture and Reason that Monarchicall 
Gov 1 is against the Minde of God. And that the Execu- 
tion of the late King was one of the Fattest Sacrifices 
that ever Queen Justice had. Being a Hue and Cry 
after Lady Liberty, which hath been ravished and stolne 
away by the Grand Potentates of the Earth : Principally 
Intended for the Undeceiving of some Honest Hearts, 
who like the poore lewes cry, Give us a King, thouprh 
they smart never so much for it. By lohn Cooke, late 
of Graves Inne, Esquire, Chief lustice of the Province of 
Munster, in Ireland," &c. 12mo., pp. 134. Printed at 
Waterford, in Ireland, by Peter le Pienne, in the Year 
of our Lord God 1651. 

There is a savagery in the title to this which 
proclaims the king-killer, Justice Cooke, and a 
corresponding fanaticism runs through the volume, 
exhibiting a Puritan of the severest type. It is 
introduced by an address "To the Supreme 
Authoritie of the three Nations, the Parliament of 
the Commonwealth of England," in a style not 
less rancorous, extending to twenty-seven leaves, 
and the whole is founded upon the king's speech 
in which he says, " I must avowe that I owe an 
accompt of my actions to none but God alone," 
and which is indeed Justice Cooke's text. In 
Rebels no Saints, 1661, there is a long account of 
Cooke's behaviour at and before execution, repre- 
senting him as glorying in the testimony he was 
bearing to justice, truth, and liberty, only in- 
cidentally alluding to my book : " As for that 
against monarchy," he says, " they will be ashamed 
;o oppose it." My query is, "Was the book really 
printed at Waterford, and by such a printer? 
The bibliographers say it was reprinted in 1652 ; 
Allibone, that another edition came out as lately 
is 1794 ; if so, the date might suggest it to have 
)een to forward the original purpose the down- 
"all of the monarchy. J. 0. 

If MR. STILLWELL is not already acquainted 
vith the Trials of the Regicides, Lond., 1724, he 

my see at pp. 298-328 a notice of " Mr. Justice 

3ooke during his Imprisonment in the Tower and 

Newgate, with his Speeches and Prayer upon the 

Ladder." There is also " A Letter to a Friend," 

. 310 ; " A Letter to his Wife," p. 322 ; and a 



[5th S. IX. JAN. 12, 78. 

" Letter to another Friend," p. 328. There are 
also " Some Additional Passages of Mr. Cooke," 
pp. 351-2, and " A Letter to his Daughter," p. 352. 
There is a reference by Cooke at p. 321 to spme 
account of himself in the Relation of his Passage 
by Sea from Wexford to King sale. 


Is MR. STILLWELL correct in styling the above 
a regicide ? His name is not amongst the signa- 
tures on the warrant to execute Charles I., and I 
am under the impression that only those whose 
signatures appear on the warrant were styled 
regicides. SYWL. 

CAROLS (5 th S. viii. 491.) In Parker's Glos- 
sary of Architecture, third ed., 1840, vol. i. p. 38, 
the term is thus noted : " Carol, carrol, carrel, 
carola (Lat. studiuni), a small closet or enclosure 
to sit in." 

I am well acquainted with the example in the 
cloisters of Chester Cathedral concerning which 
Mr. Parker writes, in his book entitled The 
Medieval Architecture of Chester, p. 28 : " In the 
west walk (of the cloisters) are the places prepared 
for the carols of the monks, or their studies, to sit 
and write in ; .... they were so called probably 
from their being square, carrels, or quarres." 

J. W. W. 

It seems that in some places carols was the name 
given to recesses in ancient cloisters where the 
monks studied and transcribed manuscripts. It is 
asked what is the derivation. In Gaelic cro has 
several meanings, among them a hut, a house ; -ol 
is the diminutive from caol, small ; in composi- 
tion the c is aspirated and loses its sound. In 
some cases a word may be said to be derived from 
another ; in other instances it may be said to be 
derivable from another : perhaps the latter way is 
the one here. The early Celtic Christian church 
was overlaid or superseded by the Eoman Catholic, 
and some terms from a Celtic source may have 
come into use. Some Celtic words begin in 
Gaelic with c, and in Cornish with t : the Gaelic 
cro, a house, is the "analogue of the very common 
Cornish word tre. THOMAS STRATTON. 

Carrells, carralls, caroles (Fr.), karils, quarrels, 
quadrils ; so called from their square shape. 

Mr. Parker, in his Glossary of Architecture, 
says: " Carola is applied to anyplace enclosed 
with skreens or partitions. In Normandy and 
elsewhere in France the rails themselves are termed 
caroles. Also this term was applied to the aisles 
of French churches which have skreened chapels 
on one side." T. F. E. 

Carol = quadrellus, a pew. 

J. T. M. 

(5 th S. viii. 406.) I have heard the workhouse 

called Bastile at Darlington ; and Lieut.-Col. 
Egerton Leigh's Cheshire Glossary contains : 

" Bastlls, the Poor House or Work House. Not used 
simply except as a synon-ym. Very common throughout 
England. Of course, the origin of the word would be 
;he French State prison, the Bastille, destroyed by the 
Paris mob in 1789." 

The word does not occur in Messrs. Nodal and 
Milner's Glossary of the Lancashire Dialect, nor 
does Halliwell record it with the above meaning 
attached to it. ST. SWITHIN. 

The term Bastille applied to the workhouse is 
not local. Forty years ago it was a general term 
through England. More, your correspondent may 
be informed that such use of the word did not 
arise from the " lower ten." With the change of 
the poor laws forty years and more ago appeared a 
large book on the English Bastilles, or a similar 
title comprising those words, by G. E. Wyther 
Baxter, if my memory is correct to each initial. 
The book was most voluminous, and most people 
would say now niost intemperate. Newspapers 
adopted the term, and it became at once popular 
and the one slang word for the new union-houses. 

W. G. W. 

I remember that every one in the part of 
Derbyshire where I lived in my young days called 
the workhouse " the Bastile." The workhouse was 
looked upon as a veritable prison, and it was con- 
sidered by many quite as great a disgrace to be 
obliged to go into the one as to be put into the 


In the days of my youth I always heard the 
Kidderminster workhouse spoken of as " the 
Bastile " by the lower classes ; and, since then, I 
have frequently heard the same misapplication of 
the word in various counties. 


(5 th S. viii. 409.) I think this the solution of 
D. C. E.'s question. Alice, eldest daughter and 
co-heiress of Sir Edward Apsley, and sister to the 
Edward Apsley who died a bachelor, did marry 
Sir John Butler, son and heir of Sir Oliver Butler, 
of Teston, Kent, who, however, died before his 
father and without issue. His widow married 
secondly George Fenwick, of Brinkburne, co. 
Northumberland, afterwards a colonel in the 
Parliamentarian forces. They had issue two 
daughters, named after two of their mother's 
Apsley aunts " Elizabeth " and "Dorothy." 
According to the Visitation of Northumberland, 
1666, the former married Sir Thos. Haslerig, of 
Noseley Hall, Bart., and had children. The latter 
married Sir Thos. Williamson, Knt. and Bart., 
of East Markham, Notts, and afterwards of North 
Wearmouth Hall, co. Durham. She died 1699, 

5 h S. IX. JAN. 12,78.] 



aged fifty-four. "Brunton" Hall is simply a mis- 
take for Brinkburne. " Lady Alice Boteler, wife 
of George Fenwick," as she is called on her tomb- 
stone in America, emigrated there with her second 
husband in 1G39. He was one of the company 
who held the patent of Connecticut, granted to 
the Earl of Warwick, in which Lord Say and Sele, 
Lord Brooke, Sir Arthur Haslerig, &c., were 
interested. Thos. Lechford, in his News from 
New England, 1641, says " Master Fenwike with 
the Lady Boteley " were living at Connecticut 
river's " mouth " in a fair house, and " well 
fortified : and one Master Higginson, a young 
man, their chaplain." The lady died shortly after 
the birth of her daughter Dorothy, Nov. 4, 1645, 
and was buried at Saybrook. Her remains were 
removed in 1870, to make room for a railway 
terminus, and reinterred in the presence of the 
principal inhabitants of that town ; and a long 
account of the ceremony, and some interesting 
particulars of her family, appeared in an American 

George Fenwick soon after returned to England, 
was governor of Berwick for the Parliament, 
married secondly Katherine, daughter of his old 
friend Sir Arthur Haslerig, of Noseley (who was 
also a Parliamentarian, and much connected with 
the North), and she survived him, but they had no 
children. Brinkburne passed into the possession 
of his brother, Claudius Fenwick, M.D., and his 
heirs. J. BOYD. 

Moor House. 

"THE LOUNGER" (5 th S. viii. 409.) This 
periodical was projected in 1785 at Edinburgh by 
Henry Mackenzie, the well-known author of The 
Man of Feeling. Together with a small band of 
literary friends, he brought out in 1779 a folio 
periodical called the Mirror, which lasted for two 
years, and has been frequently reprinted in 3 vols., 
12mo. In 1785 the idea was revived under the 
title of the Lounger, and 101 numbers were 
printed. The Lounger, like the Mirror, appeared 
first in folio, but was subsequently reprinted in 
12mo. The chief contributors were H. Mackenzie 
and Lord Craig, who wrote more than half the 
numbers. Besides these, Lord Abercrombie, 
Frazer Tytler, Mr. Cullen, Dr. Henry, Mr. 
M'Leod, Bannatyne, D. Hume, Prof. Eichardson, 
and Mr. Greenfield all contributed. The Mirror 
was published at threepence a number, and about 
four hundred copies were sold of the first issue. 
When reprinted, Mackenzie and his friends, who 
were known as the " Tabernacle Club," received 
one hundred pounds, which they handed to the 
Orphan Hospital, and enough over to buy a 
hogshead of claret for themselves. There is an 
interesting criticism of the Lounger in Sir Richard 
Phillips's Public Characters for 1802-3. It is 
quite safe to say that the Lounger contains " some 

very readable papers," for some of them will 
probably last as long as our language. Lovers of 
Burns have a kindly value for No. xcvii.,from the 
pen of Mr. Mackenzie, which I believe first drew 
public attention to " the Ayrshire ploughman " 
(see " N. & Q.," 5 th S. ii. 325). Mr. Mackenzie 
died in 1831. There is a fair biographical notice 
of him in the Annual Biography, vol. xvi. pp. 10-23. 


This was a weekly paper of the Taller tribe. 
It ran through a hundred and one numbers, and 
appeared on the Saturdays 'of 1785-7, its first 
issue being dated February 5 in the former, and 
its final January 6 in the latter year. It makes 
three volumes of the British Essayists, edited by 
Alexander Chalmers. The Lounger succeeded to 
the Mirror, and was mainly by the same authors 
Messrs. H. Mackenzie, E. Cullen, M'Leod, Ban- 
natyne, Alex. Abercromby, W. Craig, and r. 
Home. Vide Chalmers's " Advertisement " to the 
Mirror, wherein he says : 

" In this edition it has been thought proper to furnish 
the reader with the following table (and a similar one is 
annexed to the Loiinger), by which he is informed of the 
author of every number except the few which were fur- 
nished by correspondents neither known at the time nor 
ever afterwards discovered, and who chuse still to remain 
unknown to the public." 

This valuable table seems to have been forgotten 
in the case of the Lounger, but from that affixed 
to the Mirror I learn that the letters of " John 
Homespun," which must have amused MR. WING 
at Stow, Avere by Mackenzie. ST. SWITHIN. 

The title-page of this work affords all the infor- 
mation that is likely now to be obtained concern- 
ing it, namely, that it was a periodical paper 
published in Edinburgh in the years 1785 and 
1786, and in a collected form, in 3 vols., in 1787. 
Few persons, I imagine, share your correspondent's 
curiosity respecting the names of the contributors- 
to this bygone but by no means uncommon book, 
in comparing which in style to the Spectator and 
the Rambler he no doubt means that, like these, 
the Lounger was first issued in numbers. With 
regard to date, it appeared seventy- four years after 
the commencement of the former, and thirty-five 
years after the latter of these publications. 


In the Lounger Burns was first brought into 
notice on his appearance in Edinburgh towards 
the close of the year 1786. The editor, Henry 
Mackenzie, in giving a specimen of his poetry, in- 
troduces the fact by saying, "My readers will 
discover a high tone of feeling, a power and energy 
of expression, particularly and strongly charac- 
teristic of the mind and the voice of a poet," &c. 


ABRAHAM FLEMING (5 th S. viii. 409.) He was 
rector of St. Pancras, London. He was a most 



[0ft8.lX.Xur. 12,78. 

industrious writer, and his publications range from 
1575 to 1586. He is mentioned by Warton in 
Hist. Poetry, and according to Webb, quoted by 
Warton, seems to have been most remarkaljle as 
a translator of Virgil, Cicero, Pliny, &c. He is 
not mentioned by Lowndes at all. His black- 
letter Hist, of England is certainly scarce, but as 
to its money value I can find no hint. Its mental 
value as a book is probably nil. C. A. WARD. 

TIONS AND ESCHEATS (5 th S. viii. 468.) W. F. C. 
may see in the account of the " Inquisitiones Post 
Mortem," in E. Sims's Manual for the Genealogist, 
<fec., Lond., 1856, pp. 123-30, that there are no 
other printed volumes, but only the four which he 
has seen in the Bodleian, and which were published 
by the Eecord Commission early in the century. 
But Mr. Sims also gives a list of MS. Inq. p.m. 
and abstracts, which are in the British Museum, 
the Bodleian, and elsewhere. The original inquisi- 
tions are, of course, in the Public Eecord Office, 
where there are MS. calendars. 


Four volumes only have been printed, exclusive 
of some referring to Lancashire which form part i. 
of vol. i. of Ducatus Lancastrian. Copies are in 
the British Museum and in several public libraries, 
amongst them the Chetham Library and the 
Eochdale Free Public Library. 


If W. F. C. will apply to Mr. Sage, Turnstile, 
Lincoln's Inn, he will be happy to sell him a set 
of printed calendars of Inq. P. Mortem cheap 
enough. H. T. E. 

S. vi. 88, 219 ; vii. 18, 176.) In looking over 
some waste-paper rubbish at a furniture broker's, 
a few months ago, I picked up a well-bound quarto 
volume, containing a collection of the Discourses 
of the great painter, " delivered to the students of 
the Eoyal Academy." Inside the cover is the 
heraldic book-plate of Sir Charles Dance, and on 
the fly-leaf of each of the discourses, which are the 
original issues, is the inscription, in slightly varied 
terms, " George Dance, Esq., from the Author," in 
the handwriting of the President. This is, of 
course, George Dance, the Eoyal Academician, 
who preceded Sir John Soane, E.A., as Professor 
of Architecture to the Academy, and who retired 
from that office in 1806. 

In the interesting catalogue of Messrs. Ellis & 
White, just issued, I see a copy of the Cento 
Favole JBellissime of Verdizotti (Venetia, 1661, 
4to.), "Sir Joshua Eeynolds's copy, with his auto- 
graph and monogram on the title-page." This 
most interesting and characteristic relic is described 
as being " in the old binding, preserved in a blue 

morocco case," and is priced 81. 8s., with the state- 
ment that it is " a most valuable memorial of this 
great artist, volumes from his library being of the 
greatest rarity." 

The monogram used by Sir Joshua, as described 
by G. D. T., is well known, and will often be 
found impressed upon one of the lower corners of 
drawings by the old masters which have formed 
part of his collection. I have seen it, however, 
upon specimens of such inferior merit and ques- 
tionable authenticity as to lead me to the suspicion 
that it may have been forged a very easy matter 
by unscrupulous dealers. It may, however, be 
that Sir Joshua, on purchasing a lot of drawings, 
would at once impress his stamp upon them, and 
huddle them, good, bad, and indifferent, into his 
cabinet, postponing a more discriminative exami- 
nation to a moment which never arrived. 



516.) Eoger Mortimer, first Earl of March, died 
" die veneris in vigil' Sc'i Andree," anno 4 E. III. 
[Nov. 29, 1330] (Inq. p. m. 28 E. III., i. 53). 

Edmund, second earl, died at Stanton Lacy, 
26 kal. Jan., 5 E. III. (Dugdale's Baronage). 
This was Dec. 7, 1331. 

Eoger, third earl, died in Burgundy, Feb. 26, 
anno 24 E. III. [1350] (Inq. p. m. 46 E. III., i. 
40). This is the date given by the inquisition, 
and this was the point to which I called attention. 
In fact, the probability seems to be that Vincent 
was right in giving 1360 as the date, since the 
marriage of William, Lord Greystock, was granted 
to the earl July 24, 1359 (Eot. Pat. 33 E. III., 
Part II.), and the office of Clerk of the Marshalsea 
in the hospice of Prince Thomas is declared vacant 
by the earl's death, April 20, 1360 (ib. 34 E. III., 
Part I.). I ought to have added a note to my 
former communication, pointing this out, as the 
date in the inquisition is probably a scribe's error ; 
but my point was the difference between the date 
given by the inquisition and the date at which it 
was taken. 

Edmund, fourth earl, died at Cork Dec. 27, 
1381 (Inq. p. m. 5 E. II., 43). 

Eoger, fifth earl, was killed in a skirmish at 
Kenles (Dugdale), Ireland, July 20, 1398 (Inq. 
p. m. 22 E. II., 34). 

Edmund, sixth and last earl, died at Trim 
Castle, Ireland (Anderson's Eoyal Genealogies), 
Jan. 19, 3 H. VI. [1425] (Inq. p. m. 3 H. VI., i. 32). 

Each of these earls was the son of his pre- 
decessor. HERMENTRUDE. 

LAKE THIRLMERE (5 th S. viii. 469.) In the 
Edinburgh Gazetteer, 1822, the lake is called Brack- 
meer ; but Speed, in 1610, names it Thurlemyre, 
and this designation is also given in Camden and 
other old writers. In Eobert Morden's map in 

5ti. s. IX. JAN. 12, 78 J 



Cox's Magna Britannia, 1720, the name is spelt 
Thurlemire. In the Guide to the Lakes, 1778, the 
lake is described as " Leather Water, called also 
Wythburn and Thirlmeer." The latter name is 
evidently one of considerable antiquity. When 
was the name Brackmeer, which is suggestive of 
sea water, first used ? EDWARD SOLLY. 

viii. 482.) As an item of Christmas lore, and 
a propos of the reason for using evergreens at 
Christmas, the following tale, told to Mr. C. G. 
Leland by an English gipsy, is not out of place : 

" The ivy, and holly, and pine trees never told a word 
where our Saviour was hiding himself, and so they keep 
alive all the winter, and look green all the year. But 
the ash, like the oak, told of him where he was hiding, 
so they have to remain dead through the winter. And 
so we gipsies always burn an ash-fire every Great Day," 
The EngL Gipsies and their Language, by C. G. 
Leland, Lond., 1874. 

H. T. C. 

SERLE'S GATE, LINCOLN'S INN (5 th S. viii. 491.) 
So called because it was the gate leading to 
Serle's Court, as New Square was originally called. 
See Cunningham's Handbook of London, 1850, 
p. 444. The site of New Square was, after the 
Eestoration, the property of Sir John Birkenhead, 
F.K.S., Master of the Faculty Office and Court of 
Requests, who died in 1671. It was then acquired 
by Mr. Henry Serle, or Searle, a bencher of the 
Inn (Knight's London, iv. 372), who died intestate 
and left his property heavily mortgaged about 1690 
(Timbs's London and Westminster, i. 176). The 
Society of Lincoln's Inn purchased this part of 
Serle's estate about 1697. Hatton, in his New 
View of London, 1708, mentions Serle's Court as 
the new square designed and partly built by Henry 
Serle, Esq., who died before it was completed. 


MR, WARD is in error in saying that Cunning- 
ham does not give the explanation of the name of 
this gate. If he will consult the 1850 edition, sub 
Serle Street, he will find some particulars of Mr. 
Henry Serle (who appears to have owned consider- 
able property in this part of London), and the 
express statement : " The old name for Lincoln's 
Inn. New Square was Serle's Court ; the arms of 
Serle, with those of the Inn, are over the gateway 
next Carey Street." MR. \VARD may supplement 
Cunningham's information by a reference to the 
late W. H. Spilsbury's Lincoln's Inn, pp. 81-82. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate. 

Sir John Birkenhead was the conductor of the 
Royalist paper, Mercurius Aulicus. See Thorn- 
bury's Haunted London, p. 493. 

The publisher's name was Illidge, not Illidoc. 

42, Grove Koad, N. 

Was this gate ever used exclusively as a foot- 
way 1 and, if so, when was it first opened as a 
carriage road 1 AJAX. 

" CIVET CAT" (5 th S. viii. 468.) Being with- 
out information as to the nature of the " certain 
miscellaneous articles " in which a shop, referred 
to by CLERICUS RUSTICUS, deals, I can only con- 
jecture that the following extract furnishes the 
reply to his query : 

" The Civet is common all over Europe as a perfumer's 
sign, as it was said to produce musk. A Dutch per- 
fumer in the seventeenth century wrote under his sign : 
' Bit's in de Civet kat, gelyk gy kunt aanschouwen, 

Maar komt hier binnen, hier zyn parfumien voor 

mannen en vrouwen.' 

' This is the Civet, as you may see ; but enter. Perfumes 
sold here for men and women.'" The History of Sign- 
boards, p. 162 (London, John Camden Hotten, 18b'6). 


Shops in which fancy articles are sold used 
frequently to bear the above sign, because among 
those articles was the once favourite scent pre- 
pared from, a secretion of the so-called civet cat 
( Viverra civetta), an animal nearly allied to the 
weasels, and a native of North Africa. This 
scent, as is remarked in the Guide to the Zoological 
Society's Gardens, edited by Mr. P. L. Sclater, 
is now superseded by purer and more delicate 
floral perfumes. A graphic account of the way in 
which these animals were kept, chiefly in Holland, 
and of the manner of extracting their secretion 
twice or three times weekly, will be found in 
Bewick's History of Quadrupeds, or indeed in any 
old work on natural history. W. R. TATE. 

Blandford St. Mary, Dorset. 

I will answer this query by proposing another, 
and that is, Are " shops dealing in miscellaneous 
articles " called Civet Cats ? I think only to this 
extent, viz. that the civet cat was for long the sign 
of a perfumer's shop, and in every village the 
barber and the toyshopman are " two single 
gentlemen rolled into one." 


[The old gilt figure of the. Civet still distinguishes the 
long-established firm of Gattie & Peirce, perfumers, 
Bond Street. Shakspeare, in King Lear, shows who 
sold the article in his time : " Give me an ounce of civet, 
good apothecary, to sweeten my imagination " ; and 
Cowper (Conversation, 1. 283) lets us know that, in his 
days, gentlemen were perfumed with it like milliners : 
" I cannot talk with civet in the room, 
A fine puss-gentleman that 's all perfume."] 

COCKER'S "ARITHMETIC" (5 th S. viii. 349.) 
Having occasion to make search with respect to 
this name, I made reference to a copy of the work 
alluded to in the Public Library, Nevvcastle-on- 
Tyne, my object being merely to ascertain the 
author's Christian name. I took no other note, 
but remember that the date of publication was 



[5th s. IX. JAN. 12, '78. 

about 1672. Edward Cocker, the arithmetician, 
died in 1677. His will is not found in London. 

In Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii. p. 155, the 
following suggestion occurs : " A memoir on the 
early Yorkshire and Lancashire mathematicians, 
Field, Saxton, Briggs, G-ascoign, Horrocks, and 
Crabtree, would make an interesting chapter in~the 
history of science. I am not aware what country- 
man Edward Cocker was, but the name occurs in 
the neighbourhood of Leeds, near which town 
Christopher Saxton was also born." According to 
Thoresby, John Cocker Saxton was buried in 
Leeds parish church in 1701. The combination of 
names is somewhat remarkable. The names of 
Cocker and Crabtree both occur in the registers of 
Batley parish, near Leeds. Possibly some of your 
correspondents may be able to throw more light 
on John Cocker Saxfcon. 

I append a few extracts from registers, together 
with two partly conjectural tabular sketches, in the 
hope that by similar contributions the parentage 
of Edward Cocker may be cleared up, and, if 
possible, the connexion of his family with the 
Saxtons made out. 

Thomas Crabtree, bd. at= 
Batley, Jan. 1675. j 

1674. | | | 16/6. | 1677. 

Robt.=Grace = Hannah=Jonas Mary=Thomas 

Apple- Crab- Crab- | Crab- Beck- Crab- Healey. 
yard. tree. tree. | tree. with. tree. 

1702. I 

Faucet. I Crabtree. 

Batley Registers. Thos. Crabtree, buried Jan. 5, 1675. 

Robt. Appleyard and Grace Crabtree, nupt. Aug. 26, 


Thomas Healey and Mary Crabtree, nupt. Dec. 2, 1677. 

? Edward Cocker^ 

1. Alice, d. of^Richard Hardwick, Clk.,=2. Sarah, d. of 

, Batley, of Batley; his admin. I Cocker, 

bur. May 24, gi-anted, June, 16S9, to | mar. June 21, 
lb'74. John Thurnam and 1675. 

I Robert Radcliffe. 

I ! 

Martha, bap. Richard. Edward. Sarah. Susanna, 

June 20, 1672, ? if named bap. May 

bd. Feb., 1674. after his 1-3,1677. 

maternal grandfather. 

Batley Registers. Mice, wife of Richard Hardwick, 
bd. May 24, 1674. 

Richard Hardwick and Sarah Cocker md. June 21, 



"LADIES' SMOCK" (5 th S. viii. 358.) MR. 
COLEMAN gives " ladies' smock" as the Dorsetshire 

synonym of bindweed. Is this quite correct 1 I 
have always thought that " lady's (not ladies') 
smock " was the Cardamine pratensis. It is so in 
Worcestershire anyhow, and I think that I have 
seen it so described in botanical works. B. R. 

BOOKSELLERS' SIGNS (5 th S. viii. 469.) I think 
the non-mention of these, in the edition of Dr. 
Watts's Psalms of David published in 1758, must 
have been the result of an agreement between 
those who brought it out : the law did not in- 
terfere with signs until a later date. If Larwood 
and Hotten's History of Signboards may be 
trusted, Paris began a reform in the matter in 
1761 : 

" London soon followed. In the Daily News, November, 
1762, we find: 'The signs in Duke's Court, St. Martin's 
Lane, were all taken down and affixed to the front of the 
houses.' Thus Westminster had the honour to begin the 
innovation by procuring an act to improve the pavement, 
&c., of the streets, and this act also sealed the doom of 
the signboards, which as in Paris were ordered to be 
affixed to the houses. This was enforced by a statute of 
2 Geo. III. c. 21, enlarged at various times. Other 
parishes were longer in making up their mind ; but the 
great disparity in the appearance of the streets west- 
ward from Temple Bar, and those eastward, at last made 
the Corporation of London follow the example and adopt 
similar improvements. Suitable powers to carry out the 
scheme were soon obtained. In the 6 Geo. III. the Court 
of Common Council appointed commissions, and in a few 
months all the parishes began to clear away: St. Botolph 
in 1767 ; St. Leonard, Shoreditch, in 1768 ; St. Martin's- 
le-Grand in 1769; and Marylebone in 1770." P. 28. 

For further information I must refer M. D. to the 
book itself. ST. S WITHIN. 

Shortly after the accession of Geo. III., Oct. 25, 
1760, an Act of Parliament was passed for paving 
and also for removing the signs and obstructions 
in the streets of London. The use of signs had 
become universal, and traders sought to outvie 
each other in their size, fittings, and attractive 
devices, and to project them so far into the streets 
as to encumber the way. See ante, Samuel Wale, 
R.A. (5 th S. vii. 72). ' Jos. J. J. 

The reason of signs being discontinued is not 
far to seek. In 1760 names were first put on 
doors, and in 1764 houses were numbered. The 
first houses numbered were those in New Burleigh 
Street ; the next those in Lincoln's Inn Fields 
( Haunted London, 458). CHARLES WYLIE. 

GRESS" (5 th S. viii. 469.) I have an old 12mo. 
copy of Banyan's Pilgrim's Progress the first 
part, thirty-second edition, printed for W. John- 
ston, &c., 1767 ; the second part, twenty-fifth 
edition, printed for W. Johnston, &c., 1767. On 
the title-page of this second part : " Note. The 
Third Part, suggested to be J. Bunyan's, is an 
impostor." The third part, twentieth edition, 
printed for L. Hawes & Co., &c., 1765. On the 

5th s. IX. JAN. 12, 78.] 


title-page is : " To which is added the Life and 
Death of John Bunyan, Author of the First and 
Second Parts (completing the whole Progress)." 
On the back of the title of the third part, 
"Licensed and Entered according to Order." 
This may help in ascertaining the author : " The 
Preface to the Christian Eeader " is signed " J. B." 
Verses " to his Worthy Friend, the Author of the 
Third Part of the Pilgrim's Progress, upon Perusal 
thereto," &c., are signed "B. D."; and other verses, 
" These Lines are humbly Kecommended to the 
Reader (written upon the Perusal of this Book," 
&c.), are signed " L. C." SAMUEL SHAW. 


THE MISTLETOE (5 h S. viii. 487.) I have never 
experienced any difficulty in propagating mistletoe, 
and can show four trees in my garden at Dulwich 
all bearing mistletoe, raised from seed inserted 
under the first or outer skin of the tree by myself. 

Brackley Villa, Dulwich. 

490.) In Dr. Edersheim's book on The Temple is 
an interesting suggestion as to their having been 
Temple officers, whose duty was to take care of 
and send to Jerusalem the sheep for the daily 
sacrifices, and that the tidings of the Saviour's 
birth would thus soon reach the Temple. 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Brigg. 

FLEMISH (5 th S. viii. 475.) As MR. MORFILL 
takes exception to Sir Walter Scott's describing 
burghers of Liege talking Flemish, will he kindly 
enlighten my ignorance by specifying the limits of 
the district in which Flemish is, or was, spoken ? 

W. M. M. 

HUGHENDEN VEL HlTCHENDEN (5 th S. viii. 491.) 

Seventy -five years agone I was a child in 
" Hitchenden," my father's waggons were so in- 
scribed, and the parish was so called until Mrs. 
Norris (nee Douglas), the wife of the then possessor 
of Hitchenden House, re-called it by an old and 
obsolete name Hughenden. Only a few years 
since some of the waggons of the farmers of the 
parish still bore the old name, Hitcheuden. I have 
often bathed in the brook below the house, and 
have since seen the channel growing a crop of 
beans, though it is now again running a clear 
stream. I was not a little puzzled when I last 
visited the old place to find the church and church- 
yard, in which I had attended the funeral of an 
infant brother, brought within the park fences. 


491.) The present Lord Bishop of Durham, who 
descends from the marriage of Sir Francis Baring, 
first baronet, with Harriet, daughter of William 

Herring, of Croydon, cousin and co-heir of Thomas 
Herring, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (see 
Burke's Peerage, &c., s.v. " Northbrook "), quarters 
the arms of Herring with his paternal coat. Upon 
his seal as Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol (of 
which I have an impression in my cabinet) the 
Herring quarters agree with the blazon given by 
Moule from the painted windows at Croydon and 
Lincoln's Inn, viz., " Gu. crusilly, three herrings 
hauriant arg." (see my Supplement to Bedford's 
Blazon of Episcopacy in the Herald and Genea- 
logist, vol. vii. p. 443). JOHN WOODWARD. 

BISHOP KOTHERHAM (5 th S. vii. 89, 139, 158, 292, 
330, 375, 416, 470, 490, 509 ; viii. 29, 79, 370, 
389, 410.) Amongst Alumni Etonenses who 
passed to King's Coll., Cambridge, in the first list, 
A.D. 1443, 22 Hen. VI., occur Win. Hatecliffe, 
Wm. Towne, John Langport, Eobert Dummer, 
Richard Cove, John Chedworth, Thomas Scot, 
alias Rotherham, with the following note : 

" The six Fellows of the first Foundation continued 
members of the second. On this new Establishment by 
K. Henry, HatecUffe and Towne, A.M., two of the former 
Fellows or Scholars, came to Eton, and were incorporated 
and admitted Gremials of the College by Provost Wayn- 
flete, Sept. 15, 1443, and two days after, viz. Sept. 17, they 
returned to Cambridge, and were readmitted Fellows or 
Scholars of King's College, together with Lanyport and 
Dummer, on the new Establishment. And this being 
after the Founder had compleated the 21st year of his 
reign, viz. August 31s, consequently it then was the 22d 
year of Henry VI. Cove, Chedworth, and Rotkerkam 
were admitted Scholars of King's in July following. " 

Also Mr. Foss, whom every one must allowto be 
a very good and careful authority, in his Judges of 
England says : 

" Rotheram, alias Scot, Thomas (Archbishop of York), 
adopted the name of his native place. His family was 
named Scot, and resided at Rotheram, in Yorkshire, 
where he was born [? baptized] on August 24, 1423." 

The above points very much to the fact that 
Archbishop Rotheram's original surname was 
Scot : possibly he changed it to Rotheram on his 
removal from Eton to King's College, a scholar of 
which he was appointed in July, 1444 ; or, more 
probably still, did so on coming of age, which 
must have been just about this time. SYWL. 

QUEEN ELIZABETH (5 th S. viii. 266, 313, 394.) 
The eulogistic effusions in praise of Queen 
Elizabeth, as given by MR. KENNEDY, are to be 
found in Camden's Eemaines concerning Britaine, 
ed. 1614, chapter on " Epitaphs," pp. 378-9. 

Although deprecating repetition, I would, in 
this case, venture to ask for their reappearance in 
the quaint old garb of the period, with the context 
as given in the book referred to above : 

' Queene Elizabeth, a Prince admirable aboue her 
sexe for her princely virtues, happy gouernment, and 
long continuance in the same, by which shee yet sur- 
uiueth, and so shall, indeared in the memory not only 



[5th s. IX. JAN. 12, 78. 

of all that knew her, but also of succeeding posterities, 
ended this transitorie life at Richmond, the 24. of 
March, 1602, the 45. yeare of her Raigne, and seuuenty 
of her age. Vpon the reraooue of her body to the pal- 
Ince of White-hall by water, were written then tjiese 
passionate dolefull Lines : 
4 The Queene was brought by water to White-hall, 
At euery stroake the oares teares let fall : 
More clung about the Barge, fish under water 
Wept out their eyes of pearle, and swome blinde after. 
I thinke the Barge-men might with easier thighes 
Have rowed her thither in her peoples eyes. 
For how so ere, thus much my thoughts haue scand, 
Sh'ad come by water, had shee come by land.' 
Another at that time honoured her with this H. 
Holland : 

4 Weepe greatest Isle, and for thy mistresse death 
Swim in a double sea of brakish water : 
Weepe little world for great Elizabeth. 
Daughter of warre, for Mars himselfe begat her, 
Mother of peace ; for shee brought forth the later. 
Shee was and is, what can there more be said 1 
On earth the chiefe, in heaven the second Maide.' 
Another contriued this Distich of her : 
' Spaines rod, Romes ruine, Netherlands reliefe; 
Earths ioy, Englands gemme, Worlds wonder, Natures 
chiefe.' " 

F. D. 

CARACCIOLO (5 th S. vii. 507; viii. 74, 132, 412.) 
Has this disputed question been set at rest for 
ever ? If Dumas is to be trusted, in a matter of 
which proof can be easily obtained, there are now 
original documents in the archives at Naples, 
taken from the Royal Palace in 1860 where he 
copied them which would throw a different light 
on the subject, In his Storia dei Borboni di Na- 
poli he gives extracts, from which it appears : 
1. That Ruffo was the alter ego of Ferdinand, with 
full powers of life or death. 2. That Sir W. 
Hamilton wrote in a letter to the king, June 27, 
1799, before Caracciolo was secured, " It is hoped 
he is already taken, and will be hung at the yard- 
arm, and exposed from morning to night as an 
example." 3. That Nelson wrote to Count Thurn 
to say Caracciolo must be tried, and, " if found 
guilty, inquire of jne what punishment he is to 

I take these jottings from my note-book, written 
down at the time I was reading the book. Among 
the documents Dumas mentions the note of Sir 
W. Hamilton to Ruffo, which said Nelson would 
not break the armistice in any way. Accord in 
to Dumas, Ruffo was not satisfied with this, and 
persuaded Captains Troubridge and Ball, the 
bearers of the letter, to write on the back of it : 

" I Capitani Troubridge e Ball hanno autorita per la 
parte di Milord Nelson, di dichiarare a S. Eminenza che 
Milord non si opporra all' imbarco dei Ribelli, e dell 
gente che compone la guarnigione dei Castelli Nuovi 
dell' Uovo." 

They refused, however, to sign it. If this is true 
we know how the promise was kept. A search in 

he archives at Naples would show, at any rate, 
f these statements are corroborated by the docu- 
ments quoted. Dumas had full access to the 
>rivate papers of the king when in Naples, in 
1860, with Garibaldi. I ought to add that he 
the text of the remonstrance addressed to 
STelson by all those who signed the capitulation, 
except Foote, who had been sent to Palermo. 
They say that an infraction of the capitulation 
would be "un attentato abominevole contro la fede 
pubblica," and "chiamano risponsabile innanzi 
Dio e al mondo chiunque ardisse d' impedirne 

.' esecuzione." 

K. H. B. 

THE TITLE OF "ESQUIRE" (5 th S. vii. 348, 511 ; 
viii. 33, 55, 114, 157, 256, 314, 450.) I am in- 
formed that a relative of mine had this title 
conferred upon him by William IV. Can any of 
your readers tell me if the title was ever conferred 
by that monarch ? if so, if there is any list of .names 
to which I can refer 1 F. C. J. 

THE " HONOURABLE " MRS. BYRON (5 th S. viii. 
345, 416.) In Traditional Ballad Airs, by W. 
Christie, M.A., Dean of Moray, the following 
allusion occurs in a note in reference to the royal 
descent of Mrs. Byron, the mother of the poet : 

' Miss Gordon of Gight (lineally descended from the 
second Earl of Huntly and his wife, a daughter of 
James I. of Scotland) was second wife to John Byron. 
son of Admiral Byron. Their only child was Lord 
Byron, sixth baron, the celebrated poet." Vol. i. p. 50. 

The ballad is also given in the same book, Miss 
Gordon of Gight, written on the occasion of her 
marriage to Captain Byron : 

" whare are ye gaun, Miss Gordon! 

whare are ye gaun, sae bonny and braw 1 
Ye 're gaun \vi' Johnny Byron 

To squander the lands of Gight awa'." 

Gight is in the parish of Fyvie, and in the county 
of Aberdeen. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Letters, Conversations, and Recollections of S. T. Cole- 
ridge, 2 vols., Moxon, 1836. Author, Thomas Allsop. 

John Forster calls this, in a letter to Landor, in Life 
of latter, vol. ii. p. 469, a " wonderfully foolish book." 



" Toujours perdrix." 

An editorial answer to this query will be found in 
N. & Q." (4th s. iv. 337). W. F. R. 

A long and careful editorial note (4th s. iv. 337) ^is 
supplemented by well-known correspondents at 4 t!l S. iv. 

(5'h s. viii. 509.) 

Napoleon's Midnight Review. This poem is by the 
Austrian poet, Baron von Zedlitz. It has been often 
translated. The most animated of all the translations 

5' h S. IX. JAN. 12, '78.J 



may be found in Grahams Magazine (Philadelphia, 
U.S.) for 1854. M. N. G. 

(5 th S. viii. 519.) 

" Alackaday ! the well is dry," &c. 

" Going, gone ! to Tom Toddle for seven pounds ten," 
are both to be found in Rural Scenes. E. R. W. 

(5'"'S. viii. 509; ix. 18.) 
" Pity is akin to love." 

As to the exact relationship in which love and pity 
stand to each other, there seems to be some doubt : 
" Pity, some say, is the parent 

Of future love." 

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Spanish Curate, Act v. 
sc. 1. 

" And some say pity is the child of love." 

Cotton, Love's Triumph, v. 5. 

That the thought is older than Dryden or Butler is 
clear when we remember Shakspearo-'s Twelfth Night: 
" Via. I pity you. 
Qli. That 's a degree to love." 



The Vision of William concerning Piers the Plowman; 
together with Vita de Dowel, bold et Dobest, Secun- 
dum Wit et Resoun. By William Langland (1362-1393 
A.D.). Edited by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A. 
Part IV. Section I. Notes to Texts A, B, and C. 
(Early English Text Society.) 

The English Works of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester 
(born 1459, died June 22, 1535). Now first collected 
by John E. B. Mayor, M.A. Part I. (Early English 
Text Society, Extra Series.) 

The History of the Holy Grail. Englisht ab. 1450 A.D. 
by Henry Lonelich, Skinner. From the French Prose 
(ab. 1180-1190 A.D.) of Sires Robiers de Boiron. Re- 
edited from the Unique Paper MS. in Corpus Christi 
Coll., Cambridge, by Fred. J. Furnivall, M.A. Part 
III. (Early English Text Society, Extra Series.) 
The Bruce; or, the Book of the Most Excellent and 
Nolle Prince Robert de Broyss, King of Scots. Com- 
piled by Master John Barbour, Archdeacon of Aber- 
deen, A.D. 1375. Edited, with Preface, Notes, and 
Glossarial Index, by the Rev. Walter W. Skeat, M.A. 
Part III. (Early English Text Society, Extra 

IT is impossible to glance at the four goodly volumes 
whose titles we have just transcribed, or to turn over 
their pages, without recognizing in them most valuable 
contributions to the history of our language and litera- 
ture ; and, consequently, without feeling hew much those 
who take an interest in such studies owe to the untiring 
energy of Mr. Furnivall, to whom they are mainly in- 
debted for the establishment of the Early English Text 
Society, by means of which these volumes have been 
given to the world. Tho object for which that society 
was established was certainly not one to command 
success, however much it may have deserved it ; but it 
has achieved it : and Mr. Furnivall will, we are sure, be 
among the first to recognize how large a portion of that 
success is owing to the band of learned and hard-working 
scholars who have enlisted under his banner. 

Three of the volumes just described are instalments of 
large and important works namely, The Holy Grail, 
edited by Mr. Furnivall, arid Piers the Ploivinan and 

Barbour's Bruce, by Mr. Skeat and as such will be most 
welcome to the subscribers. The fourth is likewise an 
instalment, being the first part of a collection which 
will have special interest for many readers, namely, The 
English Works of John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ; and 
we 'congratulate the members of the Early English Text 
Society that a book of this peculiar character has been 
entrusted to an editor, Mr. Mayor, whose previous 
labours have shown how especially fitted he is to do 
justice to the life and writings of the pious Christian 
prelate who sealed his faith with his blood. We sin- 
cerely hope that Mr. Mayor will be able to complete the 
work here commenced sooner than he anticipates. 

MR. J. CHARLES Cox has published vol. iii. of his im- 
portant and interesting work, Notes on the Churches of 
Derbyshire (Chesterfield, Edmunds; London, Bemrose). 
This third volume contains records of the Hundreds of 
Appletree and Repton and Gresley. The work is not 
only well written, but profusely illustrated, admirably 
printed, and handsomely, that is to say appropriately, 
bound. All who have a justifiable pride in our churches 
should possess themselves of this series. It will revive 
old memories in some, and excite in others a desire to 
visit these ecclesiastical monuments, and so have joyously 
reverential memories of their own. Messrs. Longmans 
have published a second issue of the small edition of The 
Life and Letters of Macaulay. Jt is emphatically a 
handy book. We advise those who read it to note 
Macaulay's opinions on books, and also how many were, 
in his estimation, each the very best book of any he ever 
read. We have received the first and second parts of 
The Norfolk Antif/uarian Mince I (any, edited by Walter 
Rye (Norwich, Miller & Co.) . The ' first part Was pub- 
lished in 1873 ; the second in 1877. If subscribers have 
had to wait, they have now something worth the wait- t 
ing for. and which they probably could not have obtained 
so easily by other means. 

THE FOLK-LORE SocrEir. The published prospectus 
of the Folk- Lore Society wi 1 show that the suggestion 
first made in " N. & Q." has at length been carried out 
by the formation of a society having for its object the 
collecting and printing the fast-fading relics of our 
popular fictions and traditions, legendary ballads, local 
proverbial sayings, old customs and superstitions. It is 
intended to include in the field of the society's labours 
the folk-lore of aboriginal people. But the extent of , 
the society's operations must of course be in proportion 
to the amount of support which it receives. In order, 
however, to carry out one important portion of its work, 
it is necessary to ask the many country readers of 
lf N. & Q." to forward me the names of any local journals 
in their neighbourhood which have a folk-lore column. 
It is essential that as complete a list as possible should 
be obtained. G. LAURENCE GOMME, Hon. Sec. 

Castelnau, Barnes. 

should not Temple Bar be set up again between the 
Temple and the Embankment, as an entrance to the 
gardens, and the beautiful Buckingham. Street Gate, now 
buried and lost, be placed between the garden and the * 
road Then, almost in juxtaposition and quite in 
association with their old names and sites, there would 
stand two works, one of Inigo Jones, the other of Sir 
Christopher Wren, each not a little interesting to many 
who are neither sages nor judges of art. 


in the Athenaeum (Jan. 5), the Earl of Rosebery (Baron 
Rosebery of the U.K.) is about to become proprietor of 
the Examiner, the family name of this peer will once 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. ix. JAN. 12, 78. 

more be connected with literature. The founder of the 
family was John Primrcfee, who in 1616 (the year of 
Shakspeare's death) had licence to print the tract, God 
and the King, " for twenty-one years, in English or Latin, 
abroad or at home." 

MR. ELLIOT STOCK is now reproducing in fac-simile 
the copy of Thomas a Kempis'a Imitation in the author's 
handwriting, which is in the Royal Library at Brussels. 

uttce to 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

ATHENRY. The Annesley case was not the first in 
Ireland in which a similar question was involved. In 
the " Remembrances to be thought of touching the 
Parliament " the Irish Parliament, 1611 (Calendar of 
Carew M8S. preserved in the Archiepiscopal Library at 
Lambeth, p. 147) there is the following passage, re- 
ferring to a question of summoning certain peers to the 
above Parliament : " The like question may be made of 
the Lord Bourke, of Castleconnell, whose elder brother 
has a son living, and by his friends called Lord Bourke. 
His uncle alleges that he is a bastard, but the boy is not 
yet proved to be so. Upon this allegation only his said 
uncle assumes the name of Lord. How he may be called 
to the Parliament (before his right be determined) is to 
be considered." The " boy " is on the roll of peers with 
the word " infant " added to his name. By an enact- 
ment of 1611 it was unlawful for an illegitimate child to 
take for his surname any other than his mother's 
Christian name. 

M. E. B. The descent of the quotation is traced as 
follows : Seneca (the dramatic writer), who died A.D. 30, 
has, in his Thyestes (Act ii. 1. 380), " Mens regnum bona 
possidet." Byrd, in Psalms, Sonnets, &c. (1588), has, 
" My mind to me a kingdom is." Southwell (ob. 1595) 
has, " My mind to me an empire is," in Look Home. Sir 
Edward Dyer, who died 1607, is quoted in Prof. Morley's 
Shorter English Poems, p. 218, in the lines 
" My mind to me a kingdom is ; 

Such present joys therein I find, 
That it excels all other bliss 

That earth affords or grows by kind." 

II. R. D. should send his name and address (not for 

J. J. P., A. L. G., SWYL, T. K. (Bristol), C. E. E. 
Next week. 

W. JOHNSON (Philadelphia.) See "X. & Q.," 5 th S. 
vii. 6, 137, 179, 413. 

S. should apply to the publisher of the Hon. Mrs. 
Norton's works. 

W. F. (Glasgow.) Forwarded to Mr. Lowe. 

ANTIQUITAS.(" Podmore Family," 5" S. viii. 349.) 
We have a letter for you. 

Si JE PUTS. With pleasure next week. 

ERRATUM (5 tl > S. ix. 17.) I see I have written the 
more familiar word " Easedale" Tarn, instead of Grise- 
dale Tarn, which was the subject of King Mounsey's 
grant. W. G. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 





2 vols. 8vo. 30,?. 


" We advise those who cannot afford time to read the whole of the 
eight hundred pages comprised in these curious volumes not to read a 
line. Jf they once dip into the book they are lost ; it is so extraordi- 
narily interesting that they will be quite unable to lay it down till 
the last page is reached." 


"A charming medley, full of graphic bits of description, odds and 
ends of half-forgotten history, and quaint and curious information." 


" Dr. T)oran is a delightful antiquarian. He has a curious knack of 
peeping into all sorts of odd nooks and corners of history. He tells 
his story with a relishing freshness : and one may always pass a 
pleasurable hour, and pick up a good deal of information, by dipping 
into such volumes as ' London in the Jacobite Times.' " 



2 vols. 8vo. 2Gs. 

" Eminently a book to read, and an eminently ' readable ' book." 


" Mr Trcllope may expect a large circ'e of readers, and he deserves 
it. Perhaps he is better qualified for the task he has attempted than 

er K- 



any other Englishman of the day. 




Demy 8vo. 14?. 


" Mr. Boyle is no stranger to foreign lands, no novice in the m atter 
of desperate strife or perilous adventure. He wields, moreover, a pen 
which leivts him few superiors in the art of setting forth brisk and 
stirring scenes in a picturesque and moving way. " 



2 vols. crown 8vo. 24?. 


" Mr. Tloae has studied the Spanish masses as few Englishmen 
have had the opportunity of doing. He gives us a faithful narrative 
of his experiences, aud a true reflection of his impressions. Very 
agreeable, indeed, the result is." 


" The interest of the subject is great, and Mr. Rose is so thoroughly 
master of it that it is always pleasant to read his observations." 

KICHAKD BENTLEY & SON, New Burlington Street, 
Publishers in Ordinary to Her Majesty the Queen. 

5S. IX. JAN. 19, 78.] 




NOTES : "Gareth and Lynette," 41 Shakespeare in France, 
42 Bewick's Masters, 43 The Pury Family : A Speech in 
the Long Parliament, 44 Secret or Mystic Societies - 
Modern Affectations -The Isle of Man a Bad Place, 45 
The Longevity of Literary Ladies Cowper and the Drama 
"Neither hawk nor buzzard " Epitaph New Year's 
Custom, 46. 

QUERIES : A Servian Document, 46 Pelham Family : Rever 
vel Treve Manor, co. Sussex Unknown Portrait Personal 
Proverbs, 47 The MSS. of Bishop Bennett Candlesticks at 
St. Bavon's, Ghent Bread and Salt Sir Philip Sidney 
W. Rogers, 48-Glasgow Cathedral Organ -A Dublin Silver- 
smithThe Red Mouse Felice Ballarin Anti-Popery 
Hymns Ogilvie Family Akaris Family " Formes " of 
Land Touching for the King's Evil Authors Wanted, 49. 

REPLIES : George Washington and the Rev. J. Boucher, 50 
"Swallow Holes," 51 Cracknel Biscuits, 52 -Nares's 
"Heraldic Anomalies," &c , 53 The Agglestone, Dorset- 
shire "Shakspearian," 54 Dr. Pitcairn "Cry matches!" 
Thomas Peirce Old Receipts, 55 Madame Le Brun's 
Portrait of Lady Hamilton S. Roper Epitaph at Youl- 
grave Sir J. Csesar, 56 Cousins -Homer's "Nepenthes" 
Original Letter Chess, 57 Prophecies about Turkey The 
Hyndford Peerage, 53 Mac Mahon Families Mary Robin- 
son's Grave at Old Windsor Authors Wanted, 59. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


I have just been reading the story of Gareth in 
Sir Thos. Malory's History of Prince Arthur, and 
have been greatly struck with the deviations of 
Tennyson's version from the more ancient story. 
For my own part I much prefer the prose narrative, 
which is more consistent and natural. Probably 
many will be interested in having a brief sketch 
of each of these versions, told in such a way that 
they may be readily compared together ; but, be- 
fore entering on the stories themselves, the reader 
must be reminded that the word " Gareth" is the 
only name which the poet has not more or less 
altered, as the subjoined table will plainly show : 

History of Pr. Arthur. 
Linet and Liones. 
The Green Knight, Sir Per- 

The Red Knight, Sir Peri- 

The Blue Knight, Sir Per- 

saunt of India. 
The Black Knight of the 

Black Lands, Sir Peread. 
The Red Knight of the Red 

Lands, Sir Ironside. 

The classic names of Hesperus, Meridies, Phos- 
phorus, Nox, and Mors appear to me especially 
out of character in this British romance. 


Lynette and Lyonors. 

The Evening-star, or Hes- 

The Noonday-sun, or Meri- 

The Morning-star, or Phos- 

Night, or Nox. 

Death, or Mors. 


The Historical Account. King Arthur was 
holding his annual Whitsun festival at the city 
and castle of King Kenedon, on the sands in the- 
borders of Wales, when three men on horseback 
and a dwarf on foot drew nigh. The horsemen 
alighted, and, giving their steeds to the dwarf to 
hold, approached the castle gate. The middle one 
of the three was young, tall, and bread shouldered, 
and his " hands were the largest that ever man: 
saw." He entered the presence-chamber leaning 
on the shoulders of his two companions, over 
whom he towered a foot and a half in height. 
" A boon, sir king," he said modestly ; and being- 
told to name it, craved three gifts, one to be- 
granted forthwith and the other two at the next 
anniversary. All he asked at present was that he- 
might be taken into the king's service for meat and 
drink till next Whitsuntide. His prayer was at 
once vouchsafed, and the king ordered his steward,. 
Sir Kay, " to take the young man and treat him 
as a lord's son." Sir Kay received him sulkily,, 
and from the unusual size of his hands nicknamed 
him Beaumains (not " Fairhands"*), and put him- 
into the kitchen, but his two companions departed,, 
leaving him behind. 

When Sir Launcelot saw how churlishly the 
young stranger was treated, he rebuked the steward 
sharply, but Sir Kay heeded him not ; and the 
young stranger " went to the hall door and sat hint 
down among the boys and lads, and there ate he* 
sadly with them." For twelve months he put up 
with this insulting treatment, but in all those days 
" he never displeased either man or child, but was 
invariably meek and courteous." 

The next Pentecost the king held at Carlion in 
unusual state ; and on Whitsunday a damsel 
entered, and said, "A lady of great worship is- 
oppressed by a tyrant, who will not allow her to-- 
quit her castle, and wants to force himself upon 
her against her will. She has sent to crave aid of 
thee, sir king, and hopes you will permit one of 
your knights to espouse her cause." She refused 
to give up the name of the lady, but said the 
oppressor was called the Red Knight of the Red 
Lands. Then said the king, " If you withhold the 
lady's name, no Knight of the Round Table can 
undertake the cause.". At this arose the stranger 
nicknamed Beaumains, and said, " Sir king, I 
have a boon to ask. I have now been with you 
for twelve months, and the time is come for me 
to prefer my other two petitions." "Ask," said' 
the king; "they shall be granted at my peril.'*' 

* Tennyson's Fair-hands is very improper. We 
speak of " fine fruit," " fine vegetables," " fine fellows/' 
meaning large, but never use fair in this sense. "Fine-- 
hands," in the sense of big-hands, would do, but " Fair- 
hands " gives quite a wrong idea. Instead of " Fine- 
face " and "Fair-hands," the poet ought to have saidJ 
Fair-face and Fine (i.e. Big) hands. 



[5*8. IX JAN. 19, 78. 

And the young man replied, " Grant me, sir king, 
this adventure." " You shall have it," said the 
king. " And grant that Sir Launcelot may dub 
nie knight," said Beaumains. " So be it/' was the 
gracious answer. 

The damsel now broke out indignantly, and 
cried, " Fie on it, fie, I say ! What, shall no one but 
a kitchen page be given me V And she was ex- 
ceeding angry, left the presence- chamber, mounted 
her horse, and departed. At this moment one 
entered and told Beaumains that a dwarf was at 
the gate, who had brought a steed and armour. 
And the young man went and armed himself; 
then, having taken leave of the king, he rode 
after the damsel. 

Tennyson's Version. Gareth was the youngest 
and tallest son of Lot, King of Orkney, and Belli- 
cent (the history says his mother was Morgawse, 
Arthur's sister), and, thirsting for adventure, he 
wanted to join his two brothers (the history says 
his three brothers, Gawain, Agravine, and Gaheris) 
in the court of King Arthur ; but his mother, in 
order to quash the wish, said, more in banter than 
in earnest, she would consent to his so doing on 
the following conditions : that he concealed his 
name and served as a kitchen menial for twelve 
months and a day. She thought his proud heart 
would revolt from such degradation, but he re- 
plied, " The body may be in thrall, yet the mind 
be free." Next morning ere daybreak he started 
with two servitors, who had waited on him from 
his birth, and making his way southwards came to 
Camelot (the history says King Kenedon, in 
Wales). On reaching the castle an old warder 
came out and asked his business, and Gareth said, 
" We be tillers of the soil, who have left our 
ploughs to come and see the glories of the king." 
On hearing this the old greybeard began to banter 
the strangers ; but, heeding him not, they entered 
the court and came with other suitors to the 
great hall, where the king was seated on his 
throne administering justice, as was his wont. 
When it came to Gareth' s turn, he cried, " A boon, 
sir king. Grant me for meat and drink to serve 
among thy kitchen knaves a twelvemonth and a 
day, but seek not to know my name." The king 
smiled at the request, and answered, " Then must 
my seneschal be thy master." And Sir Kay un- 
willingly took the young stranger in charge, and 
called him in mockery " Sir Fine-face " and " Sir 
Fair-hands" (I Big-hands). And Gareth "under- 
went the sooty yoke of kitchen vassalage" the 
allotted time. 

One day he tilted with Sir Gawain, and, having 
overthrown him, went and told the king, saying, 
" Joust can I ; make me thy knight, sir king, in 
secret." And the king replied, " Make thee my 
knight ! My knights are sworn to hardihood." 
And Gareth made answer, "So be it." (Compare 
this with the original tale, as given above.) 

That very same day came into the hall a damsel 
of high degree, who said, " My name, king, is 
Lynette, and I come to crave a boon for my sister 
Lyonors,* a lady of high lineage, who lives in 
Castle Perilous. Three knights defend the three 
passages to her castle, and a fourth holds her a 
captive, wanting to wed her against her will. 
Send therefore, I pray thee, thy chief man, Sir 
Lancelot, to deliver her." The king then asked 
"the fashion of these knights"; and the maid 
replied, " Three of them call themselves Day, viz. 
Morning-star, Noon-star, and Evening-star; but 
the fourth names himself Night, and oftener 

Then rose Gareth and cried, " A boon, sir king. 
Be this quest mine. Thy promise, king." And 
Arthur could not gainsay his word, and said, 
" Go." And all were filled with amazement ; but 
the damsel was indignant, and cried in her anger, 
" Fie, king ! I asked for thy chiefest knight and 
you give me your kitchen knave." So saying, she 
left the presence-chamber, mounted her horse, 
passed " the weird white gate," and rode off. And 
Sir Gareth found a war-steed ready for him, the 
gift of the king, and his two companions (in the 
history they had left) waiting for him, with shield, 
and casque, and spear. So he armed himself and 
rode after the damsel. 

This is no place for criticism, but I fancy none 
can read these two accounts and not regret the 
alterations. The arrogance of the damsel is truly 
offensive, and her telling the king the name of her 
sister deprives the poet of a capital point, viz. the 
impossibility of a Table Knight engaging in an 
anonymous adventure. I think also the brag of 
the "meek" Gareth that he could joust, and 
claiming knighthood of the king in secret, is no 
improvement, but the reverse. 

Lavant, Chichester. 

(To be continued.) 


I observe that our editor, in his interesting 
paper upon " Shakespeare in France " in this 
month's number of the Nineteenth Century, leaves 
undecided the question as to the earliest mention 
of Shakespeare in French literature. The subject 
is of course one' of literary curiosity only, for it is 
certain that our great poet could have had no 
appreciable influence upon French literature until 
the days of Destouches and Ducis. 

Was not St. Evremond the first Frenchman 
who discovered our Elizabethan drama? The 

* The history says Liones or Lyonese, quite another 
person. Lyonese was sister of Linet or Lynette, daughter 
of Sir Persaunt of Castle Perilous; but Lyonors was 
daughter of the earl Sanam, and the unwedded mother 
of Sir Borre by king Arthur. 

5ti. S. IX. JAN. 19,78.] 



Inflexions sur les Tragedies et sur les Comedies 
Fran f aiscs, Espagnoles, Italiennes, et Anglaises of 
this sadly neglected but very charming writer 
has indeed no reference to Shakespeare by name, 
but contains evidence that its author was ac- 
quainted with his works, which, as may be na- 
turally supposed, the Gaul was quite unable to. 
estimate. As St. Evremond never took the trouble 
to acquire our language, his knowledge of Shake- 
speare must have been obtained from his English 
friends, and probably from seeing some of the 
plays performed. Des Maizeaux, in his Life of 
St. Evremond (Lond., 1714), tells us that the 
Reflexions were the result of the writer's acquaint- 
ance with D'Aubigriy and Buckingham. : 

"Being often together, they discours'd about all 
manner of subjects, but chiefly about the Dramatick 
Pieces of several nations. Mr. de St. Evremond not 
understanding the English Tongue, those gentlemen 
acquainted him witli the best Strokes in our most cele- 
brated Plays ; of which he retain'd a clear idea to the 
very last; and from the?e ingenious Conversations re- 
sulted his Reflexions on the English Stage." 
Dryden also, in an allusion to the work of St. 
Evremond, makes use of the expression that the 
writer did not see our theatre with his own eyes. 
St. Evremond wrote his dissertation about the 
year 1676. C. ELLIOT BROWNE. 

[With reference to English actors rather than to 
Shakespeare himself in France, we reprint, from the 
Intermediaire des Chercheurs Notes and Queries Fran- 
cais, i. 65, the following account of an English company 
in France, playing in Paris and at Fpntainebleau, when 
Shakespeare was yet alive. By this it will be seen that 
the English troop had legal possession of the stage in 
the great hall of the Hotel de Bourgogne, and were liable 
to a fine of one crown every day, during the term agreed 
upon, if they acted in any other theatre. Further, that 
they acted before Henri IV. at Fontainebleau, and that 
the j'oung Dauphin, then five yeara old, and afterwards 
Louis XIII., was sufficiently impressed by the English 
actors to dress himself like them, and to repeat an excla- 
mation which he had caught from them in the words, 
" Tiph toph, milord!" The name of the piece, as of 
the actors, is unfortunately lacking. 


Dans 1'inventaire des litres et papiers de 1'hotel de 
Bourgogne se trouvent mentionnes : 1 un bail de la 
grande salle et theatre du dit hotel, passe le 25 mai, 1698, 
devant Huart et Claude Nouvel, notaires & Paris, par 
Jehan Schais (sic), comedien anglais ; 2 une sentence du 
Chatelet, rendue le 4 juin, 1598, a 1'encontre des dits 
comediens anglais, tant pour raison du susdit bail que 
pour le droit d'un ecu par jour, jounnt par les dits 
anglais ailleurs qu'au dit hotel. 

" Dans le journal manuscrit du medecin Heroard, qui 
se trouvait autrefois dans le cabinet de M. de Genas 
(No. 21,448 de la Bibl. hist, du P. Lelong) il est dit que 
le samedi 18 septembre, 1604, le roi et la cour dtant a 
Fontainebleau, le dauphin (Louis XIIT., qui entrait alors 
dans sa quatrieme annee) est mene dans la grande salle 
neuve, ou'i'r une tragedie reprgsentee par des Anglais. 11 
les ecoute avec froideur, gravite, et patience, jusques 
a ce qu'il fallut couper la tete a un des personnages. Le 
mardi 28, le dauphin se fait habiller en masque et imite 
les comediens anglais qui ctaient a la cour et qu'il 
avait vus jouer. Enfin, le dimanche 3 octobre de la 

rneme annee, 1'enfant se fait encore habiller en comedien, 
t, marchant a grands pas, imite les comediens anglais, 
en disant : Tiph ! toph! milord! 

" Voila done, d 1'epoque de Shakespeare, des comediens 
anglais jouant a Paris, en 1598, et a la cour de Fontaine- 
hleau devant Henri IV. en 1604. Serait-il possible de 
connaitre le personnel de ces troupes et les pieces de 
leur repertoire 1 ?" 

By the above account we find that the lease and other 
documents are only mentioned in the papers connected 
with the Hotel de Bourgogne as having existed. If the 
originals are in existence, they would be well worth 
examination ; but, without disputing their genuineness, 
the examiner would have to bear in mind the facility 
with which "original documents" are occasionally fa- 
bricated in France. The so-called autograph letters of 
Sir Isaac Newton and others may be cited as an example. 
Then, as to the Dauphin's quotation, " Tiph ! toph ! 
milord ! " where is anything like it to be found in Shake- 
speare ? Falstaff says to the Chief Justice (2 Hen. IV. 
Act ii. sc. 2), " This is the right fencing grace, my lord ; 
tap for tap, and so part fair." But there is here no 
question of a man losing his head, as in the play at Fon- 
tainebleau. In Measure for Measure (Act i. sc. 2) 
Claudio's head, according to Lucio, stands " so ticklish 
on his shoulders that a milkmaid, if she be in love, may 
sigh it off." Lucio hopes the mediation of Claudio's 
sister, Isabella, may save her brother's life, "as well for 
the encouragement of the like [Claudio's offence], which 
else would stand under grievous imposition, as for the 
enjoying of thy life, who I would be sorry should be 
thus foolishly lost at a game of tick-tack." The last 
words are so near to the French name for backgammon, 
tric-trac, that a French boy could hardly have changed 
them, as the Dauphin is said to have done, into " Tiph ! 
toph ! " Again, in the passage from Measure for Measure 
there is no "my lord," as in Henry IV., but, on the 
other hand, there is a man in peril of losing his head. The 
only question of interest is, was there an English troop 
of actors in France at the period indicated above ] If 
this be proved, they may have acted either or both of 
the plays. If any correspondent possesses a series of the 
Mercure Galant, and will inform the readers of " N. & Q." 
if, and when, the name of Shakespeare occurs in it, he 
would render most acceptable service. We would also 
ask any one who can refer to M. E. Fournier's Theatre 
Franqais aux IQme et I7me Siecles to kindly look into it 
for the same purpose ; and finally, as having some bear- 
ing on the question, how long after 1591 did the English 
military force remain in France as allies of Henri 
Quatre ]] 


I have lately turned up the following list of a 
small collection of old illustrated books which I 
understood to have been the workshop library of 
Thomas Bewick. They were distinguishable from 
his home library by their much used condition, as 
well as their specialty of old engravings. The 
books themselves were accidentally destroyed soon 
after this description was drawn up, but you may 
think the list worth preserving as indicating 
Bewick's masters, if masters he had : 

1. Old Vulgate Latin Bible, with Woodcuts. 8vo., no 
title. Old dated stamped binding, 1573. 

2. Albert Durer's Woodcuts of the Passion. 1510. 
35 cuts, with 5 duplicates loose in the cover. This copy 
is printed on blank paper, without any letter-press or in- 
scriptions of any kind. 4to., old vellum. 



[5th S. ]X. JAN. 19, '78. 

3. lohan. Posthii Germersbemii Tetrasticha in Ovidi 
Metamorph., qvibus accesserunt Vergilii Soils figurae 
eleganti?s. Francof., 1569. 178 woodcuts, 2 of them 
-coloured. Oblong 8vo., old forrell. 

4. The Historic of Fovre-Footed Beastes (and Serpents) 
*By Edward Topsell. laggard, 1607. Full of woodcutl 
Folio. Used copy, and not quite perfect. Autograph 
on title : " Thomas Bewick's [vign.] Book, 1795." 

5. Grimston's Historic of the Netherlands. Full 
length copperplates of Kings and Governors. Folio 


6. The Herball ; or, Generall Historic of Plantes. By 
-John Gerarde. 1597. Frontispiece mounted. Portrai 

engraved by Rogers, also many hundred excellent wood 
cuts. Folio. Autograph in print-hand: " This curious 
.Book belongs to T. Bewick, Engraver, NEWCASTLE, 1798.' 

7. Ovidii Metamorphoses. Tomus 2dus. Lips., 1621, 
.Many woodcuts. 

8. Help to English History. By P. Heylyn. 1675, 

9. Fabellas ^Esopicae. Latine. Cum Imaginibus. 
: (Anlv.} Raphelengius, 1604. Many good woodcuts. 12mo., 

old vellum. Written on the cover : " Present to T, 
-Bewick from Messrs. Longman & Co., Booksellers, 
. June... 79..., London." 

10. Fabvlse VariorvmAvctorvm, ^Esopi, &c. Franco/., 
1660. Many woodcuts. 12mo. Autograph: " T. 

.Bewick, 1770." 

11. Book of Ciphers. 4to., fragment only. 

12. School Horace. No cuts. 

13. About 100 plates of Hunting, &c. By Jo. Stra 
danus. Engraved by Galle, &c. Oblong folio, used. 

14. Alciati Emblemata. Cut?. Small 8vo., imperfect 
Also Bewick's collection of old engraved writing 

books, in 5 vols., folio, and various others of his shop 
^pattern books. 



Some years ago, taking an accustomed stroll 
among the London bookstalls, I met with a small 
quarto pamphlet which bore this title : 

"Mr. Thomas Pvry, Alderman of Glocester: his 
Speech upon that clause of the Bill against Episcopacy 
the which concernes Deanes, and Deanes and Chapters, 
at a Committee of the whole House. Printed in the 
year 1641." 

I thereupon very gladly gave the florin or half- 
crown which was the marked price for it ; and as 
it is a remarkable speech by a remarkable man, 
of whom, though he took an important part in 
the civil war, comparatively but little is known, 
I propose to occupy some of your space with an 
account of the speech, and of the speaker and his 

Thomas Pury was one of the members returned 
to the Long Parliament for the city of Gloucester 
in 1641. It was, therefore, during his first session 
that he made this speech, and the occasion was 
this. Sir Edward Bering, member' for Kent, on 
May 21, 1641, brought in a Bill "for the utter 
abolishing and taking away of all Archbishops, 
rBishops, their Chancellors and Commissaries, 
JDeans, Deans and Chapters, Archdeacons, Pre- 

bendaries, Chapters, Canons, and all other their 
under officers." He seems to have incurred great 
obloquy by doing so, and in A Collection of 
Speeches, &c., published by him in 1642, he says : 

" The Bill for abolition of our present episcopacy was 
pressed into my hand by S. A. H. (Sir Arthur Haslerig), 
being then brought unto him by S. H. V. (Sir Harry 
Vane) and 0. C. (Oliver Cromwell). He told me he 
was resolved that it should go in, but was earnestly 
urgent that I would present it. The Bill did hardly 
stay in my hand so long as to make a hasty perusall." 

This Bill was distinguished from others of a similar 
character as " The Koot and Branch Bill." The 
second reading was carried by 139 against 108 
(Parl. Hist., vol. ii. p. 815), and went into com- 
mittee June 11, when Hyde (afterwards Lord 
Clarendon) was appointed chairman, and it was 
hotly debated from seven in the morning until 
night. The debate was resumed the next day, 
and also on June 15, when Sir B. Rudyard, mem- 
ber for Wilton, opposed the Bill, and concluded 
his speech by saying : 

" I am as much for reformation for purging and main- 
taining religion as any man whatsoever, but I profess I 
am not for innovation, demolition, nor abolition." 

Thereupon up stood Mr. Alderman Pury, and 
said, " Mr. Hide, I rise not up to answer the 
arguments of the learned Gentleman of the long 
robe that spoke last " ; and, having stated why 
he would not enter upon a technical discussion, 
he proceeded to say : 

" Here is a copy of the Statutes, Grant, and Foundation 
of the Dean and Chapter of the City of Gloucester. I 
have read them over, and doe find first the end where- 
fore the Lands and Possessions were granted unto them. 
Secondly, the manner and forme of Government of 
themselves. And lastly, their several oathes to keep all 
the Statutes prescribed unto them." 

He then read the terms of the grant by Henry VIII., 
and went on : 

" Mr. Hide, you see wherefore the lands were granted 
unto Deanes and Chapters, what their Statutes are, and 
their oathes to keep them. It might be thought these 
men doe know another or nearer way to Heaven than 
,hey teach us, or otherwise that they would not sit in 
the seate of Perjury as it may seeme they doe without 
remorse of conscience. For it is notoriously knowne to 
the City of Gloucester and country thereabouts that not 
one of the said Statutes before mentioned are, or ever 
were, during my remembrance, kept, or the matters con- 
fined in any one of them performed by any of the 
Deanes or Prebendes of the said Cathedrall : They come 
ndeede once a yeare to receive the rents and profits of 
;he said Lands, but do not distribute unto the Poore and 
needy their portion, neglecting altogether the mending 
>f the highways and Bridges, and do not keep any com- 
non table at all : And instead of Preaching the Word of 
God themselves, in season and otit of season, they are 
and have been the chiefe instruments to hinder the 
ame in others. Infinite are the pressures that many 
;ities near unto Deanes and Chapters have endured by 
hem and their procurement. And whereas it was ob- 
ected by another learned gentleman of the long robe 
hat the Deanes and Chapters are a body corporate, and 
hat they have as much right unto their lay possessions 

5th S. IX. JAN. 19, 78.] 



=a3 any other body politicke, or any City or Towne Cor- 
porate ; I am of his opinion for such Lands and Pos- 
sessions (if they have any) which they bought themselves 
in right of their corporation, or for such Lands as were 
given tliem for their owne use, and I am well contented 
that such lands should be left unto them, but their case 
is far re different in my opinion ; for I have showed you 
before to what goodly, pious, and charitable uses the said 
Lands and Possessions were granted unto them. . .' . 
Seeing therefore the said Deanes and Chapters are but 
Trustees, and the profits of the said Lands so ill imployed 
by them, contrary to the trust reposed in them ; I am 
cleare of opinion that by a Legislative power in Parlia- 
fiunt it is h'tt to take them away, and to put them into 
the hands of Feoffees, to be disposed of to such pious, 
religious, and charitable uses as they were first intended." 

He then proceeds to show what are the possessions 
of the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester ; 

"Above twelve Rectoryes of good value, and about 
thirty Vicaredges, Pensions, and Portions of Tythes, 
which being at the first Deo consecrata, most fit they 
-should be still imployed for the maintenance of the Gos- 
pell, for 'preaching ministers ' instead of so many singing 
men there in orders that cannot Preach. And then 
'there are left to be provided for only the Organist, eight 
singing boys, two schoole masters, foure poore Almesmen, 
^nd some under officers, whose yearly wages come unto 
about one hundred pound per annum." 

He says : 

" The Deane and Chapter have almost the third part 
-of the houses of the City of Gloucester, the old rent of 
them being yearly about 175 pound, which will well 
defray that charge with a sufficient surplusage for re- 
pairing the highwayes, Bridges, and twenty pound 
jearely to the poore." 

And then proceeds : 

" But over and besides the said yearly revenues before 
mentioned, the said Deane and Chapter of Gloucester, 
although but of the last Foundation, and one of the 
least revenues in this kingdome, yet they have eighteen 
goodly mannors, and also divers other Lands, Tenements, 
and Hereditaments, besides the Manors, houses and 
premises, the old rent of assize of one of the said 
Manners being 80 pound per annum; out of which 
Mannors and Lands, the said Cathedrall being to be 
made a Parochial 1 Church, 200 pound per annum or 
more may be allowed for a learned Preaching minister 
there, and a hundred pound a year a piece, for two such 
others to assist him, all which stipends within a few 
years one of the said Mannors will discharge, and also 
sufficiently repaire the said Cathedrall Church, and then 
the rest of the said Mannors and Lands may be imployed 
to other godly, pious, or charitable uses, as the Wisdome 
of the King and Parliament shall think fit. And sutable 
to this, but in a more ample proportion of maintenance, 
*will be the allowances of all other Deaneryes in England." 
The speech concludes thus : 

" And surely, Sir, if these things take effect I am con- 
fident we shall be so far from having a poore beggerly 
Clergy, as that no kingdom in the Christian world will 
have a more rich and flourishing Clergy, both for Nur- 
series, and incouragements of learning : and for their 
maintenance in more plentiful manner than it is at this 
present. Please you therefore to put the Question, I 
am ready to give my ayde thereunto." 

This being the substance of the speech, I purpose 
in a future number to give some account of the 
speaker and his family. J. J. p. 

times called attention to the light which may be 
thrown on the development of mystic societies in 
the eighteenth century by collecting accounts of 
those which existed in Italy. Cornelius de Brujn 
in his voyages to the East gives an account of his 
admission into an ascetic society. The works of 
Van Dael de Oraculis and others on the ancient 
mysteries had widely spread the notions of 
initiations, of which we find traces among the 
Rosicrucians and alchemic sects. The practice of 
white magic was possibly carried on by small 
secret conclaves. The ideas of such societies must, 
as is suggested by early masonic rituals, have been 
much more ancient, for the scheme of such a system 
will be found sufficiently displayed five centuries 
ago in a burlesque tale of Boccaccio. It is the 
ninth novel of the eighth day of the Decameron, 
where Bruno and Buffalmace fool Master Simon, 
the doctor, with a sham initiation. 



" About five years ago, I remember, it was the fashion 
to be short sighted. A man would not own an acquaint- 
ance until he had first examined him with his glass 

However, that mode of infirmity is out, and the age has 
recovered its sight : but the blind seem to be succeeded 

by the lame, and a janty limp is the present beauty 

I indeed have heard of a Gascon general who by the 
lucky grazing of a bullet on the roll of his stocking took 
occasion to halt all his life after. But as for our peace- 
able cripples, I know no foundation for their behaviour 
without it maybe supposed that in this warlike age some 
think a cane the next honour to a wooden leg. This 
sort of affectation I have known run from one limb or 
member to another. Before the limpers came in, I 
remember a race of lispers, fine persons who took an 
aversion to particular letters in our language 

"This humour takes place in our minds as well as 
bodies. I know at this time a young gentleman who 
talks atheistically all day, and in his degrees of un- 
derstanding sets up for a Free-thinker, though it can be 
proved upon him he says his prayers every morning and 

" Of the like turn are all your marriage-haters, who 
rail at the noose, at the words ' for ever and aye,' and at 
the same time are secretly pining for some young thing 
or other that makes their heart ake by their refusal." 

This passage is from the Taller, No. 77, Thursday, 
October 6, 1709. One of the sentences I have 
omitted begins, " Some never uttered the letter h," 
This is the first time I ever heard of its being con- 
sidered " the thing " to drop one's h's. 


account of the Isle of Man, printed by Quiggin, 
Douglas, 1852, which came into my possession 
some time since, I found the following epigram 
written at the back of the title, which is suggestive 
of Man's not being entitled to be called a l< holy 
island," as some others are. I do not know 
whether this is a popular idea, or only the result 
of individual experience, and should like to know 



[5th s. IX. JAN. 19, 78. 

why the island should have the diabolical reputa- 
tion here inferred : 

"When Satan tried his arts in vain 
The worship of our Lord to gain, 
The world, he said, shall all be thine % 
Except one place that must be mine ; 
Though hare it is, and scarce a span, 
By mortals called the Isle of Man, 
That little spot I cannot spare, 
For all my chosen friends are there." 

No initials are put to this unmanly gibe. 


mayor of Bath (now probably the ex-mayor), Mr. 
Jerom Mutch, has published a paper which he 
read before a literary society on this subject, and 
he gives the following list : 

Died Aged 
Miss Jane Austen ... ... 1816 ... 42 

Mrs. Radcliffe 1823 ... 59 

Miss Mitford 1855 ... 69 

Mrs. Trimmer ... ... 1810 ... 69 

Miss Jane Porter ... ... 1850 ... 74 

Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu ... 1800 ... 80 

Mrs. Piozzi 1821 ... 81 

Mrs. Barbauld 1822 ... 82 

Miss Edgeworth ... ... 1849 ... 82 

Lady Morgan ... ... 1859 ... 82 

Madame d'Arblay ... ... 1840 ... 88 

Miss Hannah More ... ... 1833 ... 88 

Mrs. Marcet 3859 ... 89 

Mrs. Joanna Baillie ... ... 1851 ... 89 

Miss Berry ... ... ... ]852 ... 90 

Mrs. Somerville ... ... 1872 ... 92 

Miss Harriet Lee ... ... 1851 ... 95 

Miss Caroline Herschel ... 1848 ... 98 

Lady Smith ... 1877 ... 103 

These give an average age of eighty- one. Harriet 
Martineau and some others might have been in- 
cluded. KINGSTON. 

COWTER AND THE DRAMA. By a ludicrous mis- 
apprehension of the poet's satire, a writer in the 
Mirror for 1839, p. 343, quotes from Cowper's 
Task, bk. vi., to prove that Cowper had no dislike 
to the theatre. It was in reference to the jubilee 
at Stratford in 1769 that Cowper wrote : 
" 'T\vas a hallowed time, decorum reigned 
And mirth without offence. No few returned 
Doubtless much edified, and all refreshed." 

Having quoted these, this writer pleases himself 
with the idea that Cowper, "a pious and in some 
respects a severe Christian," thought better of the 
stage than did his religious friends. 

J. E. S. C. 

is used in North and East Derbyshire, and in 
parts of Notts, and is thus applied : Persons on 
being asked how they are will reply, " Oh ! I 'in 
neither hawk nor buzzard," which means a state of 
being " rather out of sorts." It is mostly used by 
women. They also say of a young girl just on the 

edge of womanhood that she is " neither hawk nor 
buzzard." THOS. KATCLIFFE. 



" John Eager. Dies Marcii xx. 1641. 
You Earthly Impes which here behold 
This Picture with your Eyes, 
Remember the end of mortal men, 
And where their Glory lies. " I. E.' r 

The above lines are on a small brass plate on the 
wall of Crondall Church, Hants. They are en- 
graved under the representation of a partially 
shrouded skeleton. The use of the word imp, as 
applied to the human race in general, is new to- 

NEW YEAR'S DAY CUSTOM. Early in the 
morning of each New Year's Day groups of chil- 
dren may be observed in the towns and villages- 
of South Wales, perambulating the streets, headed 
by a boy or girl carrying an apple pierced with 
barley or oats on end, bearing a comparison to 
thorns, and resting on three legs similar to a 
tripod. The children will gather around the door 
of some house, the boy or girl carrying the apple 
standing in the centre, and the whole will sing 
the following medley : 

<! I wish you a merry Christmas, 

A happy New Year, 

A pocket full of money, 

A cellar full of beer ; 

My feet are very dirty, 

My shoes are very thin, 

I 've got a little pocket 

To slip a penny in." 

The apple-bearer then knocks at the door, ex- 
claiming, " Please give us a penny for singing so 

I am informed this procedure is of ancient 
origin. I shall be obliged if any of your readers 
can inform me whether the custom is prevalent in 
any part of the kingdom except South Wales,, 
and further if any can enlighten me as to its- 
origin and the object of the pierced apple. 


Oakfield, Pontypridd, Glam. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the- 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

A SERVIAN DOCUMENT. I have come across a 
Servian document, of which the following is the 
French translation : 

" LETTRES PATENTES. Au nom du Pere, du Fils et du. 
St. Esprit, Amen. Nous Stephan Doubicha par la grace 
de Dieu Roi de Serbie, de Bosnie, du littoral de la terre 
de Khilm, des pays inferieurs et occidentaux de Oussora 

5th S. ]X. JAN. 19,78.] 



et du Podrinia (vallee de la Drina), Faisons savoir & 
tons ceux que cela pourrait concerner, qu'ayant succede, 
par la grace de Mon Seigneur Jesus- Christ, a la royaute 
sur les terres ci-dessus denommees, Nous avons constate 
que Notre pere et Notre ai'eul avaierit donne le village 
et domaine de Umikolo aux ancetres de Joupan 
Wlessirair Semikowitch, en recompense de leurs exploits 
et services rendus en combattant 1'ennemi. 

" Attendu que le nomme Joupan Wlessimir nous 
supplie aujouru'hui humblement de vouloir bien con- 
firmer cette donation et faire enregistrer en son nom le 
dit domaine d'Umikolo, Nous avons arrete, eu egard aux 
services signales qu'il Nous a rendus et au sang qu'il 
, verse pour notre cause, que la propriete du fief 
-d'Umikolo lui serait confirmee, pour lui et ses descen- 
dants. Ont etc temoins de cet acte Nos hauts dignitaires 
dont les noms suivent: Le prince (Kniez) bosniaque, 
Pawel (Paul) Radimowicb, le prince de la terre de 
Khilm, Vlikacbin Milatowitcb, le prince de la meme 
terre, Jouvan Radinowcewitch, le voivode du pays-bas 
<low-lands), prince Mladen Staninitch, le voivode 
d'Oussora, prince Stepan Wilochewitch, le grand-maitre 
(pristav) de la cour, Joupan Rado Radosanitch, 1'adjoint 
du grand-maitre (ipo-voiti), Branko Simenitch. 

" Nous Nous engageons a maintenir la presente 
donation en jurant sur les Sts. Evangiles et au nom du 
Pere, du Fils et du St. Esprit. Ecrit au Palais de 
Kruchewatch, de la main de Thomas Logothete, le 31 
du moi de mai de 1'an de N.S. 1395. 

"Signe: (STEFAN). (L. S.) Signer (DOUBICHA)." 

The original is written on leather in old Servian 
characters, and has a large seal attached, one side 
representing a man on horseback, the other a king 
sitting under an elaborate canopy, with two 
smaller canopies on each side. The document was 
brought into Constantinople at the beginning of 
the Servian war. Can any of your correspondents 
tell me anything about this document as to its 
value or otherwise 1 

British Embassy, Constantinople. 

co. SUSSEX. Can any of your correspondents hail- 
ing from Sussex explain to me where the above 
manor was really situated ? I am frequently 
coming across it in connexion with the Pelham 
family, but I never can identify it with any par- 
ticular parish. In De Banco Rolls, Trinity, 18 
Ed. IV. m. 321, and Easter, 21 Ed. IV. m. 400, 
I find it mentioned, first, concerning the abduction 
of Emma Pelham, dau. and co-heir of John Pel- 
hani, Esq., son of Sir John Pelham, Knight, who 
held the m. of Treve als Ryver ; in the second 
reference, concerning the partition of the in. 
between John Pelham's four daughters and co- 
heirs, viz. Emma, Alice. Isabel, and William 
Hersy and Elizabeth his wife, another dau. and 
co-heir. This partition mentions numerous places 
which appear all to have been in some way con- 
nected with the m. of Rever, and, to give it as 
shortly as possible, was as follows : Lotgarshall 
and part of Tolyngton (where is this place ?) and 
free chapel of Rever allotted to Etnma Pelham. 
Issues from Tolyngton allotted to Alice Pelham. 

Site of the m. and chief mansion (wherever it was), 
advowson of free chapel or chantry of Rever, 
demesne lands of the m., all services issuing from 
the manors, lands, &c., called Upmerden, Merston, 
Lynche, Rumboldswyke, and Stopham, and from 
the m. of Gerecourt in Yapton, all knights' fees 
belonging to said m. of Rever, and all services 
issuing from all manors of Cotes and Ludgarsale, 
and all services issuing from lands called Covertys 
in Yapton, and from lands in Tolyngton, formerly 
of Andrew Dawtre, allotted to Isabella Pelham. 
Parish of Rever als Trevar, in circuit seven miles, 
&c., in Ludgarsale, allotted to William Hersy and 
Elizabeth his wife. The three unmarried daughters 
were under age, and appeared by their guardian, 
William Covert. The manor was held of Henry, 
Earl of Northumberland, as of his honour of Pet- 
worth ; but where it was situated, or what parish, 
seven miles in extent, it now represents, I am un- 
able to identify, and shall be much obliged to any 
one who will help me to do so. 

The above is likewise interesting inasmuch as 
it brings on the stage four Miss Pelhams instead 
of, as all other accounts give, only one, Isabella, 
married to John, second son of William Covert, of 
Sullington. D. C. ELWES. 

5, The Crescent, Bedford. 

UNKNOWN PORTRAIT (size, 6 in. in diameter). 
I have in my possession a circular portrait, dated 
1583, representing a young man in the costume of 
the period, viz. an enormous, deeply frilled white 
ruff, and black doublet, quilted in cross pattern. 
The hair is reddish brown, and the face ruddy ; 
cheek-bones high, and nose prominent. The 
portrait is painted on beech wood turned. On the 
frame is the inscription : " Plus cher Honnevr qve 
Vie. A 1583. ^ETATIS SV.E 23 &c." Any con- 
tributor to " N. & Q." who could famish par- 
ticulars relative to the person represented in the 
above would greatly oblige. Si JE Puis. 

PERSONAL PROVERBS. Amongst the proverbial 
sayings which were common more than two cen- 
turies ago, there are a number which appear to 
apply by name to distinct persons. Who these 
persons were, and under what circumstances their 
names thus became household words, is now lost. 
The following are some of them : 

Banbury As nice as the Mayor of B. 

Bolton Bate me an ace, quoth B. 

Bolton Wide ! quoth B. when his bolt flew back. 

Bumsted Crack me that nut, quoth B. 

Croker As coy as C.'s mare. 

Cumberland The devil and John of C. 

Day Ware wapps, quoth William D. 

Dawkins Dab ! quoth D. when he hit his wife. 

De la Mott As much deformed as D.'s house. 

Dpddipol As learned as Dr. D. 

Gilbert Gip ! quoth G. to his mare. 

Jerman As just as J.'s lips. 

Mortimer Backan ! quoth M. to his sow. 



[5h S. IX. JAN. 19, '78. 

Mosse He found hirnrnappinjj as M. found his mare. 
Mumford iMock not, quoth M. 
Nicholas Good night, N., the moon's in bed. 
Noble Gramercy, forty pence, Jack N.'s dead. 
Palmer What ! again quoth P. 

Parnell Madam P., crack the nut and eat the kernel. 
Ploydon The case is much altered, quoth P. 
Roger As red as R.'s nose, who was christened with 
pump water. 

Russe He will live as long as old R. of Pottern. 
Snelling Mark S. anon. 
Spratt Jack S. could eat no fat. 
Vavasour What ! nowhere such a V. 
Vier O Master V. we cannot pay you. 
Walley Wide ! quoth W. 
Waltham As wise as W.'s calf. 
Weymark Two heads are better than one, said W. 

Probably, if it were known where these sayings 
first arose, the persons meant by them might be 
made out. In the case of Jack Spratt, Howell, 
in his Proverbs, 1659, gives a version different 
from more modern authorities. He prints, "Arch- 
deacon Pratt would eat no fatt." 

It is curious that in Le Neve's Fast. Eccl. Any. 
there is, out of many thousand names, only one 
Archdeacon Pratt, and his name was John. He 
was Archdeacon of St. Davids from 1557 to 1607, 
when he died, and appears to have held consider- 
able church preferment, for lie was also Prebendary 
of Southwell, Lincoln, and Bath. An attempt 
was made to oust him from the former in 1599, 
but he would not give up, and held it till his 
death. Was this good man the real original Jack 
Spratt of the nurseries ? EDWARD SOLLY. 

This great antiquary of the last century, who, 
with the Rev. Thos. Leman, walked over the 
course of nearly all the Roman roads of England, 
compiled the result of his observations in aseries 
of articles on the Roman roads of each English 
county. They were intended for publication in 
the Magn% Britannia of the Messrs. Lysons. 
Commencing alphabetically, his notes on Bedford- 
shire, Berkshire, Bucks, Cambridge, Cheshire, 
Cornwall, Cumberland, Derbyshire, and Devon 
were published in the above-named work. Those 
for Hertfordshire were communicated to Mr. 
Clutterbuck for his history of that county ; and 
those for Leicestershire appeared in Mr. Nichols's 
History of Leicestershire. Owing to the death of 
the Messrs. Lysons, the Magna Britannia stopped 
short at " Devonshire," and the remainder of the 
bishop's notes was never published. That they 
existed may be gathered from the fact of his stating 
in Magna Britannia, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 483, and in 
vol. v. p. ccxiii, that he places the Mediolanum of 
the Tenth Iter of Antoninus at Chesterton, near 
Ne wcastle-under-Lyne, but will treat of the fact 
at greater length when he comes to examine the 
Roman towns and roads in Staffordshire. This is 
confirmed by the MS. notes of Mr. Leman on 
the margin of his copy of Horsley's Britannia 

llomana, preserved at the Bath Institute. The 
bishop died in London, July 16, 1820, and was 
buried in Plumstead Church, Kent. What be- 
came of his MSS. seems never to have been pub- 
licly ascertained. Can any reader of " N. & Q." 
give this information ? That portion of them re- 
lating to Staffordshire is especially needed. 


paying a visit to the cathedral of St. Bavon, a 
year or two ago, a person who acted as guide 
pointed out to me, among other objects of interest, 
four massive copper candlesticks, standing in 
prominent positions in the choir. These, he in- 
formed me, were stamped with the arms of Eng- 
land, and had once belonged to King Charles I. 
They are briefly referred to, I find, in Murray's- 
Handbook, where it is said that they were pro- 
bably sold and sent abroad in the interregnum,, 
having previously adorned the chapel of White- 
hall, or possibly St. Paul's. My present object is- 
to inquire whether any particulars have come to- 
light showing the original local position of these 
ecclesiastical ornaments, and under what circum- 
stances they Avere transferred to Flanders. 


Lausanne Road, Peckham. 

BREAD AND SALT. Some years since I called 
for the first time upon Canon Percy, of Carlisle, at 
his residence there. When refreshment had been- 
offered and declined, he said, "You must have- 
some bread and salt," with some remarks to imply 
that it was the way to establish a friendship. 
These were then brought in and eaten, without 
anything to lead one to suppose that this was an 
unusual custom at the house. Was this a practice 
peculiar to himself or to his family ? or is such a 
custom prevalent in the North, or in any other 
part of England 1 I have not met with it else- 
where. ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 


PHILIP SIDNEY." In the prefatory matter in 
Gifford's edition of the works of Ben Jonson there 
is a notice of the song which occurs in the play of: 
the Fox: 

" Come, my Celia, let us prove 
While we may the sports of love, 
Time will not be ours for ever," &c. 

And the writer says: "This song, unfortunately 
founded on the faulty ethical svstem of Sir Philip 
Sidney ," &c. Can any reader "of "N. & Q." tell 
me why this censure is applied to Sidney, whom 
(although not acquainted with his writings) I have 
always looked upon as a great example of moral 
purity 1 HIGHGATE. 

WILLIAM ROGERS, of Weymouth, Dorsetshire., 
born at Dawlish, Devonshire, married Jan. 22., 

5 !h S. IX. JAN. 19, 78.] 


1760, Martha Matticks, of Wey mouth. He held 
a commission in the army, and had an estate in 
Wey mouth, known during the latter part of the 
last century as "Rogers's Folly." It was after- 
wards used as an hotel. Any further information 
in regard to his family and history, also his wife's 
connexions, will be gladly received by 

S. P. MAY. 
Kewton, Mass., U.S.A. 

CENTURY. It is stated by Lawson, in his History 
of the Episcopal Church of Scotland, but on very 
insufficient authority, that there "still exists in 
Holland an organ that was removed from Glasgow 
Cathedral at the time of the Reformation." Is 
anything known of such an instrument ? 

R. B. S. 

I likely to obtain any information respecting a 
silversmith with the initials M. W., who worked 
in Dublin in 1764-65, and used those initials as 
his mark? F. M. 

THE RED MOUSE. I have lately seen an allusion 
to the " red mouse of German literature." Where 
can I find an explanation of it ? 


Journal for February, 1863, contained an engraving 
of a picture, by Mr. F. Goodall, A.R.A., of "Felice 
Ballarin reciting Tasso to the people of Chioggia," 
a seaport on the Gulf of Venice. In the letter- 
press description of the picture it is stated that 
Ballarin was a person who, at the period of the 
artist's visit to Italy a few years previously, got 
his living by reading or reciting the works of the 
Italian poets in the market-place of the above- 
named town to the street population, which con- 
sists principally of fishermen and fruit-sellers, and 
that he recited with much skill and taste. It 
would be interesting to know something more of 
a character who obtained his living in so laudable 
a manner. Do any of your readers know anything 
of him ? What were his antecedents and educa- 
tion 1 and is he still living, and charming the good 
people of Chioggia with Tasso's glowing stanzas ? 
Query, if an English Felice Ballarin were to take 
to reciting the works of our poets, say of Milton 
or Spenser, to the fishermen and costermongers 
in the streets of an English seaport, or, for the 
matter of that, to the merchants and stockbrokers 
in the neighbourhood of Lothbury, how many 
would care to listen to him, and, of those who did, 
how many would appreciate him ? 

Bexley Heath, Kent. 

anxious to study some of the English and Latin 

hymns and popular anti-Popery songs of the Re- 
formation, and those in vogue in 1553-58. Could 
any reader of " N. & Q." help me in the matter by 
telling me where to procure such a collection, if 

there is one ? 


[The rest of your query can be answered best at the 
British Museum.] 

OGILVIE FAMILY. Can any genealogist give - 
information as to the parentage and descent of < 
Conyngham Ogilvie, a commissioned officer iru 
the 51st Line, who sold out A.D. 1811 ? 


Browne's School, Stamford. 

your learned correspondents, ANGLO-SCOTUS or 
HERMENTRUDE, be kind enough to enlighten me 
on the following points ? 1. Was Geoffrey films 
Hervey, who held lands in Westmoreland (in Low- 
ther, Clifton, and Melkanthorpe Escheat, 8 Ed. II.), . 
the grandson or great-grandson of Hervey Fitz 
Akaris, of Ravens wath ? The arms are exactly 
the same, except that the tinctures of the former 
are silver and sable. 

2. Was Alice de Staveley the wife of Henry,, 
son of Hervey Fitz Akaris, or of another of his 
sons named Hervey 1 

3. Where can I find a reliable account of the- 
grant of any lands or manors in Westmoreland 
(belonging to Hugo de Morville or Robert Vipont}/ 
to any of the family of Hervey Fitz Akaris ? 


"FORMES" OF LAND. I find the following 
entry in an old account book (seventeenth century) : 
Paid so much " for plowing 8 formes of land." 
" of land ? 

What is a " forme 


James I. of England first perform this ceremony ?' 
I have, as it were, a remembrance, though not 
improbably a wrong one, that the custom had. 
been for some time omitted prior to his accession _ 
Was it. or was it not ? B. NICHOLSON. 


Who is the author of two articles in CornMll Mag.,. 
1860, vol. i.p. 475, and ii. p. 615, viz., "Ideal Houses" and 
"Neighbours"? Have any of his writings been pub- 
lished in a separate form ] J. A. RUTTER. 

To or On a Stepmother. A poem with this title has 
been, I believe, incorrectly attributed to Beattie. Who 
was the author ? SCRIBE. 

Mr. Bright said, " Some poet, I forget who, has said,. 
' Religion, freedom, vengeance, what you will, 
A word 's enough to raise mankind to kill.' " 
TimeS, Jan. 14, 1878. W. H. C. 



[5th s. IX. JAN. 19, 78. 

(5 th S. i. 102 ; v. 501 ; vi. 21, 81, 141, 161.) 
At the above references are certain extracts from 
the autobiography and correspondence of the Rev. 
Jonathan Boucher, some of which contain severe 
animadversions upon the personal character of 
General Washington. Such animadversions have 
been so rare during the century of his historical 
existence, and, when made, so readily refuted, that 
it does not seem proper that these should continue 
to stand upon record without some notice. It is 
true that the grandson of Mr. Boucher, who fur- 
nished these extracts, very plainly dissented from 
the estimate placed upon Washington's character 
and status by his ancestor, and in vol. vi. p. 143, 
used this language : 

" It is only fair, however, both to Washington and to 
Mr. Boucher to state that the latter, in after years, 
appears to have changed, or rather modified, his opinion 
of Wa-hington's conduct, as, when in 1797 he published 
a set of sermons on the causes and consequences of the 
American Revolution, which he had delivered at various 
times in America, he dedicated the volume to his old 
friend in term? so friendly, and, at the same time, so 
independent, that I would gladly insert the dedication 
here, had not these extracts already extended to what 
I fear is an unconscionable length." 

This is very well and very honourable, so far as it 
goes ; but I think that, in strict fairness and 
justice to the memory of Washington, the dedica- 
tion in question should have been printed side by 
side or in close juxtaposition with the original 
damnatory allegations, in order that the bane 
might not be without the antidote. A copy of 
the volume mentioned has just come into my pos- 
session. It is well enough known, but not likely 
to be much sought after, and hence thousands who 
have read Mr. Boucher's letter to Washington (5 th 
S. vi. 161-2), and been affected by its wholesale 
denunciations of the man to whom it was addressed, 
but by whom there is no evidence that it ever was 
received, would probably never see what appears 
to me a complete denunciation of, and manly 
apology for. the unfounded charges made more 
than twenty years before. 

This letter is dated " Aug. 6, 1775," and was 
generally, as Mr. Boucher's grandson candidly 
explains, the natural outpouring of grief, indigna- 
tion, and disgust, by a man who considered him- 
self wrongly persecuted on account of his political 
opinions. It is clear, however, from the internal 
evidence of the letter itself, that the writer had 
conceived the notion that for some reason per- 
haps the very personal friendship which had long 
existed between him and Washington he should 
be singled out from others who held the same 
political sentiments and protected in the ex- 
pression of them, when, by his own admission, they 

were offensive to the majority of the community in 
which he lived. The sting of the letter is in its 
closing sentences, which must here be repeated in 
order that the case may be perfectly comprehended. 
After detailing his grievances, h3 addresses Wash- 
ington thus : 

" And yet you have borne to look on, at least as an 
unconcerned spectator, if not an abettor, whilst, like the 
poor frogs in the fable, I have in a manner been pelted 
to death. I do not ask if sucli conduct in you was 
friendly: was it either just, manly, or generous? It was 
not : no, it was acting with all the base malignity of a 
virulent Whig. As such, sir, I resent it : and, oppressed 
and overborne as 1 may seem to be by popular obloquy, 
I will not be so wanting in justice to myself as not to tell 
you, as I now do with honest boldnes?, that 1 despise (he 
man, who, for any motives, could be induced to act so 
mean a part. You are no longer worthy of my friend- 
ship : a man of honour can no longer without dishonour 
be connected icith you. With your cause I renounce 
you," &c. 

The italics are mine, and I use them to bring 
out more pointedly what I regard as an attack 
upon the personal rather than the political char- 
acter of the individual addressed. And yet, two- 
and-twenty years later viz. in 1797 on publish- 
ing A. View of the Causes and Consequences of the 
American Revolution, Mr. Boucher dedicated his 
volume to the very man whom he had accused of 
base malignity the man he so despised, who had 
acted so mean a part, who was no longer worthy of 
his friendship, and with v whom he could no longer 
be connected without dishonour in the following 
terms : 

" To George Washington, Esquire, of Mount Vernon, 
in Fairfax County, Virginia. Sir, In prefixing your 
name to a work avowedly hostile to that Revolution in 
which you bore a distinguished part, I am not conscious 
that I deserve to be charged with inconsistency. I do 
not address myself to the General of a Conventional 
Army, but to the late dignified President of the United 
States, the friend of rational and sober freedom. 

" As a British subject I have observed with pleasure 
that the form of Government, under which you and 
your fellow-citizens now hope to find peace and happi- 
ness, however defective in many respects, has, in the 
unity of its executive, and the division of its legislative, 
power?, been framed after a British model. That, in 
the discharge of your duty as head of this Government, 
you have resisted those anarchical doctrines, which are 
hardly less dangerous to America than to Europe, is not 
more an eulogium on the wisdom of our forefathers, 
than honourable to your individual wisdom and integrity. 

"As a Minister of Religion I am equally bound to 
tender you my respect for having (in your valedictory 
address to your countrymen) asserted your opinion that 
' the only firm supports of political prosperity are reli- 
gion and morality ' ; and that ' morality can be main- 
tained only by religion.' Those best friends of mankind, 
who, amidst all the din and uproar of Utopian reforms, 
persist to think that the affairs of this world can never 
be well administered by men trained to disregard the 
God who made it, must ever thank you for this decided 
protest against the fundamental maxim of modern revo- 
lutionists, that religion is no concern of the State. 

" It is on these grounds, Sir, that I now presume (and 
I hope not impertinently) to add my name to the list of 

5'h s. IX. JAN. 19, 78. J 



those who have dedicated their works to you. One o 
them, not inconsiderable in fame, from having been your 
fulsome flatterer, has become your foul calumniator : to 
such dedicators I am willing to persuade myself I hav< 
no resemblance. I bring no incense to your shrine even 
in a Dedication. Having never paid court to you whilst 
you shone in an exalted station, I am not so weak as to 
steer my little bark across the Atlantic in search .oi 
patronage and preferment ; or so vain as to imagine that 
now, in the evening of my life, I may yet be warmed by 
your getting sun. My utmost ambition will be abun- 
dantly gratified by your condescending, as a private 
Gentleman in America, to receive with candour and 
kindness this disinterested testimony of regard from a 
private Clergyman in England. I was once your neigh- 
bour and your friend : the unhappy dispute, which ter- 
minated in the disunion of our respective countries, also 
broke off' our personal connexion : but I never was more 
ihan your political enemy ; and every sentiment even of 
political animosity has, 'on my part, long ago subsided. 
Permit me then to hope, that this lender of renewed 
amity between iis may be received and regarded as giving 
some promise of that perfect reconciliation between our 
two countries which it is the sincere aim of this publi- 
cation to promote. If, on this topic, there be another 
wish still nearer to my heart, it is that you would not 
think it beneath you to co-operate with so humble an 
effort to produce that reconciliation. 
^ " You have shown great prudence (and, in my estima- 
tion, still greater patriotism) in resolving to terminate 
your days in retirement. To become, however, even at 
Mount Vernon, a mere private man, by divesting your- 
self of all public influence, is not in jour power. I hope 
it is not your wish. Unincumbered with the distracting 
cares of public life, you may now, by the force of a still 
powerful example, gradually train the people around 
you to a love of order and subordination ; and, above all, 
to a love of peace. ' Use tibi erunt artes.' That you 
possessed talents eminently well adapted for the high 
post you lately held, friends and foes have concurred in 
testifying : le it my pleasing task thus publicly to declare 
that you carry back to your paternal fields virtues equally 
calculated to bloom in the shade. To resemble Cincinnatus 
is but small praise : be it yours, Sir, to enjoy the calm 
repose and holy serenity of a Christian hero ; and may 
' the Lord bless your latter end more than your be- 
ginning ! ' 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, your very sincere 
Friend, and most obedient humble Servant, 

" Epsom, Surrey, 4th Nov., 1797." 

Here again the italics are mine, for the purpose 
of contrast. As I said before, I know of no with- 
drawal of unfounded charges more complete, and 
no apology more manly, than are embraced in the 
foregoing dedication. It is alike honourable to the 
man who wrote it and him to whom it was ad- 
dressed, and I feel certain that its reproduction 
will at once do away with any unpleasant and un- 
~ust conceptions of the personal character of 
Washington which may have been produced by 
the publication of the letter to which it is a perfect 



" SWALLOW HOLES " (5 th S. viii. 509.) 
41 Swallow holes" are very common in places 
where the surface consists of, or is underlaid by, 
limestone, this species of rock being generally full of 

fissures eroded or enlarged by the action of water. 
Cases in point are common in North Derbyshire 
and elsewhere. At the south end of Breconshire, 
near the Beacon range, is a district extremely in- 
teresting both scenically and geologically, lying 
between the Mellte river and its tributary the 
Hepste. The surface seems to be a not very thick 
capping of millstone grit resting upon carboniferous 
limestone. East and south-east of Ystrad-fellte, a 
secluded Welsh village, the moorland contains 
many fissures and funnel-shaped holes, down some 
of which the surface streams come to a sudden 
end, but which never discharge water, that office 
being left to other holes and crevices in the floors 
and sides of the numerous deep dingles, and at far 
lower levels. The whole region seems honey- 
combed with caves, the gritstone roof having often 
fallen in : hence the cracks and " swallow holes." 
The Mellte plays curious tricks at and below the 
above-named village, sometimes in, sometimes 
below, its surface channel, until swallowed up by 
a huge cave (reversing the case of the Castleton 
cavern), and reappearing half a mile below, forced 
up by vis a tergo, just before dashing over a fine 
series of waterfalls, below which it receives the 
Hepste, and on either side of which its banks 
present a fine combination of lofty rocks and 
beautiful hanging woods. 

The Hepste is well worth following up for two 
or three miles above the junction. First come the 
series of lower waterfalls, whirlpools, and rapid?, 
then the upper or great Cilhepste fall, 50 ft. wide 
by 50 ft. high, where a public footway crosses 
under and behind the water. Here it is best to 
climb the southern bank and keep for half a mile 
or so along the moorland, as the side of the ravine 
is slippery and treacherous ; then descending to 
the stream you find a beautiful series of rock-pools 
and rapids, and soon come to where, in ordinary 
times, the river wells up in a lovely rock basin 
after an underground course of a mile or more. 
(In flood time the dingle is swept by a furious 
torrent, amid which the place of ordinary 
emergence is shown by a curious hay cock- shaped 
jet in mid-stream, proving great hydrostatic 
pressure below, as the fountain has to fight its way 
through the strong surface current.) On again 
along the usually dry bed, note the beauty, as all 
along, of rock cliff and woodland, and the variation 
in geological detail, and minor " faults " too small 
for the Ordnance map (42, S.W., a beautifully en- 
graved sheet), till you come to, Hibernice, a dry 
waterfall, about 16 ft. high by 20 ft. wide, near 
which tongues of dry sand show the blocked 
mouth of a cave, and prove the sometime exit of 
the stream there. The frequent absence of the 
slightest sound of running water proves what must 
be the vagaries of the hidden river, which, as 
shown at the falls below, must, even in dry 
weather, gauge equal to 20 ft. wide by 2 ft. deep. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [5-s.ix. JAN. 19, 78. 

Again ur>stream (<* stream bed), and you 
soon meet running water from some side feeder, 
trickling away with a pleasant tinkle behind some 
mossy block into unseen depths ; more .dry 
channel maybe, or a few hundred } r ards of stream 
leaking mysteriously away right, left, or below, 
more or less, according to weather, the Hepste's 
course being decidedly a riddle in more senses 
than one. Note the more frequent mixture, amid 
the grit and limestone shingle, of pebbles of " old 
red " from the roots of the Brecon Beacons. Soon 
you emerge on the open moors or pastures, and see 
those mountains a few miles ahead, the chief peak, 
2,910 ft. high, bearing N.E. about five miles. 
This range is well worth a visit, is easily reached 
from Brecon, and presents in its northern cliffs 
and slopes a grand geological section of nature's 
making, as well as proof of a denudation justly 
called by Kamsay "stupendous." The Hepste 
falls are half a mile south of Cilhepste-coed, and 
the same distance north of Cilhepste-fach (see Ord. 
map) ; and about two miles more to the south the 
counties Brecon and Glamorgan are separated by 
the ravine of the Sychrhyd, or dry ford, so called 
from aqueous freaks similar to those of the Hepste, 
which latter name seems akin to the Welsh Nesp, 
" dry " or " barren." The Sychrhyd, besides caves 
and " swallow holes," presents scenic and geo- 
logical details of great interest. It lies along 
a " fault," and amid the coal measures on the south 
side is a grand gable of limestone, with beautifully 
arched and, as it were, rib-moulded strata, not yet 
spoiled by quarrying (pace Murray), though that 
fate has befallen Craig-y-dinas on the Brecon side. 
The gable is called B\va maen, " stone bow." 

I trust the above will give your correspondent 
some idea of the cause and working of " swallow 
holes," caused probably in his case by the erosion 
of chalk beds beneath the clay, and the falling in 
of the latter. H. B. BIDEN. 

k Sale, Manchester. 

"Swallow holes" occur in many chalk districts. 
Their formation is explained in many geological 
treatises. An excellent account of them and of 
their theory is to be found in a paper by Mr. 
Prestwich, late President of the Geological Society, 
in the tenth volume of the society's Journal. 

J. C. M. 

I presume these to be similar to the "hell- 
kettles " already mentioned in " N. & Q." (5 th S. 
iv. 105, 155, q.v.). See also Brewer's Dictionary 
of Phrase and Fable. W. T. M. 

Shinfield Grove. 

CRACKNEL BISCUITS (5 th S. viii. 491.) "Bis- 
cuits" surely surplusage. One asks for "cracknels" 
simply at any baker's or confectioner's, and the 
article is at once produced. The translators of 
our Bible version took a current word, which has 

since continued in use. In 1 Kings xiv. 3, quoted 
by E. J. C., cracknels are mentioned with loaves 
and honey as presents to the prophet about to be 
consulted. Spenser speaks of cracknels, in con- 
nexion with kids and early fruit, also as the pre- 
sents of a rustic lover. Dry den also has " tribu- 
tary cracknels." 

In the Promptorium Parvulorum (Harl. MS. 
221, A.D. 1440, ed. Albert Way, Camden Soc. r 
1843) occurs : " Crackenelle, brede. Creputellus, 
fraginellus (artocopus,* k)." Turning to " Brede": 
" Brede, twyys bakyn, as krakenelle, or syranel, or 
other lyke (twyes bake or cracknell, P.t)." 

Palsgrave, ed. 1530, and Hollyband, ed. 1593, 
merely mention craquelin as equivalent to 

In Florio (A Worlde of Wordes, 1598) we get r 
under spira (after various other meanings) : "Also a 
cracknell or cake like a trendle, or writhen like a 

Cotgrave, ed. 1611, mentions the ingredients,. 
" Craquelin, a cracknell, made of the yolks of 
egges, water, and flower ;$ and fashioned like a 
hollow trendle ; hence, also, a little light cap of 
that fashion." 

In 1508 the craquelin seems to have been the 
subject of legal enactment at Kouen. The quota- 
tion suggests a labyrinthine archaeology of bread- 
stuffs into which I do not intend to plunge the 
reader ; for we find in M. Littre's splendid dic- 
tionary : 

" Craquelin, sorte de biscuit qui craque sous la dent. 
Craquelin au beurre nom, dans quelques provinces, de- 
l'echaude. Hist. XVP S. Jl est ordonne que tous les 
boularigers de Rouen fasse de bon pain blanc, comme- 
mollet, fouache, pain de rouelle, semineaux, cornuyaux, 
craquelins, cretelees. Ordonn. d'oct., 1508, etym. 

In J. Higens's edition of the Nomenclator of 
Adrianus Junius, London, 1585, 8vo., p. 85 (mis- 
printed 65), occurs : 

* Artocopus, " Qui vis dulciarius panis et arfce labora- 
tus" ; and below, in a secondary meaning in which we- 
approach the sacramental wafer, " panis elaboratua ad 
opus Domini," Ducange. 

f Added in Pynson'a printed ed. 1499. 

J So made at the present day, as a practical "bake- 
ster " is good enough to tell me. She adds, moreover, 
that the cracknels are most troublesome biscuits to bake. 
They must, in fact, be twice baked and twice boiled. 
This is the cracknel, A.D. 1878, as some American reader- 
may not know the biscuit, viz. : a very light, crisp 
biscuit, made of eggs, flour, and water; circular in shape 
and concave; about 2.^ inches in diameter; nearly half 
an inch in thickness f perforated in its flatter central 
portions with 7-10 considerable punctures ; the sides- 
raised and scalloped into 7-10 turret-like rounded pro- 

" Echaude, a kind of wijjg or symnel," Cotgrave;: 
" Pastilla, a cake, cracknel, or wigge," Skinner. On a 
cap of the period being nicknamed after the cracknel,, 
cf. the dumpling or the pork-pie hat of modern days. 

. IX. JAX. 19, 78.] 



" Spira, Cat'o).* Placentae genus aut panis dulci 
arii a>l spiiue funisve in orbem convoluti modum cir- 
cumductuiu atque implicatum. Crakelinck, vel panis, 
quern wielbroot, quasi rotarium norninamus, Flandris est 
icielken, quasi dicas rotula. Sive quod rotao effigiem 
habeat, sive quod spinas quasdam circularea in solo 
expressas habeat. A cracknel or cake made like a tren 
dell, or writhen like a rope." 

That is to say, a biscuit shaped as in Cotgrave, 
or like what bakers now call "a halfpenny twist. 
I have seen what might be called " wheel-bread 
or "little wheels" in Germany, but not to my 
remembrance in England. The pain de rouelle, 
however, of the Rouen enactment (= rotula, wiel- 
broot, above) is enumerated as distinct from the 

It is interesting to find that the Sussex dialect 
has preserved for us an English equivalent for 
" crakelinck " in cracklings, of which Halliwell says 
(Arch, and Prov. Diet.): "Cracklings crisp 
cakes. Sussex. More usually called cracknels. 
See Elyot in voce Collyra. Cracklings may be 
the older English form of the two." 

In Cooper's Thesaurus, 1578 (founded on Elyot), 
colly r a is given : "A loafe of bread, a bunne, a 
cracknell, a simnell." Turning to collyra in 
Andrews's Latin Dictionary, 1852, we get "maca- 
roni or vermicelli " ; while Liddell and Scott, ed. 
1849, say of KpXXvpa, " probably = K-oAAi, a 
roll of coarse bread." Andrews explains spira 
much as does the Nomenclator: "A kind of 
twisted cake, a twist, cracknel." The Vulgate 
renders cracknels crust ala, which last word Cooper 
translates " a little crust." In the Latin Old 
Testament version of Tremellius (London, 1661, 
12mo.) I find cracknels, at 1 Kings xiv. 3,t as 
buccellata, " biskets, twice baked, and made in 
cakes " (Cooper). In the last folio edition of the 
Genevan version of the Bible (Robert Barker, 
London, 1616) "or wafers " is offered in the margin 
as an alternative explanation of cracknels in the 
same text. 

Tracing cracknel back from the present day, 
here are a few more dictionary explanations culled 
at random : 

" Cracknel, a hard biscuit." Nuttall, 1877. 

"Cracknel, a hard, brittle cake." Johnson, 
6th ed., 1785. 

" Cracknels, a sort of cakes made in shape of a 
dish, and bak'd hard, so as to crackle under the 
teeth." Phillips's New World of Words, 7th eu., 

Bailey's Dictionary (fifth ed., 1731) defines 
in the same words as Phillips (see above), but 

* Cato, de Re Rmlica, 11. 

t There appears to be no second mention of cracknels 
in the Bible. But compare 1 Sam. ix. 7, where Saul, 
about to consult Samuel on the loss of his father's 
asses, says : " For the bread is spent in our vessels, and 
there is not a present to bring to the man of God." A 
money gift is then substituted. 

omits any reference to the dish-like shape. In 
Holtrop's Dutch-English and English-Dutch Dic- 
tionary (vol. i., 1789; vol. ii.,- 1801, Amsterdam) 
we get : " Kraakeling, cracknel, a kind of hard, 
brittle cake." In the English-Dutch volume r 
" Cracknel, kraakeling, knapkoek " ; the last, how- 
ever, is in its order rendered " hard gingerbread." 
To conclude, most of these authorities are fairly 
at one in gi\ing the cracknel as a round, hollow 
biscuit. Cotgrave is the most definite ; his in- 
gredients agree with those of the modern cracknel, 
and his words, " fashioned like a hollow trendle,' r 
give its present shape, as does also the analogy of 
the cracknel cap. Twenty-six years earlier the 
Nomenclator said the same thing, " made like a 
trendell," but added, " or writhen like a rope." 
There may, therefore, have been another variety of 
the cracknel in old days more like the modern 
" twist." HORATIO. 

TO MYSELF " (5 th S. viii. 469.) Dr. Edward Nares,. 
the author of the former book, and Archdeacon 
Robert Nares were first cousins. Their grand- 
father, who was steward to the Earl of Abingdon, 
had two sons, George and James. The former,, 
na. 1715, was called to the Bar in 1741 ; elected 
M.P. for Oxford in 1768; appointed Judge in the- 
Common Pleas and knighted in 1771; and died 
at Ramsgate in 1786. His son, the Rev. Dr.. 
Edward Nares, na. 1762, was B.A. at Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1783; Regius Prof, of Modern History 
and D.D. in 1814; and died in 1848. He wrote 
several books, amongst which Heraldic Anomalies : 
was published anonymously in 1823. The second 
son, James Nares, na. 1716, was instructed in. 
music by Green and Pepusch ; appointed organist 
at York in 1734; became organist to the Chapel 
Royal and Mus. Doc., Camb., in 1756 ; and died 
at Great James Street, Westminster, in 1783. 
He was the father of the Archdeacon, Robert 
Nares, na. 1753, elected from Westminster School 
to Christ Church, Ox., in 1771 ; F.S.A. and 
Librarian, Brit. Mus., in 1795 ; Archdeacon of 
Stafford in 1800; and died 1829. He was the- 
author of many books, of which perhaps his 
Orthoepy and his Glossary are the best known. I 
was not aware that there was any misconception? 
as to which of these two was the author of the 
Heraldic Anomalies. It is rightly given to Dr. 
Edward Nares in Lowndes's Bibl. Man., p. 1650 r 
and in Allibone, Diet, of Authors, ii. 1401 (for 
biographical details see Gentleman's Magazine, Hi. 
182, and Ivi. 622 ; Chalmers's Bio. Diet. ; and the 
Annual Biography, 1830, p. 430). 

It is not so easy to answer the question, Who- 
was R. L., or Robert Long ? without further in- 
formation. If there is any armorial bearing on 
the book-plate it would probably not be difficult to- 
identify the owner. Failing that, I would suggest 



[5'i> s. IX. JAN. 19, '78. 

that he was perhaps one of the Longs of Hampton 
Lodge (see Burke's Landed Gentry). 

Sutton, Surrey. 

In " N. & Q.," 2 d S. ix. 230, the late MR. J. H. 
MARKLAND confirms the assertion in Bonn's 
Lowndes that the Eev. Edward Nares, D.D., was 
the author of both these works ; and he states that 
his friend, Archdeacon Robt. Nares, of Stafford, 
always spoke of the former as having been written 
by his relative (a first cousin). There is, however, 
a confusion of names and designations which no 
doubt can easily be cleared up. 

In the Biog. Did. of Living Authors, 1816, the 
authorship of the novel is given, in a long list of 
more serious works, to the Rev. Edmund Nares, 
D.D., Rector of Biddenden, son of Sir George Nares, 
a Judge of the Common Pleas, by Mary, daughter 
of Sir John Strange, Master of the Rolls. His 
career is fully detailed, and in 1314, on the Pro- 
fessorship of Modern History being conferred upon 
him, he is stated to have taken his degree of D.D. 
Here he is called Edmund, and so he is called in 
that very useful little book, the Brief Biog. Diet., 
but with the title D.C.L. instead of D.D. 

In the earliest published volume of the Clergy 
List (1841) the Rector of Biddenden is the Rev. 
Edward Nares, D.D., and, with MR. MARKLAND'S 
testimony, this is no doubt correct. But, so far 
as the Heraldic Anomalies may be concerned, 
there is plenty of internal evidence in the second 
edition of that work (1824), in allusions to his 
ancestor Sir John Strange, to show that, whether 
Edmund or Edward, whether D.C.L. or D.D., and 
with the Archdeacon's disclaimer, there can be no 
doubt that the Rector of Biddenden was the author 
of these two amusing and instructive works. 


St. John's Wood. 

The brothers, Sir George Nares, who was for 
fifteen years Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, 
and Dr. James Nares, the composer, were born 
at Stan well in 1715 and 1716 respectively. Who 
were their parents? 

James was father to Archdeacon Robert Nares. 
George had, by his marriage with Mary, third dau. 
of Sir John Strange, Master of the Rolls, besides 
daughters, three sons, of whom the eldest, John 
(Bow Street magistrate), was grandfather of Sir 
George Strange Nares, who led the expedition of 
1875 in quest of the North Pole ; and the third 
was the Rev. Edward Nares, somewhile Regius 
Professor of History at Oxford and Rector of Bid- 
denden, co. Kent, and, to my hitherto belief, 
author of Thinks I to Myself. Robert and Ed- 
ward, born respectively in 1753 and 1762, were 
therefore first cousins. 

The Nares family were deservedly quoted at 
5 th S. vi. 419, in illustration of the Horatian 

maxim that "fortes creantur fortibus et bonis." 
Rejoicing to have my not very robust faith in the 
truth of this assertion quickened by so marked an 
instance in its favour, I venture to amplify the 
genealogical information there given, and to add 
the above query. H. W. 

New Univ. Club. 

A reference to the Handbook of Fictitious Names, 
p. 208, will show HIRONDELLE who the Rev. E. 
Nares was ; see also pp. 63 and 152. 

At the same reference GEN. RIGAUD, who asks 
as to Thinks I to Myself, will find his question 
answered. OLPHAR HAMST. 

501.) I cannot think that MR. PICTON'S interest- 
ing remarks on this primaeval monument (if such 
it be) will meet with assent from the archaeologists 
of Dorset. All that he states respecting the 
Danish incursions on the coast of Dorset is his- 
torically correct, yet cannot be allowed to justify 
the inference of this being a Danish sacrificial altar. 
It is jumping to a conclusion from insufficient 
premises. The Danes visited this coast, and 
elsewhere, as roving bands of robbers and pirates, 
and I question whether such a lawless horde of 
freebooters would trouble themselves with altars 
and sacrifices or any kind of religious observance. 
There is no evidence, in fact, as to this being a 
Danish monument. It is not. an unusual thing for 
popular opinion, in its ignorance of ancient works, 
to attribute to the Danes that which does not 
belong to them. As regards the etymology of the 
name, Hutchins may have erred in deriving it 
from hdlig, holy ; and MR. PICTON'S suggestion of 
the A.-S. e<7Z=sunering, sacrifice, is plausible, and 
may be the more correct derivative ; nevertheless, 
it would not follow that it has reference to a 
Danish sacrificial altar. The Anglo-Saxons may 
have applied that term to the monument from a 
legendary character attributed to it, and handed 
down for centuries before the Vikings were heard 
of in these parts. There is indeed some analogy 
between this rocky mass and the so-called rock 
idols of Cornwall, described by Borlase, and un- 
doubtedly unconnected with the Danes. If this 
singular rock had any sacred character at all, it 
may be reasonably referred to an age anterior to 
that of Stonehenge, I mean to a pre-historic Keltic 
age. The walls of Wareham are assigned by Mr. 
Warne, F.S.A., not without reasonable probability, 
to the Saxons. See his Ancient Dorset. 

T. W. W. S. 

,5 th S. viii. 41, 136, 160, 273, 357.) I am glad to 
find that as regards the general rule MR. WARREN 
and I are nearer to an agreement than I supposed. 
That a large proportion (not, as he puts it, all) of 
my examples are either purely Latin words, or the 

5<i> S. IX. JAN. 19, 78.] 



English forms of such words, is a natural result of 
the fact which I set out with noticing, that the 
suffix -ian is only the English form of the Latin 
-ianus. If he repudiates the e as a component 
part of the suffix in the cases of Shakespearean and 
Gladstonean, and claims to treat it as part of the 
name itself, it follows that he must pronounce the 
words as trisyllables, Shake-speare-an and Glad- 
stone-an, which seem to me as objectionable to the 
ear as the spelling he advocates is to the eye. I 
cannot assent to the doctrine that in forming an 
adjective from either a proper name or common 
noun the termination of the latter remains entire, 
and MR. WARREN could not have furnished a 
stronger case against his own view than in pro- 
posing the name of Novello, with a distinct Italian 
termination. It is a necessary inference from MR. 
WARREN'S rule that he would, in this case, form an 
adjective by writing the name in full and adding -an 
after the vowel, though he has not ventured to see 
how it would look in print. He says I should hardly 
make the adjective Novellian. I should indeed 
avoid coining an adjective from the name at all, 
holding that as long as it retains its Italian form 
it is not qualified to receive an English termina- 
tion. No one has attempted to form an English 
adjective from the name of Tasso or Ariosto. Mr. 
Novello might Latinize his name into Novellus, or 
Anglicize it into Novel, Novell, or Novelle, as he 
might prefer, in any of which forms it would take 
an adjective, Novellian. In fact, we do not form 
adjectives from all proper names, but only from 
those which, being suitable in structure, have 
attained a certain eminence, and in which the in- 
convenience (which MR. WARREN considers a 
reason for his canon) of not being able to ascertain 
the name from the adjective does not arise. 

Hardwick House, Chepstow. 

DR. PITCAIRN (5 th S. viii. 498.) The mention 
by W. T. M. of the eminent and eccentric Scotch 
physician, Dr. A. Pitcairn, reminds me of an anec- 
dote of him which I do not think is to be found 
in Dean Ramsay's collection. The doctor hardly 
ever entered a church. He was, in fact, one of 
that unsatisfactory class of church-goers dubbed 
by Mr. Spurgeon " umbrella Christians," who are 
never seen in a place of worship save when caught 
near one umbrella-less in a shower of rain. Being 
in this predicament one Sunday, he went into an 
Edinburgh kirk, and seated himself in a pew which 
was occupied by a douce, respectable-looking 
individual, who was apparently lending an atten- 
tive ear to the sermon. The preacher seemed to 
be much exercised in his mind, and shed tears 
copiously as he went on with his discourse. Dr. 
Pitcairn, who could discover nothing in the matter 
of it to account for this lachrymose display, in- 
clined himself towards his fellow sitter, and whis- 

pered in his ear, " What the deil gars the man 
greet ? " to which the other responded behind his 
hand, "Maybe ye wad greet yoursel', gin ye were 
up there, and had as little to say." 


"CRY MATCHES!" (5 th S. viii. 491.) This 
expression appears to be nothing more than a con- 
version of the French " ere* matin." I have fre- 
quently heard the exclamation used by a friend 
who had spent some time at the Mauritius, and I 
presume it was introduced in America by the 
French Canadians. A. P. 

viii. 491.) Nothing is known here of his parent- 
age or family, and any investigation is at present 
impossible, as the ancient parish registers were 
impounded at the House of Lords after the great 
peerage case in 1810, and have remained there 
ever since. The name is an old one in the parish, 
and still nourishes, under the spelling of Pearce. 

There is another epitaph to a Pearce in Berkeley 
Churchyard, quite as quaint in its way as that of 
the watchmaker, and I send you a copy of it, in 
case it may not have already appeared in "N. & Q." 
It was written by Swift, and is quite characteristic- 
of the caustic dean : 

" Here lies the Earl of Suffolk's Fool, 

Men called him Dicky Pearce ; 
His folly served to make folks laugh 
When wit and mirth were scarce. 
Poor Dick, alas ! is dead and gone, 

What signifies to cry 1 . 
Dickys enough are still behind 
To laugh at by-and-by. 

Buried June 18th, 1728, aged 63." 
J. H. C. 

OLD EECEIPTS (5 th S. viii. 145.) Dr. James y 
in his Pharmacopoeia Universalis (A.D. 1747), 
describes garden rue as a plant " greatly esteemed 
by the ancients, which will appear by its being 
the principal basis of the famous antidote of 
Mithridates." The leaves of rue, he says, " mixed 
with recent butter, and eaten in a morning with 
bread ... are an excellent preservative against 
the noxious influences of a moist and vapid atmo- 
sphere and the contagious miasmata of epidemical 
diseases. The leaves bruised with pepper, common 
salt, and strong vinegar," &c. The latter com- 
pound is to be applied in other cases ; but the 
doctor further mentions that "strong wine vinegar, 
richly impregnated with the juice of the rue, 
applied to the mouth and nostrils, is ... an 
excellent preservative against the contagion of 
epidemical disorders." Galega, Ruta caprania, 
is another species of rue goat's rue most pro- 
bably the herb intended in the " old receipt " ; 
for, according to Dr. James, " it grows in several 



[5"' S. IX. JAN. 19, 78. 

parts of Italy," and possesses the properties de- 
scribed above. KINGSTON. 

HAMILTON (5 th S. viii. 389 ) Although I am not 
able to give 1ST. M. a clue to the present where- 
abouts of this picture, I may give him a thread, by 
following which he may ultimately arrive at the 
desired information. 

Some forty years ago, or it may be a little more, 
I attended the sale of this picture, which I well 
remember, at Lark Hill, Salford, then a private 
residence, now a public library and museum. The 
sale was conducted by Mr. Winstanley, of Liver- 
pool and Manchester. An application to his son 
or successors may enable N. M. to follow out his 
inquiry. I have a faint remembrance the picture 
was sold for about seventy guineas ; but in this I 
may be mistaken. I had long the catalogue in 
my possession, giving the names of the purchasers 
with the prices ; but, on looking for it for the pur- 
pose of giving a reply, I have not been able to put 
my hand on it. WILLIAM HARRISON. 

Rock Mount, Isle of Man. 

S. v. 28.) Henry Sewall, who was Mayor of 
Coventry in 1606, married a Margaret Grazbrook, 
who died in 1632, aged seventy-six. He died in 
1628, aged eighty-four. They had the following 
children : Anne, married Anthony Power, of 
Kenil worth, Gent. Henry, bapt. in St. Michael's 
Church, Coventry, April 8, 1576 ; died at Rowley, 
New England, 1657, aged eighty-one : he married 
Anne Hunt, and was the ancestor of one of the 
most respectable families in America. Richard, 
vintner of Coventry, will extant ; and Margaret. 
who married Abraham Randall, of Coventry, Gent! 
This pedigree is derived from one in Drake's Hist, 
of Boston, Mass., folio edit., and is said to be of 
the highest authority. See also the Heraldic 
Journal for 1865, vol. i. p. 68, and the New Eng. 
Genealogical Register, 1847, vol. i. p. Ill, pub- 
lished in the same place. The arms of this family 
of Sewall are, " Sable, a chevron between three 
bees argent." Allibone mentions eighteen authors 
of the name, most of whom, if not all, were of the 
New England Sewalls. In the Life and Corre- 
spondence of Sir Win. Dugdale, by Win. Hamper, 
1837, p. 286, is a letter of Samuel Roper to Dug- 
dale, of which the supposed date is 1654, calling 
him "cozen." A foot-note describes him as 
" Dugdale's earliest encourager in antiquarian 
studies," and states he " was a barrister of Lincoln's 
Inn, and married Elizabeth, one of the daughters 
of ^ Sir Henry Goodere. He resided at Monks 
Kirby, and our author has thus mentioned him in 
his account of it in Warwickshire, p. 50," &c. It 
is noteworthy that, in a pedigree of the Dugdales 
in the back of this work, Richard Sewall, who 

married Mary Dugdale, is called of " Corley, 
Warwickshire." A Thomas Shewell, M.A. of 
Cambridge University, Vicar of Lenham in Kent, 
was one of the ejected divines in 1662. He was 
born at Coventry, where his father was a reputable 
citizen and clothier. He died Jan. 19, 1693 (vide 
Calamy, and Sibree and Caston's Independency in 
Warwickshire). A family of Shewell were early 
settlers of Pennsylvania, among which occurs the 
name of Stephen, also of frequent occurrence in 
the New England family. Elizabeth Shewell of 
this line was the wife of Benjamin West, R.A., 
the celebrated painter. B. F. Rodenbaugh, Bvt. 
Brigadier-General, U.S.A., 23, Murray Street, 
New York, is collecting information in regard to 
this family. Prior to 1750 there was a Peter 
Sewell and Hannah his wife of Wolsingham, Eng- 
land. They had a son Thomas, who married 
Elinor Cummin, afterwards of Alnwick, and may 
have had other children. As they are said to have 
used the same arms as the Coventry Sewalls, I 
shall be glad to know if there was any relationship. 

Camden, New Jersey, U.S.A. 

EPITAPH AT YOULGRAVE (5 th S. viii. 426.) 
The epitaph quoted by DR. GATTY is to be found 
on a tombstone in Holmesfield Churchyard (near 
Dronfield, co. Derb.), erected to commemorate a 
musician named Hattersley. I cannot just now 
give the date, but I strongly suspect the Youl- 
grave epitaph is only a copy, and that Holmesfield 
is its original locality. I have always fancied 
that Mr. Richard Furness, who died in the neigh- 
bouring parish of Dore in 1857, was the author of 
it. CLK. 

SIR JULIUS CJESAR (1 st S. viii. 172 ; 2 nd S. v. 
394 ; xi. 139, 153; 4 th S. x. 412; 5 th S. viii. 427.) 
The " Mr. S. Laurence Somnel " mentioned by 
MR. REYNOLDS at the last reference is a misprint 
of my own name. I have in my possession one 
copy of Lodge's life of Sir Julius Ccesar and 
family, and another copy is in the Guildhall 
Library. The last representative of the Caesar 
family was Mrs. Eliza Aberdeen, living at Ham- 
mersmith in 1827, the date of the publication of 
Lodge's work, and who died in 1833, aged 97 
years. Most of the materials used for the com- 
pilation of the Life of Sir Julius Ccesar were in 
the possession of this lady. She, however, wishing 
to place them in safe hands, offered them to Lord 
Hardwicke, a distant member of the family. My 
great-grandfather, James Cheatle Gomrne, carried 
out this arrangement for Mrs. Aberdeen, and I 
have the correspondence which ensued with Earl 
Hardwicke on the occasion, dating from April 2 
to August 4, 1827. 

Sir Julius Caesar's library was sold in 1757 : see 
Hist. MSS. Com. vol. iii. p. 64. Several of his 

5'h S. ix. JAN. 19, 78.] 



books were bought by Horace Walpole : see cata- 
logue of sale at Strawberry Hill in 1842. 

Mrs. Aberdeen's property was sold in June, 
1833, and I have a priced catalogue. 

For some notes on several members of the 
family, see index to Hist. MSS. Reports, sub voce. 
See also Pepys's Diary, Feb. 12, 1666 ; Scott's 
Pevcril of the Peak, appendix, p. 56, edit. 1848. 
There are two marble slabs bearing inscriptions 
relating to the Caesar family in St. Catherine's 
Church, near the Tower, of which I have a copy. 
In conclusion, I may say my little collection of 
notes is very much at the service of MR. REY- 

MR. REYNOLDS will find a good account of Sir 
Julius Caesar, his ancestors and descendants, in 
Burke's History of the Commoners, 1837, vol. ii. 
pp. 18-21. 

I notice in Mr. James Watts's Book Catalogue 
for December last a copy of the work on the 
Ctesar family, mentioned at 4 th S. x. 412, priced 

75. 6d. HlRONDELLE. 

A Mr. Henry Cajsar was Cursitor for Lincoln- 
shire and Somersetshire for the Court of Chancery 
in 1691 (New State of England, by G. M., 1691, 
p. 194). R. PASSINGHAM. 

COUSINS (5 th S. viii. 427.) Frederick the Great 
is a notable instance of a great man whose parents 
were first cousins. 

Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, had, 
amongst other children, George I. of England and 
Sophia Charlotte, the wife of Frederick I. of 
Prussia. George I.'s daughter Sophia Dorothea 
married her cousin, Frederick William I. of 
Prussia, the only son of Frederick I. and Sophia 
Oharlotte his wife. Frederick William I. and 
his wife Sophia Dorothea had, amongst other 
issue, Frederick the Great. R. PASSINGHAM. 

Celebrated person offspring of cousins Earl 
Derby, the Rupert of debate, Prime Minister 
three times. HARDRIC MORPHYN. 

HOMER'S ''NEPENTHES" (5 th S. viii. 264, 316.) 
As a help towards the meaning of Homer's much- 
discussed word " Nepenthes," in Od. iv. 221, 1 beg 
to refer MR. J. LE BOUTILLIER and A. S. W. to 
two very interesting remarks in the notes to Lane's 
translation of The Thousand and One Nights, viz. 
note 46 to chap, ii., in which he says : 

" The name of ' benj ' or ' berg' is now, and I believe 
generally, given to henbane ; but El-Kasweenee states 
that the leaves of the garden hemp are the benj, which 
when eaten disorder the reason," &c. 

And in note 76 to chap. xi. he says : 

" Respecting benj, see note 46 to chap. ii. The fol- 
lowing remarks by the celebrated Von Hammer, who 
regards the benj as hyoscyamus (or henbane), should 
have been there added : ' " Bendj," the plural of which 

in Coptic is " nibendj," is without doubt the same plant 
as the " nepenthe," which has hitherto so much per- 
plexed the commentators of Homer. Helen evidently 
brought the nepenthe from Egypt, and bendj is still 
there reputed to possess all the wonderful qualities which 
Homer attributes to it.' " 

Sparham Rectory, Norwich. 

ORIGINAL LETTER (5 th S. viii. 425.) Your 
correspondent MR. MALDEN says : "A Turkish 
history seems to me an unlikely thing for a country 
gentleman of 1715 to want, even if such a thing 
had been written." Why such a thing as a Turkish 
history should not be wanted by a man living in 
1715 as much as by one of the present day I am 
at a loss to understand. That a great many copies 
of such a book were wanted by " the reading 
public" is a matter proved beyond doubt. A 
good proportion of that public then as now, I 
believe, would be made up of country gentlemen. 

There can be little doubt that the book referred 
to is Richard Knolles's General History of the 
Turks. The first edition bears the date 1603 on 
the title-page. There are other editions of 1610, 
1621, 1631, 1638, and 1679. It was republished 
with a continuation by Sir Paul Rycaut in 1687- 
1700, in three volumes folio. In the Rambler, 
No. 120, Knolles's History is highly spoken of. 
Raleigh and Clarendon have already been alluded 
to ; and then the writer goes on to say : 

" None of our writers can, in my opinion, justly con- 
test the superiority of Kriolles, who, in his History of 
the Tuiks, has displayed all the excellencies that narra- 
tion can admit." 

Lord Byron said at Missolonghi, a few weeks 
before his death : 

"Old Knolles was one of the first books that gave me 
pleasure when a child; and I believe it had much in- 
fluence on my future wishes to visit the Levant, and 
gave, perhaps, the Oriental colouring which is observed 
in my poetry." Byron's Works Complete, one vol. edit.. 
1846, p. 62. 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

CHESS (5 th S. viii. 269, 316, 438, 495.) I am 
obliged to MR. KENNEDY for his answer to me ; 
but I am afraid I must ask leave to rejoin. MR. 
KENNEDY puts a case I will accept it and says 
my suggestion " creates an unspeakable absurdity." 
If he had thoroughly followed out my suggestion, 
I do not think he would have said this. I suppose 
I ought to have done it myself, but I had thought 
I should be understood. There is no " unspeak- 
able absurdity"; for on my suggestion black is 
not " in a position of checkmate" as long as white's 
knight covers his own king from black's check ; 
but when white's knight is relieved from this 
office, his powers of giving check of course return 
to him, and black's position then becomes one of 
checkmate. Thus, supposing black is so silly as 
to let his king stay where it is (it not being 



[5" 8. IX. JAN. 19, 78. 

checked, remember, OB the supposition), if white 
frees his knight, either by moving his king or by 
interposing another piece, he discovers the check- 
mate given by his knight, and wins the game by 
that move. On the other hand, if black makes 
any move which has the effect of freeing white's 
knight, he makes a false move, which he has no 
right to make, because he exposes his king to an 
actual check, which, by the laws of the game, he 
cannot do ; and if he does it inadvertently, he 
must be dealt with as he would be dealt with if 
he had played his king into check in any other 

MR. KENNEDY opposes my definition of check 
as " such a position of the king that he could be 
taken if he were not a king," and says, first, that 
it is " not a position of the king at all." But it 
appears to me that a king must be in some posi- 
tion, even if he is in check ; he would find it 
difficult to be in none. Secondly, MR. KENNEDY 
says that check is " an intimation to him that he 
is attacked." Very good ; I quite agree. But 
what is attacking a king, or any other piece, if it- 
is not threatening to take it ? The king cannot 
be taken, and therefore the intimation is given. 
MR. KENNEDY and I say the same thing in dif- 
ferent words. 

MR. JARVIS, in his short and easy solution of 
my difficulties, just misses the very point. The 
point is that the piece which is supposed to give 
check (and according to the present laws of course 
does give check) itself covers the attacking king, 
that is, its own king. 

As to the alteration making obsolete all our 
chess literature, it would of course do so with 
some, but by no means all. I have played a good 
deal of chess in my time, and the case has occurred 
to me comparatively seldom. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 


extract the following notice and version of the 
prophecy inquired for by H. A. B. from 
Blavatsky's Isis Unveiled (New York, Bouton 
and London, Quaritch, 1877), vol. i. p. 261, a work 
of great research and erudition in matters occult 

"In an old book of prophecies published in the fif 
teentli century (an edition of 1453) we read the follow 
ing among other astrological predictions : 
' In twice two hundred years the Bear 

The Crescent will assail ; 
But if the Cock and Bull unite, 
The Bear will not prevail. 

In twice ten years again, 

Let Islam know and fear, 
The Cross shall stand, the Crescent wane, 

Dissolve, and disappear." 

In a foot-note the modern garb of the prophecy i 
thus accounted for : 

" The library of a relative of the writer contains a copj 

this unique work. The prophecies are given in the 
Id French language, and are very difficult for the 
tudent of modern French to decipher. We give, there- 
ore, an English version, which is said to be taken from 
book in the possession of a gentleman in Somersetshire, 


Tn the fifty- fifth chapter of Gibbon's Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire, we have the 
bllowing : 

By the vulgar of every rank it was asserted and 
relieved that an equestrian statue in the square of 
Taurus Avas secretly inscribed with a prophecy how the 
lussians, in the last days, should become masters of 
Constantinople. In our own time a Russian armament, 
nstead of sailing from the Borysthenes, has circum- 
navigated the continent of Europe ; and the Turkish 
capital has been threatened by a squadron of strong and 
ofty ships of war, each of which, with its naval science 
xnd thundering artillery, could have sunk or scattered 
a hundred canoes, such as those of their ancestors. 
Perhaps the present generation may yet behold the 
accomplishment of the prediction of a rare prediction, 
f which the style is unambiguous and the date un- 

J. B. 


FORD (5 th S. viii. 429, 453.) William de Car- 
mychel lived in 1350. His great-grandson Wil- 
liam, at the battle of Beauge, broke his spear in an 
encounter with the Duke of Clarence, for which 
feat he added to his arms a dexter hand and arm r 
armed, holding a broken spear, which has since 
been the crest of the family. His descendant, 
James Carmichael, was in 1627 created a baronet, 
and in 1647 Lord Carmichael in Scotland, to him 
and his heirs male whatever, and died in 1672. 
He was succeeded by his grandson John, second 
Lord Carmichael, who was sworn a member of 
William Ill's Privy Council, and in 1690 was 
appointed the King's Commissioner of the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland. In Mac- 
aulay's opinion (History, ch. xvi. 222) h was " a 
nobleman distinguished by good sense, humanity, 
and moderation." On June 25, 1701, he was 
created in Scotland Earl of Hyndford, Viscount 
of Inglisberry and Nemphlar, Lord Carmichael of 
Carmichael, by patent to him " et hreredibus mas- 
culis et tallies," &c. 

The first Earl Hyndford died in 1710, and was 
succeeded by his son James (second earl), who 
died in 1737, and was succeeded by his son John 
(third earl). 

The third earl was a celebrated diplomatist, and 
a friend of Frederick the Great, from whom he 
had a grant of an addition of the eagle of Silesia 
to his arms. He married a daughter of the cele- 
brated Sir Cloudesley Shovel, but, dying in 1767 
without issue, was succeeded by his cousin John, 
(fourth earl), the representative of the first eaiL 

5"' S. IX. JAN. 19, 78 J 



The fourth earl was succeeded by his brother 
James (fifth earl), who, dying in 1787, was suc- 
ceeded by his cousin Thomas (sixth earl), the last 
male descendant of the first earl. He died after 
1809, since which time the honours have remained 

Even should the earldom not have been in 
remainder to the heirs male whatever, as MR. 
CARMICHAEL seems to think possible, there can 
now be no doubt that, after the decision of the 
House of Lords in the Mar and other peerage 
claims, the heirs general have no claim. (See 
Biographical Peerage, 1809, vol. iii. 146 ; Car- 
lyle's Frederick the Great, v. 11, 13, 17, 20, 29, 
42, 48, 49, 50, 58, 67, 138 ; iv. 200 ; v. 8, 116, 
135; vi. 171.) R. P. 

This peerage has been dormant since the death 
of the sixth earl in 1817. Both the earldom of 
Hyndford (created 1701) and the barony of Car- 
michael (1647) were granted with remainder to 
heirs male and of entail. According to Sir B. 
Burke (Extinct Peerage), Sir Jas. K. Carmichael, 
Bart, is the heir male of the family. As, how- 
ever, the common ancestor of Sir James and of 
the Hyndford line lived some two centuries prior 
to the creation of the peerage in 1647, it may be 
somewhat difficult to prove the extinction of all 
intermediate heirs. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

(5 th S. ix. 19.) In Public Characters, 1800-1, 
R. Phillips, St. Paul's Churchyard, I find the fol- 
lowing dates : 
" The lady was born on November 27, 1758, at College 

Green, Bristol On December 26, 1800, she expired. 

She was interred in the churchyard of Old Windsor, 
agreeable to her particular request, and the following 
epitaph by Mr. Pratt is engraven on the simple monu- 
ment erected to her memory : 
"'Epitaph on Mrs. Robinson's Monument in the Church 

of Old Windsor, by J. S. Pratt, Esq. 
Of Beauty's isle, her daughters must declare, 
She who sleeps here was fairest of the fair. 
But ah ! while Nature on her favourite smil'd 
And Genius claim'd his share in Beauty's child, 
Ev'n as they wove a garland for her brow, 
Sorrow prepar'd a willowy wreath of woe ; 
Mix'd lurid nightshade with the buds of May, 
And twin'd her darkest cypress with the bay; 
In mildew tears steep'd every opening flow'r, 
Prey'd on the sweets, and gave the canker pow'r. 
Yet may Pity's angel from the grave 
This early victim of misfortune save ! 
And as she springs to everlasting morn, 
May Glory's fadeless crown her soul adorn ! ' " 


MAC MAHON FAMILIES (5 th S. ix. 7.) The 
President of the French Republic, Marshal de 
Mac Mahon, is, I believe, descended from the 
Mac Mahons of Clare, and has no connexion 

whatever with the Mac Mahons of the county of 
Monaghan, who bore Or, an ostrich sable, in its 
beak a horseshoe proper. Hugh Mac Mahon, R.C. 
Bishop of Clogher, was translated to Armagh in 
1715, and died August 2, 1737, set. seventy-seven. 
He was of the Mac Mahons of Monaghan, but his 
parentage has not been ascertained. There were 
also two brothers who succeeded each other as 
E.G. Bishops of Clogher and also as Primates of 
Armagh, Bernard and Ross. The first died May 27, 
1747, set. sixty-seven. Ross died Oct. 29, 1740, 
set. forty-nine. Their tombstone is in Edergale 
old churchyard. Of Arthur (or Augustin ?) Mac 
Mahon, Provost of the Collegiate Church of St. 
Peter, at Cassel, I have no account, but I think 
MR. BONE is wrong in supposing that he was R.C. 
Archbishop of Armagh. In my History of the 
County of Monaghan, p. 206, I have given a 
pedigree of this illustrious family of Mac Mahon, 
and found it impossible to identify the three 
ecclesiastics in question. Ev. PH. SHIRLEY. 


" While the gaunt mastiff, growling at the gate, 
Affrights the beggar whom he longs to eat." 

Pope's Moral Essays, ep. iii. 1. 195. 
H. D. C. 

" Thus painters write their name at Co." 

Prior's Protogenes and Apdles. 

11 What though the treacherous tapster Thomas." 

Swift, lines on Stella. 
J. C. M. 
" That strain I heard was of a higher mood." 

Milton's LyciJas, 1. 87. 

" How war may best uphold 
Move by her two main nerves, iron and gold, 
In all her equipage." 

Milton, Sonnet to Sir Henry Vane the Younger. 


A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (A D. 1450-1878). 
By Eminent Writers, English and Foreign. With 
Illustrations and Woodcuts. Edited by George Grove, 
D.C.L. Part I., " A." to " Ballad." (Macmillan & Co.) 
HALF a century has gone by since Sainsbury & Co. pub- 
lished their Dictionary of Musicians, with Choron's 
summary of the History of Miisic by way of introduction. 
It is still a pleasant book, as far as it goes, but long 
since out of date. Dr. Grove's new Dictionary of Music 
a >'d Musicians promises in this first part to supply much 
of what was omitted in the old work, and still more of 
the record of the art and the artists of the fifty years 
that now remain to be added to the history. The old 
dictionary began with "Aaron"; the new opens with 
"A." The former finished its A.s with "Azopard"; 
the latter goes further, and chronicles " Azor and 
Zemira." Our elder friend put " Babel," a famous tenor 
singer of the middle of the last century, at the head of 
the B.s ; our contemporary has a word to say for 
B itself, and the aliases by which it is known (as a 



[5ti- S. IX. JAN. 19, 78. 

musical sign) in other countries. If succeeding numbers 
only equal this first, the work will be one of permanent 

THE periodicals open the year with spirit, vigour, and 
ability. The Quarterly has a most important articte on 
"Scientific Lectures/ their Use and Abuse." The 
"Story of Dr. Faustus" in the New Quarterly Magazine 
puts the date of the historical Faustus at about the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. " Spontaneous 
Generation," by Prof. Tyndall, in The Nineteenth 
Century, should be read after the Quarterly article on 
the use and abuse of scientific lectures. Macmillan has 
a paper, " Schliemann's Mycenae," which may be very 
profitably read in conjunction with a similarly entitled 
article in the Quarterly. Both allow the value of the 
discoveries, but dispute the theory built upon them. 
The historical paper in Temple Bar portrays the 
eccentric Christina of Sweden, and describes her 
abdication as a mistake. In Cornhill there is a pleasant 
paper on " Marivaux," reminding the reader of Vinet's 
critical chapter on this French dramatist in The 
History of French Literature in the Eighteenth Century. 
Marivaux's plays may be safely commended to students. 
The talk in them gave the word marwaudage to the 
French language. Some persons who do not care for 
Marivaux speak of his graceful verbiage as mere dust ; 
but the glittering dialogue is, at all events, gold dust. 
Voltaire's judgment of him was "Marivaux weighs a 
fly's eggs in the web of a spider." " He fatigues me and 
himself,'' said a lady, "by making me travel twenty 
leagues on a piece of wood three feet square/' 

THE ancient barony of Mowbray is no longer in 
abeyance. The question has been decided by the Queen 
in favour of Lord Stourton, whose ancestor, William, 
fifteenth Baron Stourton (1753-1781), married Winifred, 
eldest daughter and co-heir of Philip Howard, brother of 
the Duke of Norfolk, who died s.p. in 1777. At the 
death of this duke, twelve (perhaps thirteen) baronies 
fell in abeyance between the daughters and co-heirs of 
the duke's brother Philip. His elder daughter married 
as above. The younger, Anne, married Lord Petre. 
The co-heirship of the present Lord Stourton, in right 
of his ancestress Winifred, the elder daughter, is now 
settled by the grant to this peer of the older barony. 
The barony of Mowbray (by tenure) dates from William 
the Conqueror. The eleventh baron was created Duke 
of Norfolk in Io97. The barony of Stourton was created 
in 1448. The seventh Baron Stourton was hanged for 
murder in 1557. His attainder for felony does not 
appear to have prevented the descent of the dignity. 
The son of the murderer, however, was not summoned 
to Parliament till nearly eighteen years after his father's 

COL. CHESTER, who has done such good service for this 
country by his work on Westminster Abbey registers, 
has been for fifteen years engaged in collecting materials 
for a complete history of the Washington family. The 
Colonel was led to this from the fact that he had de- 
molished the accepted pedigree of Washington, and left 
the illustrious President without an ancestor. This 
result Col. Chester published in the late Mr. J. G. 
Nichols's Herald and Genealogist, vol. iv. pp. 49-63, and 
the paper was reprinted several times, both here and in 
the United States. Since that time the Colonel has been 
collecting evidences and materials for a Stemmata 
Washinytoniana. But it will be some time before he 
will be in a position to produce the volume. 

Wednesday next the sale of an important collection of 
illustrations of the Drama and Dramatic Literature. 


ON all communications should be written the name and" 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

J. B. FLEMING (Glasgow.) See 5th g. V 5i. 424; viii. 
45. All the separate numbers of the First Series of 
"N. & Q." are out of print. Our publisher has one 
complete set from the commencement up to the present 
time for sale. Many of the subsequent numbers, in- 
cluding the Second Series, up to the present time, may 
still be had separately. The Fourth Series Index may 
be had, as also the indexes to all the subsequent volumes. 

F. W. F. (5ti> S. viii. 507.) Joseph Merlin, born at 
Huys, between Namur and Liege, Sept. 17, 1735, is said 
to have been the inventor of roller skates. See 
"N. & Q," 5* S. v. 509; vi. 36, 336. For Skatiny 
Literature, see " N. & Q.," 5"' S. ii. 107, 156, 318, 379; 
iv. 177, 437; v. 136. 

B. W. S. (Shillingford Rectory.) On the subject of 
hats you will find a number of interesting articles in 
" N. & Q.," at the following references : 2 nd S. i. 450 ; 
3 r(1 S. v. 136, 499 ; vi. 16, 26, 57, 75 ; viii. 325, 402, 403, 
466, 549; 4th s. ii. 286; vi. 360; ix. 444, 517; x. 96, 
193, 219, 247, 318. 

H. HALL will find the subject of the meeting of Wel- 
ingtori and Bliicher, at Belle Alliance, fully discussed 
in " N. & Q." of the present series, vol. vi. 48, 98, 112, 
230, 370. 

W. GARNETT (Taunton.) A correspondent desires to- 
forward you some memoranda bearing on your query, 
5' 1 ' S. viii. 408. To what address should they be for- 
warded ? 

SCHOLASTICA. The plays of Destouches, in prose and 
verse, fill ten volumes. The writer ranks after Moliere 
and Regnard. His plays are thoroughly readable. 

DICA. Received. Two proofs will be sent. To wha t 
length would the other article run ? 

M. E. will find he has been anticipated. In Farquhar's 
Inconstant (Act iv. sc. 2) the French phrase " Tou- 
jours perdrix " takes this form: "Soup for breakfast, 
soup for dinner, soup for supper, and soup for breakfast 
again ! " 

E. D. H. Any other member of your club could 
answer the three queries in much less time than it takes 
to write to this effect. 

G. O. asks for the best means of taking out mud stains 
from printed papers without injuring the colour of the 
paper or print. 

J. P. WRIGHT. We forwarded the words of the song 
"Good St. Anthony" to MR. TAYLOR, for which he 
thanks you. 

A. C. (Union Club, Brighton.) Consult Men of the 

W. D. PINK. Not received till after the paragraph 
on the same subject was in type. 

WILL the writer of the " Legend of the Comtes 
d' Albania " send us his name, not for publication 1 

S R. (Manchester). The ballad is in Othello, Act ii. 
sc. 3. 

E. J. TAILOR. Teignmouth will find the lady. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5"' S. IX. JAX. 26, 




NOTES : Arms on the Stalls in the Choir of the Cathedral at 
Haarlem, 61 The True Story of the Cenci Family, (^-Folk- 
Lore, G-t <^ueen Emma and the Ordeal of Fire The Earliest 
Church Decoration Information for the People, 06. 

QUERIES: A. Passage in " Lycidas "Peter and Paul Went- 
worth Bishou Dowries An oid "Work oa Geometry 
IVTIC F. Coates, the Painter Holly Trees in Hedges, 
<;7_[dsh Ceramics -" Miracles for fools " " HopingaK^inst 
hone "Pascal J. Boucher -Hag ways (Quakers and Titles 
"Htrachy" Chevalier Roslin Modern Greek Bible A 
" Tucking'" Mill " Tra sa" The Last Surviving Member 
of the Irish House of Commons, 68 Crying Babies " Guy's 
Porridge Pot," &c. Authors Wanted, &c , 69. 

KEPLTfilS : Chronograms, 69 The Motto of the Order of the 
i Fleece, 70 - Silver Forks "Are," 71 King and 
Knife Mottoes The Ulster Kiband Tiger Dunlop J. 
VDderbank Translations "Catalogue of Five Hundred 
Celebrated Authors," 72 Records of the Weather Dinkel, 
Artist Pope Calixtus II. Lord R. Stuart " Mucked to 
death," 73 A " Snow ""Smothered iu the lode," &c. 
Marriage of Charles 1 , 74 Pepys' Island J. Hook The 
Bronze Horses at St. Mark's Parchment Lace Annibal 
Caracci Book-plate Rhos Heraldic "Philosophy is the 
mother of the sciences" "Snailer" "Dame" and 
"Lady," 75 A. Rethel Exchange of Names An " In- 
speximus ''The Three Frogs on the Banner of King Clovis 
The Holy Vessels of the Temple Le Bran's Portrait of 
Lady Hamilton Hunt, the Translator of Tasso's "Jeru- 
salem "The Halsham Family, 76 -Forename and Surname 
Books Oakham on the River Wreak The Five-Cent Piece, 
77 "Pride of the morning" Lord Eldon Leeds Pottery, 
78 Dictionary of English Male and Female Names- 
Heraldic Lake Thirlmere Authors Wanted, 79. 

Notes on Books, <fec. 


When I was at Haarlem in the autumn of 1873, 

1 made the following notes of the fine series of 
armorial bearings which are depicted on the stalls 
in the choir of the Groote Kerk, formerly the 
Cathedral of St. Bavon. I send them for preser- 
vation in "N. & Q.," both on account of their 
historical interest and because it may easily happen 
in these times of restoration that future visitors to 
Haarlem may find the stalls newly scraped and 
varnished, and those " trumpery old coats of arms" 
obliterated by those who are ignorant, or careless, 
of their interest to the genealogist and historian. 
The brass grille, which separates the choir from the 
nave is supported by a carved base of oak, of 
which the principal feature is a fine series of shields, 
each with its single tenant or supporter, but the 
bearings, which no doubt once adorned the 
escutcheons, have all disappeared. 


1. Quarterly of four grand quarters : i. and iv. 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, Castile, quartering Leon ; 

2 and 3, Arragon, impaling Sicily : the whole ente 
en point Grenada. n. and in. Quarterly, 1, 
Austria ; 2, Burgundy modern ; 3, Burgundy 
ancient ; 4, Brabant : over all an escutcheon of 
Flanders. The whole escutcheon is ornamented 

with an open crown, and is surrounded by the 
collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece. These 
are the arms either of Philippe le Bel, King of 
Spain, Archduke of Austria, Count of Holland. 
Flanders, &c. (d. 1516), or of his son Charles V., 
afterwards Emperor. 

2. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Or, a lion ramp. sa. 
(Flanders) ; 2 and 3, Or, a lion ramp. gu. (Hol- 
land). The arms of the Counts of Holland. The 
escutcheon is here surrounded in base by the 
palisade, or hedge, with its gate, which appears on 
the seals of some of the Counts of Holland (see the 
seals of William, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Hol- 
land, and of his daughter Jacqueline, heiress of 
Holland, &c., in Vree, Gen. des Comtes de Flandre, 
plate 60). There is an interesting notice of 
Jacqueline and her four husbands, among whom 
were the Duke of Gloucester, brother of Henry Y., 
and Francois de Borsele (whose arms appear on 
the Epistle side), in Beltz, Memorials of the Order 
of the Garter, pp. 341-342. 

3. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Or, a lion ramp. gu. y 
armed az. (Brederode) ; 2 and 3, Arg., a lion ramp. 
gu. (queue fourchee), crowned or (Valkenberg). 
The arms are surrounded by the collar of the 
Golden Fleece, on a field seme of flames ; on eitber 
side of the shield in base is placed a boarfl head' 
couped sa., tusked arg. These are the arms of" 
Regnauld, Lord of Brederode, elected a knight; of 
the Golden Fleece at the chapter held ais Tburnay 
in 1531 (Chifflet, Insignia Gentilitia Equituw* 
Ordinin Vclleris Aurei, clxxiii.). The Brederodes : 
claimed the highest place among the nobilikj ofe' 
Holland, and had attributed to them in* cownnow 
parlance the epithet of "die Edelsbe/* as the 
Wassenaers had that of " oudste" (most ancient), 
and the Egmonts that of "die ryckste." They 
descended from the old Counts of Holland (Spener,. 
Op. Herald., p. spec., p. 395). The boars' heads 
were used to accompany the shield in memory of 
the Order of St. Anthony en Barbefosse, which was 
in great estimation in Hainault. For the same 
reason John of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant, 
another of the husbands of Jaccjueline, Countess of 
Hainault and Holland, assumed two boars as sup- 

4. Gu., ten lozenges conjoined (3, 3, 3, and 1), 
on the first a lioncel rampant of the field for 
difference ; the shield surrounded by the collar 
of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the arms of 
Philippe de Lalain, Count de Hochstraten (or 
Hoogstraaten), the head of the younger line of the 
great house of Lalain, elected at Utrecht in 1546 
(Chifflet, No. cciii.). 

5. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gu., three crescents arg.. 
(Wassenaer) ; 2 and 3, Az., a fess or (Leide). 
Around the shield are four crescents arg., the 
badges of the family of Wassenaer (see No. 7 on 
the Epistle, or north, side). 

6. Az, three vine shoots fessways, 2 and 1, from 



[5th s. IX. JAK. 26, 78. 

each a leaf pendanlj or. Behind the shield is a 
pastoral staff erect in pale, proper, and above the 
whole an episcopal hat tasselled vert. 

7. As No. 3. 

8. A lozenge-shaped shield, containing tUe arms 
in No. 3, impaling Or, an eagle disp. sa. (probably 
for the Counts Nieuwenaar ; the Dutch family of 
Honthorst bore the same). 

9. Or, a lion ramp, gu., over all a label az. 
(Brederode). The shield is placed on a ground 
seme of flames, and is ornamented with the collar 
of the Golden Fleece. These are the arms of Keg- 
nauld de Brederode, probably the elder of the two 
knights of the Golden Fleece who had the same 
name (vide supra, No. 3). This knight was pro- 
bably the one elected at Ghent in 1445 (Chifflet, 
Insig. Gent. Equit. Aur. Veil, No. xli.). The 
label is here given which was used by the Brede- 
rodes as a brisure to indicate their descent from 
the old Counts of Holland. About the year 1476 
the Brederodes discontinued the use of the label, 
probably as an indication that they claimed to be 
the heirs male of the old counts. But when in 
1494 the Archduke Philip claimed the homage of 
the nobles of Holland as count of that country, he 
insisted that the Brederodes should resume the 
use of their former brisure, which was accordingly 
done (v. Spener, Op. Her., p. spec., p. 396). 

10. A lozenge-shaped shield bearing the 
quartered arms of Brederode and Valkenberg (as 
in No. 3), impaling, Or, a fess chequy arg. and 
gu., in chief a lion issuant of the third ; the arms 
of the Counts von der Marck. 

11. As No. 3. 

12. Arg., three mill-rinds (zuilen} gu. The 
arms of one of the several great Dutch families of 
Zuylen, whose arms, otherwise called chess-rooks, 
are allusive to the name. 

13. Zuylen, as No. 12; impaling Lalain (see 
No. 4), but without the lioncel brisure. 

14. Arg., a cross gu., in each quarter five 
barrulets wavy az. ; over all, on an escutcheon arg., 
three horseshoes gu. Behind the shield is placed 
a pastoral staff erect, and the whole is surmounted 
by a bishop's hat. as in No. 4. As it was only in 
1559 that the see of Haarlem was constituted, by 
the bull " Supra universas," I naturally expected 
that the three ecclesiastical escutcheons would be 
those of bishops of Utrecht, to which see Haarlem 
belonged before it was made a bishopric. But I 
have looked carefully through .the list of bishops, 
afterwards archbishops, of Utrecht, given in th 
Supplement to Potthast, Wegiueiser durch die 
Gesch/ichtswerke des Europdisclien Mittelalters, and 
to none of the prelates of the fifteenth or sixteenth 
century can I attribute the arms. 

15. Brederode, as in No. 3 ; on the lion's 
shoulder is a small escutcheon of Zuylen, as in 
No. 12. The shield is placed on the usual ground 

seme of flames, with the boars' heads in base, as in 
No. 13. 

16. Quarterly, I. and iv. Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Barry of six, gu. and arg. (Querfurt) ; 2 and 3, Arg., 
six lozenges gu. (3, 3), conjoined in fess (Mannsfeld). 
ii. Sa., an eagle disp. arg., crowned and armed or 
Arnstein). in. Az., a lion ramp, or ; over all a 
bend gobone gu. and arg. (Heldrun gen.). The 
shield is ensigned with a count's coronet and with 
the collar of the Golden Fleece. These are the arms 
of the Counts of Mannsfeld. Two of these were 
knights of the Golden Fleece Hoier, elected 
1516, and Pierre Ernest, elected in 1546 (Chifflet, 
Nos. cxxx. and ccv.). 

This completes the series on the south, or Gospel, 
side of the choir. JOHN WOODWARD. 



(Continued from p. 23.) 

Shortly before the confession of her brothers 
Beatrice had addressed a petition to Cardinal 
Aldobrandini, nephew of the Pope, from which an 
extract was given in the last note. It is dated 
July 20, and is found in D'Albono. Another 
passage is worth quoting : 

" Shut up in prison, and unable to see my brothers or 
relations, I betake myself to your eminence... and be- 
seech you to consider my miserable position, to be deli- 
vered from which there is nothing I would not do, 
whether it were bodily or spiritual punishment or depri- 
vation to be endured In my wretched position I sub- 
mit to whatever sentence the Holy Father may decree 
on my property and person, pledging myself to dispose 
of tbe said property... for the repairs of any building, 
bridge, or road, or for the glory of our holy religion 

for the benefit of the holy souls in purgatory Torre 

Savella, 20 July, 1599." 

The Pope, as we have seen, had, in his horror at 
the confession of the prisoners on August 11, 
ordered punishment to be at once inflicted. But 
advocates and friends wrung from him a delay of 
fifteen or twenty-five days for the defence. Several 
advocates appeared for the Cenci besides Farinacci. 
Giorgio Diedi ought to go down to posterity as the 
prisoners' friend, as he was actually imprisoned by 
order of the Governor of Home, after having 
pleaded their cause too boldly, and a memorial 
exists in which he begs his Holiness not to think 
more of his foolish talk. He was instantly released. 
Farinacci's defence was fatal to the whole family, 
assuming Beatrice's guilt as originatrix delicti, yet 
not proving the provocation on which he rested 
her claim to mercy, the charge being articulatum 
sed non probatum. 

One more despairing appeal was made to the 
Cardinal by Beatrice on August 20. It is found 
in D'Albono, and also in a Venetian MS., where I 
find no less than four memorials in favour ofj 
Lucrezia : 

S. IX. JAN. 20, 78.] 


" Memorial of Signora Beatrice... to his Eminence, &c. 

" In this last extremity I have no other resource than 
your Eminence's pity, and I beseech you by the bowels 
of Jesus Christ to hear the dreadful case of myself and 
my stepmother from our advocate Farinacci, and to 
procure an audience for him of his Holiness. Then when 
his Holiness and your Eminence have been good enough 
to hear the real truth, I am ready to suffer any punish- 
ment, and however heavy it will not be hard to bear, 
considering that it is the holy and just decision of his 
Blessedness and your Reverence." 

The prisoners were evidently expecting death 
about the 25th of August, as on that day Giacomo 
made his confession, in which he exonerated Ber- 
nardo, and on the 27th he and Beatrice made their 
wills. The will of Beatrice is still preserved by 
the notary Gentili at Rome. She directs her 
body to be laid in S. Pietro in Montorio; and 
leaves 3,000 sc. to build a wall to protect the 
approach to the church ; other moneys to twenty- 
four churches and chapels for masses ; to her 
former mistress in the convent, and to Lavinia, a 
pupil there, 300 sc. each ; 200 sc. to Madonna 
Bastiana, who had waited on her in prison ; with 
other moneys for the dowry of thirty poor girls. 
She makes the Company of the Sacred Stigmata of 
St. Francis her residuary legatees, with the obliga- 
tion to dower fifteen girls every year, who were to 
walk in procession on their festival. But there is 
a special bequest : 

"I leave to Madonna Chaterina,...who lives with Sig- 
nora Margherita Sarocchi, 300 sc., which money is to be 
put out at interest, and the interest applied, according to 
the instructions I have given her, in certain relief... if, 
however, the person who is to be relieved according to 
my instructions should be alive," &c. 

Of this person we shall find fresh mention in the 
secret codicil later. The same day Giacomo made 
his will, appointing as executors the Cardinals 
Sforza (said to be his godfather), Caetani, and S. 
Giorgio. On September 8, Beatrice, who had 
made an unimportant codicil on August 30, ex- 
ecuted another, which has only just come to light 
through the indefatigable researches of Cav. Ber- 
tolotti. He relates that, thirty-five years after her 
death, the then Procurator Fiscal of Rome went to 
the notary Colonna, declaring that he had been 
apprised of the existence of a codicil made by 
Beatrice Cenci, consisting of a sealed letter, which 
was as yet unopened. Search was made, and the 
codicil found ; and, after due proof had been given 
of Beatrice's death, it was opened, and is still to 
be seen, I imagine. This codicil had been pre- 
pared by her confessor, and was deposited with 
another notary, not the person who had made her 
will. Bertolotti gives its contents in full. On the 
back is written : 

"Before witnesses, Donna B: Cenci... affirming she 
desired to add a codicil... consigned to me this sealed 
paper.. .which she declared to contain her codicils, de- 
siring them to be kept secret as long as she lived, but to 
be opened after her death." (Names of witnesses follow.) 

In this codicil she takes off 1,000 sc. from the 
money left for dowries, and leaves this sum be- 
tween the two women before mentioned, with the 
proviso that they are to maintain a poor boy, a 
ward of theirs, as she had explained to them by 
word of mouth ; and she also makes provision for 
this fanciullo attaining the age of twenty, when 
he was to come into possession of the whole sum. 
The codicil closes with a strict injunction that her 
wishes shall be carried out without delay, and 
provides that any future disposition she may make 
of her property shall not vitiate this bequest. 
Taking all things into consideration, we cannot be 
far wrong in believing that she intended, by a late 
act of reparation, to provide more fittingly for a 
child. No other trace has been found of the life 
or death of this child, but in the fact of its ex- 
istence we may see a motive for Count Cenci's 
cruelties which hitherto has not been suspected, 
and which was quite unknown to her contem- 
poraries. Those who know Italian history of that 
epoch will remember how jealously even the most 
reckless and vicious men guarded and avenged the 
honour of their wives and daughters. 

The will of Beatrice was, however, never carried 
into execution. From the archives of the Com- 
pany of the Stigmata, quoted by Venosta, we 
learn that repeated applications were made through 
Cardinal Montalto to the Pope for the payment 
of their legacy. But after May 18, 1600, no fur- 
ther notice appears. 

In the codicil Beatrice provides for a future 
disposition of her property ; and on Sept. 5 Gia- 
como had appointed agents to manage his interests 
in the Abruzzi. Perhaps a gleam of hope had 
been given them, as the Pope seemed at first 
inclined to mercy, and is said to have spent a 
whole night reading the depositions, not without 
tears. But about the 9th the Santa Croce matri- 
cide occurred at Subiaco, making, with the 
Massimi fratricide, the third tragedy in the great 
Roman families within one brief year. This 
decided the Pope for summary justice. The sen- 
tence of death was passed on the 10th, though 
apparently not communicated to the prisoners till 
the evening. Death by the headsman's axe was 
awarded to Beatrice and Lucrezia ; to Giacomo 
branding and quartering, after which his limbs 
were to be exposed nei rostri. Farinacci in the 
early morning wrung from the Pope the exemption 
of Bernardo from the capital punishment, on con- 
dition of his being present at the death-throes of his 
relations. Death was commuted for the galleys in 
these terms : " Afterwards he shall be sent to the 
galleys for ever, so that life may be a torment and 
death a release." Entire confiscation of their pro- 
perty was decreed. The Florentine ambassador, 
however, writing the same day, doubted whether 
the sentence would be carried out, as all sorts of 
rumours were afloat of dissatisfaction in the city, 


[5"' S. IX. JAN. 26, '78. 

and the whole of Bf>me breathed anger and ex- 

Bernardo made his will this day, one of his wit- 
nesses being Stefano fre Guido Visconti, gittore 
JRamatw : can this be the foundation of the story 
of Beatrice's portrait ? Bertolotti gives the items 
of the supper of Lucrezia on that night, from the 
accounts found in the archives. The same night, 
about 11 P.M., the Confraternity of the Florentine 
Misericordia met at Corte Savella, and in the 
chapel the condemned women were handed over 
to them to prepare for death. The night seems 
to have been spent in the chapel of both prisons 
in prayers and consolation of the unhappy pri- 
soners. The archives of the Company tell us that 
next morning, at 9 A.M., the Brothers accompanied 
the condemned to execution. The sad procession 
of Giacouio and Bernardo, which had started from 
the prison of Tor di Nona now the Apollo Theatre 
reached Corte Savella in the Via Giulia at that 
hour. For the following details I am inclined to 
trust the MSS., which generally agree, as probably 
the original account came from an eyewitness. 

The brothers were on the fatal cart, on which 
stood also the executioner with brazier and pincers, 
and Giacomo, stripped to the waist, was branded. 
in public from time to time. Bernardo, from his 
girlish look and curling hair, was at first mistaken 
for Beatrice by the crowds who looked down from 
windows and housetops in the narrow streets. At 
Corte Savella the women joined the procession on 
foot. Both wore loose gowns with wide sleeves, 
as nans then wore them, showing the white under- 
sleeve tight to the wrist, which one still sees in 
the Campagna. Beatrice was in blue or violet, 
Lucrezia in black, with long veils of the same 
colour. Over the shoulders of Beatrice was thrown 
a scarf of cloth of silver, and her shoes were white 
velvet with crimson fiocchi. Their arms bound to 
the body with crimson cord, left their hands free 
to carry a crucifix: Lucrezia weeping; Beatrice 
firm, and self-possessed, her fair hair clustering 
in curls over eyes too proud to shed a tear. Be- 
fore them is said to have been carried the banner 
-of the Confraternitt, a Pieta painted by Michael 
Angelo. By the church of San Giovanni, and in 
front of San Celso ai Banchi, where sympathizing 
hands rained down flowers and vine-leaves on 
Beatrice, they passed into the Piazza S. Angelo. 

Here a little chapel with compartments had 
been built, close to the paleo eminente on which 
stood the block. The women and Giacomo were 
conducted to the separate compartments till all 
was ready, and Bernardo had taken his place on 
the scaffold. Lucrezia was the first called out to 
suffer. We may be spared the horrid details of 
the execution. Beatrice followed, and without 
assistance jumped on the plank where the victim 
must sit astride, with head bent, to receive the 
Iktal blow. Then, we are told, the air resounded 

I with groans and lamentations ; and when with 
a loud voice, under the knife, she cried, " Jesu, 
Mary," many fainted at the sight. Her last words 
were, "0 let thine ears consider well the voice of 
my complaint," from the De Profundis. Giacomo 
mounted in his turn, and, with a loud voice, de- 
clared to the people the innocence of his brother. 
He was then stunned and quartered, while the 
wretched Bernardo, who had fainted at each last 
farewell, was carried back to prison more dead 
than alive. 

The corpses lay exposed at the foot of the well- 
known statue of St. Paul, with torches burning 
round them, Beatrice wreathed with roses and a 
smile on her face. Near them hung the quartered 
limbs of Giacomo, round them, perhaps,* the dead 
and dying, crushed or trampled or struck down by 
sunstroke. Later they were transferred to the 
chapel of the Confraternity, and after the Ave 
Maria were carried to their several graves. The 
body of Beatrice, surrounded by tapers, and with 
a great following, was borne to S. Pietro in Mon- 
torio. As the procession passed (according to one 
MS.) lights were brought to every window and 
flowers showered down on the bier. She was laid 
to rest in front of the high altar, but her grave 
cannot now be traced. The stone perhaps is to be 
found on the left of the sacristy door, built into the 
wall its inscription erased and now bearing the 
name of Paolo Toquino. According to one account, 
the Republicans, in 1798, rifled many graves for 
the sake of the lead coffins, and the vaults of this 
church shared the same fate. The body of Bea- 
trice is then said to have been found, Avith the 
head lying near it in a silver basin, when the 
corpses were cast about the church in hopeless 
confusion. We look in vain, then, for her grave, 
but her name survives in imperishable though 
tarnished fame. K. H. B. 

(To le conceded in the fourth part.) 


FOLK-LORE OF SMYRNA. Asiatic Greeks say if 
a person is passing a place where building is going 
on, and a stone or plank is built on his shadow, 
he will die within the year. In revenge, the 
ghost of a person who was so killed at Boojah 
hides in a well in the garden, and comes out every 
night. HYDE CLARKE: 


fisherman, formerly well known at the Forge, 
Keswick, once caught a fish, which he put into the 
mouth of a child suffering from whooping cough. 
He then replaced the fish in the Greta. He 
affirmed that the fish, after being placed in the 
mouth of the child and returned to the river, gave 
the complaint to the rest of its kind, as was evi- 

See Muratori, Ckron., 1599. 

5th s. IX. JAN. 26, 78.] 



dent from the fact that they came to the top to 
cough. Apart from old Edmondson's fable, it is 
clear that the superstition did exist in Cumber- 
land. J. F. C. 

CHARMS IN JAPAN. The prevalence lately of 
cholera in Japan has caused some of the inhabi- 
tants to have recourse to the use of charms. The 
following extracts are from the Japan Daily 
Herald of Nov. 26, 1877 : 

" The shopkeepers of the Sinsaibashi have suffered 
considerably by tbe unhealthy state of Osaka, and tbe 
number of houses and shops to let is unusually great 
throughout the city. Over the door of nearly every 
house various charms are suspended. Now it is a bunch 
of onions or a leaf of a kiri, but more often it is some 

Erinted figure. Sometimes the latter resembles the 
oroscope of a Western astrologer, but most frequently 
it is a nondescript figure, which I can compare to 
nothing on land or sea better than to a featherless chick 
standing on tiptoe. Occasionally this is varied by multi- 
plying the legs of the creature. Another new charm 
often to be seen is a rag monkey the latter as being 
emblematic of wisdom. 
' ' From the Osaka Nippo : 

" * In order to escape cholera, the dogs in the Matsu- 
shima and neighbourhood, the cats and birds in Horiye, 
the monkeys and bears in Nambajinchi, the rabbits in 
the Temma temple, and the deer in the Sakuranomiya 
temple are wearing charms. 'One day a man who is 
fond of tortoises got anxious about those in the Tennoji 
temple, and was just about to pour a quantity of carbolic 
acid into the pond, when the priests interfered and 
reprimanded him.' " 


up old stumps of ash trees, from which many suc- 
cessive trees have sprung, in the parish of Scotton, 
there was found, in many instances, an iron horse- 
shoe. The one shown to me measured 4^ in. by 
4| in. The workmen seemed to be familiar with 
this fact, and gave the following account : The 
shoe is so placed to "charm" the tree, so that 
a twig of it might be used in curing cattle over 
which a shrewmouse had run, or which had been 
"overlooked." If they were stroked by one of 
these twigs, the disease would be charmed away. 
[See 5'h s. vii. 368.] 

I was at the sluices which drain Lochleven, where 
there were a woman and a boy. They were beside 
a big perforated wooden box, in which were many 
large eels wrigg;ling in an inch of water. The 
woman was putting one of the eels, two feet or so 
long, into a bag ; and, in answer to my question, 
she said it was for a lady in England who was 
deaf. The doctor had ordered it to cure her 
deafness. On further inquiry, I learned that it 
was common to send eels away by her for such 
a purpose. On asking her if she believed that eels 

cured deafness, she answered, " Od, I dinna ken, 
sir, but thae English doctors shud ken" ; and 
then she added, " this yin's for a lady near Lunon" ; 
whereupon I thought of writing to you to inquire 
whether eels are anywhere in England supposed to 
cure deafness, whether any doctors anywhere 
think so, and whether there is in any one's eyes 
a special virtue of healing in the eels that are in 
Lochleven. W. HODGSON. 

Cupar, Fife. 

MEETING EYEBROWS. In " N. & Q.," 5 th S. 
vi. 286, I noted that while the Danes still profess 
to know a man who is a werewolf by his eyebrows 
meeting, the current saying in the south of Eng- 
land is, " It is good to have meeting eyebrows ; 
you will never have trouble." In China, accord- 
ing to Dr. Dennys, the people say that " people 
whose eyebrows meet can never expect to attain 
to the dignity of a minister of state " ; that 
" ladies with too much down or hair are born to 
be poor all their lives " ; but that " bearded men 
will never become beggars." 



THE CORPSE CANDLE. The belief in the ap- 
pearance of the corpse candle in Wales has not 
yet died out. Having occasion to visit this part 
of Wales, which, by the way, is in many particu- 
lars one of the most interesting spots in Caermar- 
thenshire, I found a valuable " subject " for folk- 
lore study one who cannot speak half-a-dozen 
words of English. My informant is an aged 
widow lady. I asked her to-day if she had ever 
seen the corpse candle, and she positively assured 
me that she saw it on the night her husband died, 
and, further, that at the railway station at this 
place there is to be seen sometimes, late at night, 
after every one has left, a candle burning in the 
office, which is a portent of some evil. With all 
the persuasive powers at my command, I entirely 
failed in disabusing her mind of this superstitious 
belief. It is curious to note that the old corpse 
candle should find an abiding place in a railway 
station. J. JEREMIAH. 

Trehelig, Llangadock, Caermarthenshire. 

VENETIAN FOLK-LORE (5 th S. viii. 325.) In 
studying the folk-lore of other countries it is 
curious how we stumble across superstitions which 
are common to lands other than our own, but 
which a great majority of people, from a want of 
wider knowledge, have learned to look upon as 
peculiarly insular. I fancy if one of the contri- 
butors to " N. & Q." were induced to write a book 
upon comparative folk-lore, he would find many 
readers, and open up a most interesting field of 
research. The specimens of Venetian folk-lore 
furnished by K. H. B., which, from want of any 
other idea, I will number 3, 6, 9, 21, 27, 32, are 



[5*8. IX. JAN. 26, 78. 

quite common beliefs in many parts of the country 
I often heard them quoted in Anglesey, and I 
know they are as often quoted in many parts o :" 
England. Is not the following belief, the acjsoun; 
of which was inserted in an evening paper o 
Oct. 26, 1877, and which appears worthy of pre 
servation in the pages of "N. & Q.," something 
akin to the specimen which I will call No. 29 1 

"Dr. Hardwicke held an inquest this morning ai 
Holloway on the body of William Winckles, a saddler 
aged seventy-four, of 4, Mitford Road. On Sunday a 
strange cat entered his room, which caused the old 
gentleman to become very much excited, and he de- 
clared that something portent would happen before night 
The cat was driven out, and the people present laughed 
at the circumstance, but he appeared very grave. When 
his son (a watchman) went to his work in the evening, 
deceased asked if he should take him his supper. The 
son replied ' Yes.' Shortly before nine, Mr. Billing, of 
27, Windsor Road, was passing along that thoroughfare, 
when he heard a fall, and, upon looking round, saw 
deceased on the pavement insensible. Before aid could 
be procured he was dead. His son not getting his supper 
went home at eleven o'clock for it, and, hearing that 
his father was dead, exclaimed, ' That strange cat came 
to warn him of his death ! ' The medical evidence 
showed that the actual cause of the death was apoplexy, 
while suffering from softening of the brain. The jury 
returned a verdict accordingly." 


SERVIAN FOLK-LORE. The following notice of 
what is, in all likelihood, an old custom turns up 
in the war news of the Scotsman, Jan. 4, 1878, in 
a letter from Bucharest, anent the warm reception 
of Prince Charles there on Dec. 27. After telling 
of the triumphal arches, the hearty greetings of 
the onlookers, and so forth, the writer goes on to 
say : 

" The Mayor of Bucharest presented the Prince with 
the customary bread and salt, and the Prince on receiving 
it said, ' The army by its bravery and devotion has 
reached the height of the mission confided to it by the 
country. God has been with us. Let us, then, go and 
thank the Almighty for the success that he has granted 
us.' " 


Warton (ii. 97 of the new edition) has a valuable 
citation to the effect that, upon the occasion of 
the Bishop of Winchester visiting the priory of 
St. Swithin in 1338, a minstrel sang ballads in the 
hall of the priory about Colbrond, and about Queen 
Emma's deliverance through the ordeal of fire. I 
know of no earlier authority for the story of Queen 
Emma than Higden's Polychronicon, three hundred 
years later than the event (bk. vi. Gale, i. 277). 
It is well known that a similar story is told, full 
two hundred years earlier, by William of Malms- 
bury of Gunhild, Emma's daughter, wife of the 
emperor Henry III., and by other " historians " of 
St. Cunigund, wife of the emperor Henry II. ; 
also in Percy's ballad of Aldingen of Elina, wife 

of Henry (II., of course), and in Scandinavian 
ballads of Gunhild again. All the particulars of 
the ordeal are given by authors later than Higden, 
say Eudborne, Anglia Sacra (i. 234). There was 
a great collection of clergy and of the people, and 
the church resounded with prayers in Emma's 
behalf : " Sancte Swythune, tu illam adjuva ! 
Deus vim patitur," &c. It seems to me not im- 
possible that it is a ballad about Queen Emma 
which is intended in the prologue to Piers Plow- 
man : 
" ...... dykers and delveres, that doth here dedes ille, 

And dryven forth the longe day with Dieu vous save? 
Dame Emme." 

It is just this kind of fellow that in Passus V. 
(Accidia) does not know his Paternoster, but does 
know " rymes of Kobyn Hood and Eandolf Erie 
of Chester." F. J. CHILD. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. 

Grantham Journal, Jan. 5, 1878, is an account of 
the service, on the previous Sunday evening, in 
the Navvies' Chapel, the schoolroom at Grimstone 
Tunnel, when 

"the chaplain, the Rev. J. P. Davies, M.A., took for hia 
text Genesis x. 2, ' And the dove came in to him in the 
evening ; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt 
off: so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off 
the earth.' Doubtless, also, Noah took the leaf and 
stuck it up amidst the general rejoicings of his family. 
It was, so far as he (the preacher) could discover, the 
earliest instance on record of Church decoration ; for the 
Ark was the Church of that day. So regarded, he thought 
it might teach them a few useful lessons. Mr. Ruskin, 
in his book called The Stones of Venice, had given a lively 
account of this olive leaf. Its dark green tint, so rich 
against the Syrian sky, its under surface of white grey, 
' as if the ashes of the Gethsemane agony had been cast 
upon it for ever,' each sparkling with the waters of the 
flood, certainly did not present a picture of barbarous 
boughs and bushes in Church. But it was chiefly as a 
ign or pledge that this leaf brought joy to the inmates 
of the Ark. It told them of hill tops uncovered, of 
safety and plenty. And in like manner the stars and 
texts, the crowns and trefoils, that adorned their walla 
should do more than lend a simply festive appearance to 
their Church ; they should carry their thoughts to the 
magi, the shepherds, the manger, and fix them on the- 
blessed dogma of the Incarnation." 

The preacher's " doubtless " is highly suggestive, 
xnd its use would sanction every kind of addition 
;o the Scriptural narrative. His remark upon 
' barbarous boughs and bushes " is also worthy of 
notice. I wonder what the navvies thought of the- 
iermon and of Noah's church decoration. 


5 th S. viii. 486) that a few years ago, in a popular 
llustrated almanac, Christmas Day was repre- 
ented as falling on October 25. I have culled the 
olio wing remarkable list of dates from an almanac 
or 1878 appended to an advertisement lately sent 
o my house by a tradesman in this suburban 

5ti s. IX. JAN. 26, 78 ] 



town :-Becket, d. 1863; Wesley, d. 1721 
George VI., d. 1830 (query, when did George V 
die ?) ; Louis XL, d. 1843 ; Wellington, d. 1862 
James II., d. 1801 ; Battle of Worcester, 1642 
Milton, d. 1694. 

Sidney Smith invented a purgatory for his 
friend Macaulay, which was to consist in the 
Matter's having wrong dates and facts of the period 
of Queen Anne shouted in his ears, without his 
possessing the power of correcting them. Hac 
this almanac been sent to the great historian he 
would not have survived it. 


Bexley Heath, Kent. 


[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

A PASSAGE IN "LYCIDAS." Mr. Jerram, in his 
edition of this poem, explains line 46 

" Or taint-worm to the weanling herds that graze "- 
by a reference to a kind of spider known as a 
" taint." May I be permitted to suggest that the 
4t taint worm " is nothing more than the worm 
which is supposed to be the cause of the " rot " in 
sheep ? I say supposed, because I believe it is not 
quite clear whether the worm which infests sheep 
suffering from that disease is the cause or the 
effect of the " rot." In support of my theory I 
may quote from W. Ellis's Compleat System of 
Experienced Improvement (London, 1749). At 
p. 154 of that work I find : " Or take it in this 
way if a sheep, for example, is in good order of 
body and receives a taint or rot, about mid- 
summer," &c. As Mr. Jerram is a correspondent of 
" N. & Q." perhaps he will say whether he accepts 
my suggestion. B. R. 

existence portraits of Peter Went worth, M.P., one 
of the chief men of the Puritans in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, and of his brother Paul ? 

P. P. W. 

THE RT. REV. HENRY DOWNES, successively 
-Bishop of Killala, Elphin, Meath, and Derry, died 
Jan. 14, 1734-5, and was buried in St. Mary's 
Church, Dublin. I am anxious to learn whether 
any portrait of him exists in private hands. There 
is none at the palaces of his successors in any of 
his sees, nor at Trinity College, Dublin. One is 
much desired for the purpose of engraving, if the 
original or a photograph can be obtained. Address 
Colonel Chester, 124, Blue Anchor Road, Ber- 
mondsey, S.E. J. L. C. 

do me the kindness to give me information about 

the following book I It is a small volume (6 in. 
by 4 in.), of which the title-page is lost, contain- 
ing four pages of an Address " To the Reader " 
'' Of Geometry in General " ; thirty-eight pages of 
"The Principles of Geometry"; 140 pages of 
" Geometrical Practice upon Paper " ; and six 
pages of " The Table." Its most notable feature 
consists of eighty full-page etchings, much in the 
style of Callot, the upper part of the engraving 
being a diagram illustrative of the proposition on 
the opposite page, and the lower part a landscape 
or figures, some of the latter being very spirited. 
The type points to the end of the sixteenth or the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, and I suspect 
the author to be Thomas Masterson. B. H. J. 

SAMUEL SWAYNE. Wanted information of 
1. Samuel Swayne, said to have been chaplain to 
the celebrated Earl of Strafford, and tutor to his 
children. After the earl's execution he is reported 
to have taken his son Lord Wentworth abroad, 
and to have returned and held the living of the 
two Worthies near Winchester. 2. Samuel Swayne, 
Univ. of Oxford B.A. 1679, M.A. 1687. The 
first is said to have been the brother, the second 
the son, of Rev. Geo. Swayne, who came into 
Somersetshire with Gilbert Ironside, when he was 
made Bishop of Bristol, 1666. He held the living 
of Sutton Crowthorne, co. Somerset (patron Ed- 
mond Burton). Whom did he marry ? OTTO. 

History of Leicestershire, vol. iv. p. 399, it is 
stated that " Francis Coates, Esq., the celebrated 
painter, is maternally descended from the Lynns " 
if Southwick, near Oundle, in Northamptonshire. 
Jan any of your readers help me to trace this 
descent ? A very full pedigree of the family of 
Lynn will be found in Dr. Marshall's Genealogist, 
vol. i., but no such name as Coates occurs in it. 
Who Francis Coates was, where he lived, and 
what he painted, are questions I should also be 
;lad to have answered. EVERARD GREEN. 

Reform Club. 


>bserves the fences by the side of our railway lines 

nay see, as a rule, in the clipped continuous thorn 

ledges, at intervals varying in length from 100 

o 200 feet, young holly trees, planted at the same 

ime with the hedge, and therefore in all cases 

within the last fifty years. Stephens, in his Book 

jf the Farm, gives an elaborate account of the 

rench-planted hedge introduced by the railway 

ngineer in place of the ditch-and-bank system, 

ut he says nothing of this very noticeable feature. 

'. have met with it in other hedges, whose date, 

though probably earlier than railway times, can 

seldom be so well ascertained. Is this custom a 

survival of the superstition mentioned by Pliny, 

" Aquifolia arbor, in domo aut villa sata, veneficia 



[5th s. IX. JAN. 26, 78. 

iircet" (Hist. Nat., xxiv. 72), on which Aubrey 
remarks, " They use to* be planted near houses and 
in churchyards, &c., e.g. Westminster Abbey 
cloister," or has it some better raison d'etre ? 

Windham Club. 

IRISH CERAMICS. The following extract from 
the Belfast Newsletter, Jan. 11, 1757, may be of 
interest : 

"Dublin, Jan. 15. Monday last died, universally 
lamented by all true lovers of tbeir country, Captain 
Henry Delemain, formerly in the Duke of Saxe-Gotha's 
service, master of the Irish delft ware manufactory, who, 
by the expense of a large fortune and unwearied 
application, brought that ware to such perfection as 
totally to prevent the enemies of our country, the 
French, from drawing large sums yearly from this 
country for Burgundy and Roan ware. Mary Delemain 
his widow carries on said manufactory, and hopes for 
the continuance of tbe friendship of the nobility, gentry, 
and whole kingdom." 

Can Delemain's ware now be recognized 1 


" MIRACLES FOR FOOLS." The Eev. Robert 
Taylor, in his Diegesis, p. 15, says that Oav/JLara 
/zwpots was "a common adage among the Greeks." 
Can any one furnish evidence of the truth of this 
statement 1 J. B. S. 


"HOPING AGAINST HOPE." Can anyone give the 
origin or earliest literary use of this nonsensical 
expression for " hoping against expectation " ? It 
ought to have a pretty long prescription to justify 
its continued use, and I have met with it, I think, 
in a book published in the seventeenth century, 
but cannot now give the reference. Hope some- 
times connotes expectation, but I know of no 
other instance of it as a simple synonym for that 
word. C. C. M. 

PASCAL. Under chap. xxv. of the Pensees d 
Pascal those published since 1843 the following 
is placed as No. xcviii. : "Mon ami, vous etes nc 
de ce cote de la inontagne, il est done juste que 
votre aine ait tout." May I ask some one to ex 
plain the allusion in the first part, presuming tha 
the latter refers to the law of primogeniture 1 

F. DE H. L. 


JONATHAN BOUCHER wrote a Glossary q 
Archaic Words as supplement to Johnson a,m 
Webster, published 1832. Have these words been 
incorporated in Bell & Daldy's Webster, edited b] 
Goodrich and Noah Porter, which has been issuec 
without any date ? or have very many of the olc 
words been omitted? Is Boucher's book wort] 
anything as an independent work? 

May fair. 

C. A. WARD. 

HAGWAYS. Narrow paths are made through 
he thick undergrowth in large woods to enable 
he keepers and beaters to drive the game. A 
Jutland gamekeeper calls such paths as these 
; hag ways." What is the derivation of the word? 
nd is it in use elsewhere ? CUTHBERT BEDE. 

QUAKERS AND TITLES. Have Quakers ever 
ised or acknowledged amongst themselves titles of 
,ny kind, whether by virtue of office or inheritance, 
>y descent or marriage ? J. BEALE. 

OFFICE OF THE STRACHY. What is the mean- 
ng of the word " strachy "? 12. 

CHEVALIER ROSLIN. Can any one tell me 
my thing of him? See 5 th S. viii. 448. MAG. 



OF AMERICA." What gazette or news-letter of 
1702 or 1703 would be likely to mention such an 
event as the above ? E. R. 

MODERN GREEK BIBLE. Where can one get 
a real, that is, a perfect and complete Bible in 
Modern Greek ? It is to be had neither at the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, nor 
at Messrs. Bagster's, nor at the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. W. J. BLEW. 

A " TUCKING " MILL. What is a " tucking " 
mill ? What was the operation of " tucking," and 
what was its purport ? S. W. 

" TRA SA." Can any one suggest the extension 
and meaning of the abbreviated words 1 "tra sa" 
in the following extracts from the Court Roll of 
the Manor of Bibury, co. Glouc.? 

" Et quod idem Willelmus fecit insultum et tra sa 
super Thomam Wykes, ideo in misericordia." 

" Efc quod Ricardus serviens Thome Benet fecit in- 
sultum et tra sa super Thomam Cole, ideo ipse in miseri- 

" Et quod Felicia Muleward leuauit hutesium iuste 
super Aliciam Foreward, ideo in misericordia, et quod 
dicta Felicia Ira sa iniuste de dicta Alicia, ideo in miseri- 

G. F. W. 


Staples took the chair as the last survivor at a 
lecture on the " Irish Parliament " by Mr. White- 
side, in 1 862. He is referred to as the last mem- 
ber in "N. & Q.," 3 rd S. vii. 474. He was born 
in 1775. I cannot find his name in the lists of 
members of Parliament in the Dublin directories 
from 1791 to 1801. A John Staples sat during 
all that period (Limavady, 1791 to 1796 ; Antrim 
county, 1797 to 1801, in the Imperial Parlia- 
ment). Nor is any Thomas Staples mentioned by 
Barrington in his Red and Black lists. In the- 
note in " N. & Q." it is said he sat for Coleraine,, 

3. IX. JAN. 26, '78.] 


and subsequently for Knocktopher. The repre- 
sentatives of both those boroughs are accounted 
for in Harrington and the Cornwallis Correspon- 
dence, as having voted for the Union. A. W. 

CRYING BABIES. I happened to be in the 
hamlet of Clayhanger recently. It is a remote 
little place on the Devon and Somerset border 
line. The churchyard is open, and the wind was 
blowing bleakly. Some small girls were loitering, 
on their way home from school, amongst the graves, 
and one of them had an- infant in her arms. 
Presently the baby cried yea, roared. " Why 
don't 'ee turn its face to the wind, Sally 1 " asked 
an elder girl of the juvenile nurse. Sally, however, 
evidently did not pay due attention, for presently 
the shrill command, rather than advice, was re- 
peated : "Do 'ee hear ! why don't 'ee turn his face 
to the wind ? " This time the exhortation was 
taken, the child duly turned round, and in less 
than a minute its piping ceased. Did the breeze 
half choke it, and thus bring quietness, or did it 
temporarily give comfort, and soothe the little 
one? The custom may be general, but to me, 
a family man and a travelled one, it is novel. 


"Gur's PORRIDGE POT; with the Dun Cow Roasted 
Whole : an Epic Poem in Twenty-five Books. Part I. 
Carefully Corrected and Enlarged by many new Passages 
and Additional Notes. (Motto.) Second Edition. Lon- 
don : Printed for the Author, and Sold by the Book- 
sellers. 1809." 12mo. pp. xxix-101, and corrigenda 
(one page). Imprint of Slatter & Munday, Oxford. A 
squib on Dr. Parr and other Warwick notables. 
This has been often ascribed to Walter Savage 
Landor, but is disclaimed as his work in Mr. 
Forster's Walter Savage Landor: a Biography, 
1869 (see vol. i. p. 320). Who wrote Guy's 
Porridge Pot ? ZERO. 

"I had rather be the victim of a too willing credulity 
than the slave of an unjust suspicion." Burke, I think, 
but I cannot find where. 

" I give him joy who stammers at a lie." 
" Though women are angels, yet wedlock 's the devil." 

" Is selfishness for a time & sin, 
Stretched to eternity celestial prudence 1 " 

V. S. L. 


(1 st S. ix. 60, 61, Jan. 21, 1854.) 

Just three and twenty years ago (how rapidly 

the years have passed !) I sent to " N. & Q." a dozen 

chronograms which I had gathered on the banks 

of the Rhine. I don't know that such ingenious 

puzzles interest me now as much as they did then ; 

but yet I cannot resist the temptation, which a 
casual glance at my former paper (printed at the 
pages indicated above, when " N. & Q." was still 
young) has given me, of sending you a few more 
chronograms to add to your abundant store. If 
any of your readers should not be familiar with 
this " strange device," it will suffice to say that in 
the following sentences the letters used as Roman 
numerals (M, D, C, L, X, Y, I), and these only, 
when gathered out and arranged in order, will be 
found to indicate a date desired to be expressed 
by the composer of the sentence. 

1. From the Disputatio Theologies de Luce 
Primigenia of Dr. Johannes Meisnerus (4to >7 . 
Wittenburgte, 1680) : 


2. From a Latin poem addressed by the Car- 
melite convent at Louvain to Godefridus Hermans- 
(Abbas Tongerloensis), 4to., Louvain : 

PLACETANA [1780]. 

3. From a congratulatory poem addressed to 
Antonio Van Gils, of the College of Louvain (4to., 
Louvain) : 




4. From a congratulatory address to Lucas de 
Vandenesse (Abbas Averbodiensis) on the fiftieth 
anniversary of his entering on the religious life 
(4to., Louvain) : 


5. From a poem addressed to Martin Lama! 
(4to., Antwerp) : 


IVBlL-lAEREN [1785]. 

6. From a similar poem addressed to Franciscws- 
Dominicus Hermans (4to., Antwerp) : 


7. From a poem addressed to Godefrid Hermans 
(Abbas Tongerloensis) on his installation (4to.,. 
Antwerp) : 

CoNYENiYs [1780]. 

8. From the Carmen Panegyricum addressed to 
Gisbertus Halloint (Averbodiensis Abbas) on his 
jubilee year : 



9-14. From the same volume. The date, 1773, 
is expressed in each line of the following chrono- 
disticha : 




15. But by far the most remarkable instances 


NOTES AND QUERIES. is* s. ix. JA*. 26, 73. 

of the chronogram with which my book-shelves 
supply me are found in the volume entitled, 

DElPARA [1712], 

by Joseph Zoller, of the Order of St. Benedict (fol., 
Augusts, 1712). This very curious work con- 
tains no less than seven hundred (numbered) 
chronograms, besides that which I have copied 
from the title-page, nine others on the engraved 
frontispiece, and a few more scattered throughout 
the volume. All these chronograms give the 
same date, 1712. I will copy a few of these as 
specimens of the singular, if misplaced, ingenuity 
of the author ; but, before doing so, it may be as 
well to transcribe a little more of the title-page, as 
it will show the occasion on which the work was 
composed, and will give some information as to 
the general plan of the book : 

" ConCeptVs...DeIpara : septingentis sacrse Scripturze, 
SS. Patrum, ac rationum, necnon historiarum, sym- 
bolorum, antiquitatum et anagrammatum suffrages 
roboratus, ac totidein prasfixis ckronographicis annum 
currentem prodentibus copiose instructus ; occasions 
sseculi hoc eodem anno septima vice absoluti et celebrati 
a Patribus Benedictinis Liberi ac Imperialis Monasterii 
ad SS. Udalricum & Afram Augusts Vindelicorum, 
combinatus per P. Josephum Zoller," &c. 
















But enough, and more than enough ; five and 
twenty chronograms are as much as any one number 
of " N. & Q." can safely carry. Ample must have 
been the leisure of the man who could compile, 
even with the assistance of his brethren, seven 
hundred of them, to say nothing of the equally 
ingenious anagrams with which the volume 
abounds. I will end my paper with a few speci- 
mens of these. Zoller takes as his theme the 
angelic salutation, "Ave Maria, gratia plena, 
Dominus tecum," upon which he founds no less 
than a hundred anagrams. I transcribe a few of 
them : 

1. Ave pura Regina, sumrao amanti dilecta. 

2. Virgo serena, pia, munda, et immaculata. 

3. Eva secunda, Agni immolati pura Mater. 

4. Magnes cordium, vita animee, tela pura. 

5. Alto Regi arnica, tu janua semper munda. 
<3. Regia nata, evadens luctum amari pomi. 

7. Intacta a vae mali, Virgo semper munda. 

8. Alma Dei Virgo, ante casum praemunita. 

Characteristically enough, the learned author con- 
cludes his book with these words : 
" Verumtamen in omnibus 


ut in omnibus glorificetur Deus. Reg. S. Ben. c. 57." 

FLEECE (5 th S. viii. 328, 375, 477.) The reply of 
GEN. EIGAUD, at pp. 477, 478, is not unlikely to 
mislead. At the first reference a distinct inquiry 
was made : " Is there any, and what, motto 
attached to. this order ? " To this query I gave, 
at p. 375, a distinct, and I believe an entirely 
correct, reply ; and I was at the pains to point 
out at some length that the words " Pretium non 
vile laborum " were the true and constant motto 
of the order, other sentences being merely those 
attached to the personal devices of the several 
sovereigns of the order. GEN. EIGAUD does not 
appear to distinctly dispute the correctness of my 
reply, but at pp. 477, 478, he tells us (what is 
known to everybody) the name of the founder and 
the date of the foundation, and winds up by de- 
scribing the collar, and implying that the words 
"Ante ferit quam micet" are the motto of the 
order ; for, if this be not the inference, the latter 
part of the reply is as irrelevant as the former. 

Now these words, "Ante ferit," &c., are cer- 
tainly not now, and never have been, the motto of 
the order. They were the words attached to the flint 
and steel which were the personal device of Phi- 
lippe le Bon, and were used by him previous to 
the institution of the Order of the Golden Fleece 
(see Palliser's Historic Devices, &c., p. 56). It is 
quite true that the flint and steel were afterwards 
used in the collar, but the motto of the device did 
not become the motto of the order. Clark and 
Carlisle, who, in an identical paragraph of their 
works on Orders of Knighthood, declare the words 
" Ante ferit quam flam ma micet " to have been 
the motto of the ancient sovereigns of Burgundy, 
are as mistaken as when, in the same paragraph, 
they assert that the flint stones formed the charge 
of " the ancient arms of the sovereigns of Bur- 
gundy of the first race." Clark, from whom Car- 
lisle copies, was misled by a passage misquoted 
from Paradine's Devises Heroiques in Favyn's 
Theatre d'Honneur et de Chevalerie, p. 945 (vol. ii. 
p. 14 of the English edition). But, indeed, even 
if the statement were correct, the motto of the 
sovereign is not necessarily, or even usually, the 
motto of his orders ; e.g., " Honi soit qui mal y 
pense " is the constant motto of the Order of the 
Garter, while its sovereigns have used " Dieu et 
mon droit," " Semper eadem," " Je maintiendrai," 

5th S. IX. JAN. 26, 78.] 



SILVER FORKS (4 th S. v. 174, 322, 405, 510 
590 ; vi. 56, 102, 156, 279 ; x. 77 ; 5 th S. v. 500 
viii. 338.) In Mr. George Roberta's Social His 
tory of the People of the Southern Counties of Eng 
land 'in Past Centuries, 1856, p. 341, I find the 

" A word or two about spoons, knives, and forks usee 
at this date [i.e. in 1601]. Common spoons were made 
of horn. Knives were imported from St. Maloes in 1553 
and cost from 2d. to 4eZ. each. They were first made in 
England in 1563. None are referred to as being pur 
chased or in use at this feast [i.e. a Cobb ale, a greai 
festivity of Lyme, 1601]. Forks are not mentioned 
Silver forks came into fashion for invalids about the, 
year 1680. Forks are said to be an Italian invention 
Old Tom Coryate, whatever kind it may have been 
introduced this 'neatnesse' into Somersetshire aboul 
the year 1600, and was therefore called furdfer by his 
friends. Alexander Barclay thus describes the previous 
English mode of eating, which sounds very ventaish 
although worse mannered : 

" If the dish be pleasant, eyther flesche or fische, 
Ten hands at once swarm in the dishe." 

Ford's Gatherings from Spain. 

Forks were used on the Continent in the thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries (Voltaire). Mr. 
Joseph Haydn, in his Diet, of Dates, says : 

" This is reasonably disputed as being too early. In 
Fynes Moryson's Itinerary, reign of Elizabeth, he says : 
' At Venice each person was served (beside his knife and 
spoon) with a fork to hold the meat while he cuts it, 
for there they deem it ill manners that one should touch 
it with his hand.' Thomas Coryate describes, with much 
solemnity, the manner of using forks in Italy, and adds, 
' I myself have thought it good to imitate the Italian 
fashion since I came home to England,' A.D. 1608." 

From a passage in that curious work, Coryate's 
Crudities, it has been imagined (says Mr. R. 
Chambers, in his Book of Days) that its .author, 
the strange traveller of that name, was the first to 
introduce the use of the fork into England, in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. He says 
that he observed its use in Italy only " because 
the Italian cannot by any means endure to have 
his dish touched with fingers, seeing all men's 
fingers are not alike clean." These " little forks " 
were usually made of iron or steel, but occasionally 
also of silver. Coryate says he " thought good to 
imitate the Italian fashion by this forked cutting 
of meat," and that hence a humorous English 
friend, "in his merry humour, doubted not to call 
me furcifer, only for using a fork at feeding." 
This passage is often quoted as fixing the earliest 
date of the use of forks ; but they were, in reality, 
used by our Anglo-Saxon forefathers and through- 
out the Middle Ages. In 1834 some labourers 
found, when cutting a deep drain at Sevington, 
North Wilts, a deposit of seventy Saxon pennies, 
of sovereigns ranging from Caenwulf, King of 
Mercia (A.D. 796), to Ethalstan (A.D. 878-890) ; 
they had been packed in a box, of which there 
were some decayed remains, and which also held 
some articles of personal ornament, a spoon, and 

the fork which is engraved in the Book of Days. 
The fabric and ornamentation of this fork and 
spoon would, to the practised eye, be quite suffi- 
cient evidence of the approximate era of their 
manufacture, but their juxtaposition with the 
coins confirms it. In Akerman's Pagan Saxondom 
another example of a fork from a Saxon tumulus 
is given ; it has a bone handle, like those manu- 
factured for common use. It must not, however, 
be imagined that they were frequently used ; 
indeed, throughout the Middle Ages they seem 
to have been kept as articles of luxury, to be used 
only by the great and noble in eating fruits and 
preserves on state occasions. Chambers also 
engraves a German fork, believed to be a work of 
the close of the sixteenth century. It is sur- 
mounted by the figure of a fool or jester, who holds 
a saw. This figure is jointed like a child's doll, 
and tumbles about as the fork is used, while the* 
saw slips up and down the handle. It proves 
that the fork was treated merely as a luxurious 
toy. Indeed, as late as 1652, Heylin, in his Cos- 
mography, treats forks as a rarity : " the use of 
silver forks, which is by some of our spruce gal- 
lants taken up of late," are the words he uses. 
A fork of this period is also engraved in Cham- 
bers's Book of Days ; it is entirely of silver, the 
handle elaborately engraved with subjects from 
the New Testament. It is one of a series so 
decorated at present in the collection of Lord 
Londesborough. In conclusion we may observe, 
says Chambers, that the use of the fork became 
general by the close of the seventeenth century. 


Norton, Stockton-on-Tees. 

PRONUNCIATION OF "ARE" (5 th S. ix. 9.) 
Consult Mr. Ellis's work on Early English Pro- 
nunciation, Mr. Sweet's History of English 
Sounds, and Mr. Sweet's Handbook of Phonetics. 
[n the case of are, the common pronunciation is 
a survival of the old one ; in the case of bare, fare, 
tare, and all the rest, the pronunciation has 
suffered change. The final e at present merely 
denotes the length of a vowel, it is true, but this 
nvolves a long story, and the original force of the 
inal e was, in most cases, entirely different. In 
.he case of are, the final e is due to a survival of 
he e in the old form aren, which again was due 
,o the old Northumbrian aron, and it really means 
hat the word was once dissyllabic. 


I have frequently observed, in conversing with 
he farmers and peasants of that part of Radnor- 
hire which may be best described, perhaps, by 
aying that it lies on the right hand of the road 
eading from Newtown to Llandrindod Wells, that 
hey pronounce the word are with a long, same as 
n care. The word calf is pronounced exactly like 
ave ; have same as a in cave ; day, hay, way, are 



S. IX. JAN. 26, 78. 

pronounced da, ha, im, dropping the sound which 
y represents altogether. I think this pronuncia- 
tion also crops out in the upper portion of the 
district south of the Severn, between Newtown 
and Llanidloes. It is probable, when the English 
Dialect Society shall have completed its labours, 
that several varieties of Dialects VI. and VII., as 
classified by Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, will 
be discovered as existing in the south-eastern parts 
of Montgomery, and the north-eastern and central 
parts of the county of Radnor. E. E. MORRIS. 
Homestay, Newtown, Montg. 

EING AND KNIFE MOTTOES (4 th S. xii. 517 ; 
5 th S. i. 55.) A correspondent, M. D. T. N., asks 
for the translation of a ring motto running thus : 
" vt . coia . cvte . pace . do ."each word being on 
a boss. A contemporary asks for the translation 
of a knife motto (in the B. M.) running thus : 
" Me petit penvs erit amato me fecit." The for- 
mer seems to me to present little difficulty : but 
the version at the latter reference is simply 
impossible. Unquestionably, " coia " is an error 
for cola. Then I read, " Ut colam cutem pacem 
do," i.e. " In order that I may save my skin I 
make peace " ; the ring being the pledge of it. 
The other I can make nothing of. What can it 
mean ? JABEZ. 

Athenasum Club. 

THE ULSTER EIBAND (5 th S. viii. 428.) An 
Ulster riband does not appear to have ever existed 
but in the imagination of the gentlemen who 
assembled under the direction of the late Sir 
Eichard Broun. The Ulster badge was granted 
not to be worn as a jewel, but to be charged on 
the escutcheon. The recommendations of the 
" Committee of the Baronetage for Privileges," not 
having been officially recognized by the Heralds' 
College, have never been generally adopted. The 
baronets of the United Kingdom now all bear the 
badge of Ulster, no baronets of Scotland or Ire- 
land having been created since the Union. 


TIGER DUNLOF (5 th S. ix. 29.) This "remark- 
able biped," as his biographer calls him, was the 
subject of No. xxxv. in the " Gallery of Literary 
Characters " which appeared in Fraser's Magazine, 
with portraits done by Maclise under the pseudonym 
of Alfred Crowquill. William Dtmlop's portrait 
and life up to 1833 are in the number for April of 
that year, and a very fine portrait it is ; the head 
admirably finished, and expressive of the man who 
earned his feline by-name by " clearing two or 
three islands in the Ganges" of tigers. 


J. VANDERBANK (5 th S. v. 408.) I beg, in 
tardy vindication of the " omniscience oi 
* N. & Q.,'" to inform MR. HENRY GIBBS that one 
of the series of pictures by this artist in illustration 

f Don Quixote is in my possession. My edition 
of Jarvis's translation purports to be the second, 
L749, and the engraving by G. Vander Gutch, 
Tom the picture to which I refer, illustrating the 
Don's encounter with the procession of disci- 
plinants, is found at vol. i. p. 398. I purchased it 
ibout twelve years ago from Mr. D. Forbes, 
)icture-dealer, whose present address is Tonk 
street, in this town. He informed me at the time 
that he had had others of the series, but that the 
one which fell to my lot was the last which he 
Dossessed. WILLIAM BATES. 


TRANSLATIONS (5 th S. v. 205.) 
" Un bon traducteur est un bienfaiteur. II sert de 
conducteur electrique aux idees et aux faits, aux de- 
couvertes et aux acquisitions, aux varietes infinies du 
^enie et de 1'art. II renouvelle le sol intellectual de sa 
nation et de sa race. Rien du passe, rien du present ne 
deraeure etranger aux peuples qui emploient vigoureuse- 
ment le grand resaort d'education mutuelle." Philarete 
'husles, Memoires. 

J. M. 

AUTHORS" (5 th S. viii. 428.) I purchased the 
book noted by MR. WARD. It is a very inexact, 
"ncomplete, and somewhat libellous production. 
It was published anonymously, and the work itself 
ifFords no clue to its author. It was very severely 
handled at the time of its publication by the 
Gentleman's Magazine and the Analytical Beview, 
the critic of the former calling it " a mere con- 
temptible catchpenny." I find no mention of the 
book or its author in Pickering's edition of 
Lowndes, but in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica, 
1824, is the following : "Marshall, . Charac- 
ters of 500 Authors. London, 1788." I shall be 
thankful for any further information respecting 
Mr. Marshall. D. M. STEVENS. 


I presume the high price is on the strength of 
the extract from Lowndes, as I gave one shilling 
for my copy at Sir C. Rugge Price's sale (Sotheby, 
February 14, 1867, lot 400), and it has the 
Macartney book-plate. I have a note of another 
copy with MS. notes, priced at two shillings and 
sixpence. It was referred to in " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. 
xi. 280. The Gent. Mag. for 1788, pp. 537 and 
819, says the work is a contemptible catchpenny. 
After reading the preface and the promise that 
future editions should be carefully brought down, 
&c., it seems most unlikely that the author should 
have destroyed any copies. In- this work we find 
a conjecture which partly answers a question that 
has several times appeared in " N. & Q." (3 rd S. 
xii. 419), namely, Who was "Anna Matilda"? 
Under "Eobert Merry" (the Catalogue is unpaged), 
the author says : " In this publication they have 
been interspersed with poems by a lady in Eng- 
land, under the signature of Anna Matilda. We 

S. IX. JAN. 26, 78.] 



conjecture this lady to be Mrs. Piozzi." If, how- 
ever, the reviews of the Catalogue are good, this 
conjecture is in all likelihood bad. 


I have a copy, and have known it from my 
childhood. The margins of my copy are well 
covered with MS. notes by my mother. I have 
a similar book, published by Colburn, 1816, en- 
titled A Biographical Dictionary of Living 
Authors. H. T. E. 

Clyst St. George, Devon. 

MR. WARD will find Catalogue of Five 
Hundred Celebrated Authors in Bohn's Lowndes, 
under the head of "Literature," p. 136.9. This 
Catalogue, 1788, was the foundation of a similar 

" Literary Memoirs of Living Authors of Great Britain, 
arranged according to an Alphabetical Catalogue of their 
Names, and including a List of their Works, with 
Occasional Opinions upon their Literary Character. 
London, 1798," Svo., 2 vols. 

Lowndes says : " A useful work to the time when 
it was published. Edited by Dr. Rivers, a Dis- 
senting minister of Higho-ate." 


EECORDS OP THE WEATHER (5 th S. viii. 507.) 
If MR. LOWE is not yet acquainted with A Gene- 
ral Chronological History of the Air, Weather, 
Seasons, Meteors, &c., in two veils., 8vo., published 
in London in 1749, I am sure he will be glad to 
have his attention called to them. I may add that 
they were compiled by Thomas Short, M.D. 
(no author's name given in vols.), author of other 
valuable works in the last century, and a most 
careful observer. In White's Natural History of 
Selbornc will be found many useful references to 
remarkable seasons of rainfall, frosts, &c. In the 
Reports of the Irish Census Commission for 1851, 
in all four vols., will be found such a mass of in- 
formation as respects the weather and vital 
statistics of that country as is hardly to be found 
elsewhere. I may further (I hope without any 
charge of personal vanity) refer him to articles 
Famines, Fevers, Floods, and Frosts, in my Insurance 
Cyclopaedia. 1 am preparing for the Statistical 
Society of London a paper on the " Famines of 
the World," wherein is embodied a large mass of 
facts bearing upon meteorology which I have 
drawn from a great variety of sources. 

Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 

DINKEL, ARTIST (5 th S. viii. 507.) I have two 
small oval water-colour drawings by this artist- 
one of a lady, and the other of a fury of the time 
of the French Revolution. The lady has powdered 
hair and a tall head-dress, with feathers and 
ribbons and lace ; a yellow ribbon round her neck, 

tied in a bow in front ; a pale blue dress trimmed 
with pale yellow and white : she has very delicate 
features and complexion. The other is a very 
bold-faced woman, with dishevelled hair and 
naked breasts. She wears a white frilled cap, 
with a broad blue ribbon and strings untied. She 
has a dark blue dress, and a red kerchief thrown 
loosely round her neck. They are signed E. I. D. 


POPE CALIXTUS II. (5 th S. viii. 428) was an 
author, and among his other writings is a treatise 
on the discovery of the body of St. Turpinus, 
Archbishop of Rheims and martyr. In that work, 
which I do not possess, I should think it most 
likely that your correspondent would find all the 
information he desires. EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

LORD ROBERT STUART (5 th S. viii. 443.) Will 
the writer of this notice furnish the readers of 
" N". & Q." with any particulars he may have of 
the family of Penicuik of that Ilk ? This ancient 
family is about the least known in Scotland, and 
I, for one, am thankful when any the smallest 
gleam of light is thrown on its history. MAG. 

"MUCKED TO DEATH" (5 th S. ix. 6.) As a 
term of reprobation or as an epithet the word 
muck has a very wide range, and is so used in 
Scotland (at least the Border counties), and to- 
the writer's knowledge throughout the northern 
counties of England, at least as far south as 
Cheshire. In Scotland a dirty or slatternly woman 
or girl is termed a " big heap/' a " mucky heap," 
and, superlatively, a "great mucky heap." If 
a Scottish southland shepherd comes soaking wet 
from the hill, or a farmer from the plough in the 
same condition, each will describe himself as 
being " wet as muck " ; and in Northumbria a 
pedlar or other dealer will commend his wares to- 
his customers as being as " cheap as muck " ; and 
a drunken man, on both sides of the Border, is 
termed as "drunk as muck." In Lancashire, 
where almost every person has a nickname, the 
unsavoury word is also in current use as an 
opprobrious epithet. One person will, for example^ 
be best known as " Jock o' Bill's o' Dick's," that 
is, John, the son of William, the son of Richard, 
and so on. One young woman, for instance, is 
called " Jinny o' Mucky Molloy's," from the fact 
that her mother, Mary or Molly, was a slattern. 
Near where I reside there is a moorland farm, the 
name of which is actually " Mucked Earth," and 
not far off is another farm which has a much 
higher" designation. This singular name, I 
presume, had its origin in the fact that no hay 
can be grown in this high region of north-east 
Lancashire, except the fields and meadows receive 
a liberal top dressing of manure in the autumn 
and winter months. In the Vicar of Wakefield 


[5<> S. IX. JAN. 26, '78. 

'the word muck is used in another singular sense. 
When Squire Thornton brought his fine town 
ladies to a dance at the Vicar's humble abode, 
good Dr. Primrose was somewhat astonished and 
scandalized to hear one of these supposititious high- 
bred ladies affirm that she had danced so vigorously 
that she was " all a-muck of sweat." CUTHBERT 
BEDE, in describing the farmer's heaven as a place 
where there is " heaps of muck," reminds one of 
the Highlander's idea of the same place. Donald 
ds telling a friend that he has dreamt of being in 
heaven. " And what a fine place it was ! " he 
enthusiastically exclaimed ; " there were nae less 
than fifty pipers a-playing at aince [once] ! " 

Stocksteads, Lancashire. 

Though I feel sure that CUTHBERT BEDE knows, 
-some of your other readers may need to be told that 
the "heaps o' muck" which entered into the 
farmer's dream of heaven consisted not of mounds 
of earth or of mud, but of abundance of manage- 
ment, i.e. of farmyard manure, as distinguished 
from artificial enrichers of the soil. I think I am 
right in saying that much, management, and 
manure are, in Lincolnshire, the positively vulgar, 
4;he comparatively polite, and the superlatively re- 
fined name for the same thing. I would refer any 
one interested in the subject to Peacock's Manley 
and Corringham Glossary (E.D.S.). The Holder- 
ness and the Mid- Yorkshire and Whitby glossaries 
of the same society give some pleasing examples 
of the use of the word mucJc, which is probably 
one that is common to all English folk-speech. 


A " SNOW (5 th S. viii. 428.) In the Imperial 
Diet, is a woodcut representing a " snow." As the 
word is not in the four dictionaries (Richardson, 
Latham, Halliwell, and Nares) which I propose 
to supplement, I have marked it for insertion in 
my glossary, with the following quotation : 
" Far other craft our prouder river shows, 

Hoys, pinks, and sloops, brigs, brigantines, and snows." 
Crabbe, The Borough, Letter 1. 

Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

A " snow " differed very slightly from a brig, the 
difference being that the fore-and-aft sail was not 
hoisted on the mainmast, but on a supplementary 
mast or spar immediately abaft the mainmast. 
The vessel would thus carry a square mainsail and 
a fore-and-aft mainsail. There was a picture of a 
41 snow " in the earlier edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, but it is omitted in the later, this 
kind of rig having become obsolete. J. C. M. 

113, Eaton Square. 

Wedgwood says under this word: "PI. D. 
snau, a kind of ship, originally a beaked ship, from 
snau, beak, snout." EDMUND TEW, M.A. 

The only difference between a "snow" and a brig 
is that in a " snow " the hoops of the trysail go 
round a small mast abaft the mainmast, whereas 
in a brig they go round the mainmast itself. 



A "snow" is described by Webster as "a 
vessel equipped with two masts, resembling the 
main and fore masts of a ship, and a third small 
mast just abaft the mainmast, carrying a trysail." 



The sail on the third small mast, just abaft the 
mainmast, and almost similar to a ship's mizen, 
was called the trysail, and extended from its mast 
towards the stern of the vessel. 


15, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. 

In those charming plates of " Shipping and 
Craft," drawn and etched by E. W. Cooke, will be 
found one of a " Prussian snow," looking very like 
what we know here as a barque. 



A " snow " is generally the largest of all two- 
masted vessels employed by Europeans, and the 
most convenient for navigation. A. S. 

See Smyth's Sailor's Word Book, sub voc. 


THE HOSE" (5 th S. viii. 408, 433.) This must be 
a mining figure of speech smothered in the 
lode (where the mineral is dug) and worried (i.e. 
choked, the original meaning of the word) in the 
hose, the shaft or pipe by which the mineral is 
brought to the open surface. It thus signifies 
doubly smothered before the plot is brought to the 
light of day. H. W. 

MARIA (5 th S. ix. 26.) I hand you a description 
of an important historical document, formerly in 
my possession, which formed an essential part of 
this transaction. It consisted of two folio sheets 
of about foolscap size fastened together as four 
leaves, in which state it must have been before the 
writing, as this continues from one page to another, 
and is not written on separate leaves and after- 
wards connected. This is the more noticeable 
because the dates of the three parts are in reverse 
order to the succession of them ; so that the king's 
was first written, leaving space before it for the 
two foreign parts to be written afterwards. I. 
believe I am sufficiently acquainted with King 
Charles's writing to be able to attest it. This 
notice is all that remains of the document, and I 
believe all that is known of it, as, unluckily, it is 
no longer in existence. 

5th s. IX. JAN. 26, 78.] 



we may see the bust of Prince William V., Stadtholder 
in 1766, then nineteen years of age. At his side is the 
bust of Sophia Wilhelmina, a Prussian princess, whom 
he married in 1767." 

He then describes the figures precisely as they are 
on W. M. M.'s plate and on ray bottle, and says 
that different plates have different inscriptions. 
He adds : 

"They were fabricated on the occasion of this marriage, 
which seems to have been a popular one in Holland, and 
another plate shows the figures separated by a candle, 
while lines in Dutch surround them. The letters 
* p . w . D . v .,' which we see on many of these services, 
are the initials of Prins Willem. Deu. V." 

From Chaff ers's description, then, this ware seems 
to be Staffordshire and not Leeds pottery, though 
in many respects very like it. Can any one give 
me the translation of the two inscriptions on my 
very quaint bottle, the likenesses on which are 
certainly approaching caricatures ? B. J. 

The inscription is corrupt Dutch, but not wholly 
so, as couleur is French. In correctly written 
Dutch it would read : 

" Zal nooit de Oranje 
Klein vergaan," 

the orange colour will never fade. Is W. M. M. 
really assured that this plate is of Leeds pottery 1 
The political allusion points to a much earlier date. 


NAMES (5 th S. vii. 267, 397.) MR. WARREN will 
hardly find one which is more satisfactory than 
the glossary affixed to vol. i. of the History of 
Christian Names, by the author of the Heir of 
Eeddyffe, &c. (London, Parker, Son & Bourn, 
West Strand, 1863). ST. SWITHIN. 

HERALDIC (5 th S. viii. 268, 379.) The arms 
described are so nearly identical with those borne 
by the Hutchinsons of this country, that I think 
they must be the same. 

See the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register, vol. i. pp. 296 and 310, for those 
borne by Gov. Thomas Hutchinson, the eighteenth 
Governor of Massachusetts ; and id., xxii. p. 236, 
for those of the Hutchinsons of Salem, Mass. The 
"lion rampant" is argent in both cases ; but o: 
the " cross crosslets or " there are eleven in the 
former, and but eight in the latter ; but th 
description gives the field as "semee of cross 
crosslets or," which may account for the discrepancy 
between both and the one described in " N. & Q. ; 

Col. Joseph L. Chester, of London, has speni 
time and labour in tracing the Salem branch o 
the family, and somewhere he concludes that the 
governor's branch are not entitled to these arms. 

The governor's family name is extinct here, bu 
there are descendants from the same parent stock 
of whom I am one. He left descendants in Eng 
land ; for his grandson, the Rev. John Hutchinson 

mblished in London, in 1828, the third volume 
f the governor's History of Massachusetts from 
.749 to 1774 ; and one of the governor's sons, 
Thomas, died at Heavitree, near Exeter, in 1811, 
aged seventy-one. The governor lived at Bromp- 
ton till June 3, 1780, and died there. 

Perhaps this may meet the eye of some de- 
scendants of Governor Hutchinson's, who can give 
ne their version of their pedigree, and say whether 
or not they are entitled to the above arms the 
contrary to which is so confidently asserted by 
Col. Chester. 

I should be much pleased to receive a personal 
communication in relation thereto. 


Portland, Me. 

LAKE THIRLMERE (5 th S. viii. 469 ; ix. 34.) 
On referring to a perfect copy in my library of that 
3xtremely rare work, Saxton's Maps, 1576. I find 
this lake named " Thurlemyre flu." The singular 
accuracy of these, the first maps published of 
England and Wales, is most surprising, as the 
difficulty of carrying out a survey in this wild and 
mountainous county three hundred years ago must 
have been very great. R. H. WOOD. 

Penrhos House, Rugby. 


"Religion, freedom, vengeance, what you will," &c. 
Byron's Lara, ii. 8, third and fourth lines from the end. 



A Chronicle of England during the Reigns of the Tudors, 
from A.D. 1485 to 1559. By Charles Wriothesley, 
Windsor Herald. Edited from a MS. in the possession 
of Lieut.-Gen. Lord Henry Percy, by Wm. Douglas 
Hamilton. (Printed for the Camden Society.) 
THIS interesting volume contains notes made in the 
reigns of Edward VI., Mary, and in the first year of 
Elizabeth. Its great value lies in the fact that it tells us 
as much of the private life of the times as of their public 
history. In some cases the record of manners will raise 
a smile ; at others, something graver than a smile. 
Under 1554 there are these incidents, illustrating a 
street scene, and how the Spaniards who came over with 
Philip bore themselves : " Frydaye, the 26 of Octobre, 
there was a Spaniarde hanged at Charinge Crosse which 
had shamefullie slayen an Englishe man, servant to Sir 
George Gifforde. There would have been given c. 
crownes of the strangers to have saved his life." Again, 
in 1555 : " The xi of Januarie was a Spaniarde hanged 
at Charing Crosse for slaying an English man at the 
court gate at Westminster, at Christenmas holydayes, 
cunningely runninge him thorowe with a rapere whilst 
2 Spaniardes held him by his arrnes, who also were 
arrayned and cast, but after pardoned by the Queene." 
The entries of executions in Mary's reign are numerous, 
and business-like as a le<Jger account. Here is one 
sample out of many: "Saturday, 27 Junii (1556), were 
13 persons carried from Newgate in three cartes to the 
end of the to\vne of Stratford the Bowe and there brent." 



s. IX. JAN. 26, '78. 

Tales, Poetry, and Fairy Tales, by Walter Brown, 
recommends itself by the author and publisher illus- 
trating his book by a few of Bewick's woodcuts. From 
the Oxford University Press (Frowde) we have, in a 
single volume, " The Book of Common Prayer and 
Administration of the Sacraments, and other Rites* and 
Ceremonies of the Church, according to the ~U*e of the 
Church of England. Together with the Psalter or 
Psalms of David, printed as they are to be said or sung 
in Churches, and the Form and Manner of Making, 
Ordaining, and Consecrating of Bishops, Priests, and 
Deacons." Bound up with this are the Old and New 
Testaments. The compact whole is in two columns; 
the type small, but clear. 

The Thelan Trilogy of Sophocles. With Copious Ex- 
planatory Notes for the Use of Elementary Students. 
By the Rev. W. Linwood, M.A. (Longmans & Co.) 
ADMIRABLY edited in every respect. The student has 
just enough help afforded him as may serve for encourage- 
ment to help himself. Of old the learner was often left 
with scanty aid, or none at all. Now, there is some 
danger of going to the other extreme. Mr. Linwood 
has adopted the happy medium. Moreover, the volume 
is so neatly got up that a student, on opening it, might 
find pleasure in the perusal of its attractive pages. 

WK have received Corn and Chfff, or Double Acrostics 
(B. M. Pickering), Tke Public Ledger Almanac, kindly 
sent to us by Mr. Childs of Philadelphia. The Genea- 
logist, No. 16, edited by Dr. Marshall, The New 
Eric/land Historical and Genealogical Register, No. 125, 
Journal of the National Indian Association, and 
English Mystics of the Puritan Period, a reprint from 
the New Englander of an article by R. E. Thompson 
(Univ. Pennsylv.). 

Prince of Wales, President of the Society of Arts, having 
referred to the Council the subject of the cost of pro- 
ducing a Universal Catalogue of all Book^ printed in the 
United Kingdom up to the year 1600, the Council, to 
enable them to report to their President, will feel greatly 
obliged if librarians, publishers, and printers will kindly 
give replies to the following questions, and return them 
answered to the Secretary, P. Le Neve Foster, Esq., John 
Street, Adelphi, London, on or before February 15 : 
1. As it is proposed to issue the catalogue in sections, do 
you approve of dividing the catalogue into periods, say, 
of fifty years'? If not, please say what other periods you 
recommend. 2. Do you approve of the size of the pro- 
posed page and type? If not, what do you suggest"? 
3. Would you be Avilling to attend a meeting of the 
Council, and give explanations of your views generally 
on the subject"? A spetimen of the proposed catalogue 
may be seen at the Society of Arts', Adelphi, between 
the hours of 10 and 4, or a copy will be sent for inspec- 
tion, to be returned. 

THE Scotish Literary Club, instituted for the reprint- 
ing of rare, curious, and remarkable works pertaining 
to Scotland, has issued as its volume for 1877 the works 
of Adam Petrie, "the Scotish Chesterfield," viz.: 1. 
Rules of Good Deportment, or of Good Breeding. For 
the Use of Youth. 1720. 2. Rides of Good Deportment 
for Church Officers; or, Friendly Advices to Them. 1730. 
Now first collected. 

THE Diploma Galleries of the Royal Academy, con- 
taining the works deposited by members on their election 
as Academicians, and other works the property of the 
Academy (including the Gibson Sculpture), are now 
open free to the public, from 11 to 4 daily, Sundays 


ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

JUNIOR GARRICK. Medbourne, the actor in the Duke 
of York's company, who first translated Moliere's Tartufe,. 
undertook the work for the purpose of ridiculing the 
French Huguenots. Medbourne was a zealous Roman 
Catholic, and was arrested in November, 1678. on a 
charge of being concerned in the Popish Plot. He died 
in Newgate in the following ?.Iarch. Moliere's original 
comedy satirized hypocritical human nature. Medbourne 
adapted it to calumniate an adverse religious party. 
Gibber used it in his N on juror (1 717) to cast obloquy on 
an antagonistic political faction ; and Bickerstatf, who 
had no religion at all, readjusted the piece in his Hypo- 
crite (1768) in order to caricature those Dissenters who 
thought nobody religious but themselves. 

F. DE H. L. (Madras.) The Parliamentary History of 
England, 1806-20, as well as the series of the Parlia- 
mentary Deb ates (Hansards), give lists of the members 
of the House of Commons from a very early period down 
to the last Parliament of the current reign. The lists 
are prefixed to each new Parliament. Another list, 
from 33 Henry VIII., 1542, to 12 Charles II., 1660, 
arranged in Parliaments, is printed in Willis's Notitia 
Parliamentan'a, vol. iii. pt. ii. Beatson's Chronological 
Register, 3 vols. Svo., gives the members of both Houses 
from 1708 to 1807. 

DOUBLE X. Mrs. Southey, in 1834, published 
Olympia Morata and her Times. In 1851, M. Jules 
Bonnet published his Vie d 1 Olympia Morata, Episode de 
la Renaissance et de la Reforme en Italie. In the latter 
work the story that Olympia had been a professor at 
Heidelberg vas proved to be without foundation. 

MR. H. GAUSSEKON (2, Bath Place, Ayr) thinks he can 
give useful information about anti-Popery hymns and 
songs to ACTON WEST if the latter will send him his 

HORATIO. Always glad to hear from you. We will 
act on your suggestion by printing the comments in 
small type. 

VINCKNT S. LEAN. " Cold pudding will settle your 
love." See " N. & Q.," 1 st S. v. 30, 189. 

F. RULE.- We shall be happy to forward to K. N. (5 
S. viii. 289) the translation. 

T. L. The name of the Russian general responsible 
for the slaughter of the Turcoman men, women, and 
children is given in Burnaby's Ride to Khiva. 

S. W. The rhymes on the kings of England can, 
doubtless, be procured of any publisher of children's 

War. FREELOVE. Has the account been published 
before 1 

REV. W. ROTHERHAM should write to MR. J. A. C. 
VINCENT. We shall be happy to forward a letter to that 

GEO. GASCOYNE. See 5 th S. vii. 2C6, under "A Strange 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and: 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5th s. IX. FEB. 2, 78.] 





NOTES: The "Bore" on the River Severn, 81 Bedingfield 
of Oxburgh, 82 -"The Heliaud," an Old Saxon Poem of the 
Ninth Century, 83-" Sweetheart " " Mugging together," 
84 The Public-house Sign of " The Three Children in the 
Wood "Captain Boyton's Predecessor "Manse" Owl- 
perch, 85. 

QUERIES: Old Stories Toy Puzzle temp. Charles I. Life 
of the Duke of Schomberg The Standerwicks of the 
United States -"Callis "-Courtney and Ap Jenkin, 86 
"O nimis Felix," &c. Solomon Grildrig The Windsor 
Sentinel and St. Paul's Town Marks Jetton- H. Vaughan 
John, First Earl of Middleton Drayton J. Brindell 
"Hot Cocquaille "Mysterious Lights, 87 Tirling-Pin 
Fans "The Book-Hunter "Heraldry Sutton Mutton- 
Authors Wanted, 88. 

REPLIES : George Washington and the Rev. Jonathan 
Boucher, 89 The Dormant Scottish Peerage of Hyndford, 
90 F. Bartolozzi, R. A. Archbishop Sharp, 91 "News" 
Anthony Griflinhoof, 93 " Chroniques de I'CEil de Bojuf '' 
The Red Mouse Jack of Hilton Mrs. J. Weld Tiger 
Dunlop " Hoping against hope," 94 Modern Greek Bible 
" Fifteenths "A Jacobite Contrivance -Snuff Spoons- 
Death of Edward, Duke of York, 95 Leigh of co. Warwick 
Oldham Chess, 96 Booksellers (Play) in St. Paul's 
Churchyard Mac Mahon Families, 97 The First Local 
Newspaper Fragaria vesca " Chic" K. Ralegh Carious 
Names- S. Roper and the Sewall Family, 98 Dr. Pitcairn 
"The Whole Duty of Man "" Peuesy "Edward Hyde, 
Earl of Clarendon Copies of Shakspeare, Fol. 1623 
Authors Wanted, 99. 

Notes on Books, &c. 

Jit Jtum0mtnr> 

Every reader of " N.' & Q." will, I am sure, share the profound regret with which I pen 
these lines, recording the death of the accomplished gentleman and warm-hearted scholar who 
has, for the last five years, helped them in their inquiries, ministered to their information and 
instruction, and tempered their discussions with a geniality and tact which must have won for 
him, in his character of Editor, the regard that was entertained by all whose good fortune it 
was to know him as a friend. DR. DORAN died, after a short illness, on Friday, the 25th of 
January, in his seventy-first year. 

Receiving his early education in France and Germany, and gifted with a memory which 
never failed him, DR. DORAN was eminently fitted to discharge the responsible duties of an 
editor duties calling for a combination of firmness in maintaining the character of the journal 
under his charge with a delicate regard for the susceptibilities of contributors. DR. DORAN was, 
I believe, under twenty when his 'prentice hand directed the Literary Chronicle ; and, for the 
last quarter of a century, hardly a publishing season has returned without producing some 
valued work from his pen. During the whole of this time he was a constant contributor to 
various literary journals ; and yet such was his industry, that all this labour did not compel 
him to withdraw from that society where he was always so heartily welcomed, and where 
his loss will be so deeply deplored. 

My introduction to DR. DORAN was one of the many kindnesses for which I was indebted 
to his and my good friend, dear John Bruce, who, had he been spared, would have worthily 
accomplished what I have so feebly attempted rendered full justice to the high personal 
character and varied acquirements of the worthy and joyous-hearted man of letters who was 
laid to his rest in Kensal Green on Tuesday last. WILLIAM J. THOMS. 


The recent work of Prof. Huxley on Physio- 
graphy is distinguished by the lucidity of 
explanation and the graphic power of description 
so characteristic of its author. It forms a valu- 
able introduction to the physical study of the 
earth on which we dwell, and of the innumerable 
agencies always at work moulding and shaping it 
as we now inherit it. 

In describing the effects of the tidal wave there 
is one passage which, probably through inadvertence, 
is calculated to mislead, or, if not misleading, it 
points out a phenomenon which has certainly not 
been hitherto recorded. On p. 180, remarking on 

the rapid rush of water in a narrow strait caused 
by the tidal wave, he proceeds : 

" If the tidal wave rolls into a narrow estuary, the 
water becomes heaped up and produces a sudden rush 
into the channel of the river. Such a wave is called a 
lore, and is well seen in the Bristol Channel at the mouth 
of the Severn, where at certain seasons the head of water 
attains to as great a height as forty feet." 

There is a little ambiguity in this statement. If 
it is merely meant that the rise and fall of the 
tide in certain parts of the Severn about the 
mouth of the Wye, at Chepstow for instance 
is forty feet, it is rather an understatement, fifty 
feet being not unusual with spring tides under 
favourable circumstances ; but this is not what is 
called the bore. This term is limited to the effect 
produced when, in the words of the professor, " the 



[5th s. IX. FEB. 2, '78. 

water becomes heaped up and produces a sudden 
rush in the channel," that is to say, the advanc- 
ing torrent presents a perpendicular front, im- 
pelled by the weight and rush behind, too fast to 
allow it time to subside. The effect is very grand, 
but the statement that it ever reaches or could 
reach the height of forty feet is utterly un- 
warranted. Imagine for a moment a perpendicular 
wall of water forty feet high ! We read that in 
the Red Sea " the waters were gathered together, 
the floods stood upright as a heap," but a rush 
such as this would be sufficient to sweep away a 
dozen Pharaohs and their armies at once. No 
ship or boat could withstand such a shock for 
a moment. 

The great wave which swept along the coast of 
Peru a few years ago, and again in 1877, and 
which caused such an enormous amount of de- 
struction, was not half this height. The phenomenon 
is not peculiar to the Severn, being occasionally 
found in the Dee, the Trent, and the Solway, and 
on a much larger scale in the Hoogly at Calcutta, 
where it only rises about five feet. On the 
Brahmapootra the height is said to exceed twelve 
feet, and is so dangerous that no boat will venture 
to navigate when it is likely to occur. In some 
of the great rivers of Brazil it is said to reach the 
height of fifteen feet, being the greatest known. 

Camden describes the bore on the Severn thus : 

" There is in it a daily rage and boisterousness in its 
waters, which I know not whether I may call a gulph 
or whirlpool, casting up the sands from the bottom, and 
rowling them into heaps. It floweth with a great 

torrent, but loses its force at the first bridge That 

vessel is in great danger that is stricken on the side. 
The watermen us'd to it, when they see this Hygre (or 
Egre) coming, do turn the vessel, and, cutting through 
the midst of it, avoid its violence." Gibson's Camden, 
edit. 1695, p. 231. 

Some time ago there was a very graphic account 
of this bore in the Severn inserted in the Times. 
The perpendicular height was there fixed at six 

There must be many readers of " N. & Q." in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the banks of the 
Severn. It would be interesting to ascertain what 
their experiences of this phenomenon amount to, 
and to what extent Prof. Huxley's statement can 
be verified. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 


In a note to p. 151 of Mr. Scott's Memorials of 
the Scott Family of co. Kent occurs the follow- 
ing : 

"Blomfield, in his History of Norfolk, vol. iii. p. 488, 
asserts that Margaret Scott was widow of Sir Edmund 
Tudenham, K.G., and that her arms (' Three Catherine 
wheels, &c.') were impaled with those of Tudenham 
('Lozengee argent and gules ') in the chancel window of 

the church of Oxburgh, and in connexion with the arms 
of Bedingfield." 

Apart from Mr. Scott's statement, few would credit 
that a writer of Blomefield's eminence could 
possibly so commit himself. On reference to his 
work I find that in the account of Oxburgh 
(vol. vi. p. 186) he speaks of " Margaret Beding- 
feld, relict of Sir Edmund, Knight of the Bath," 
that is, of Sir Edmund Bedingfield. There also 
Mr. Blomefield mentions three shields carved on 
the roof, which exhibited the arms of Bedingfield 
(i.e. Bedingfield quartering Tudenham) impaling 
Scot of Scot's Hall, Kent. Possibly these are the 
passages Mr. Scott cites, and on an apparent mis- 
apprehension of which he proceeds as follows : 
" This confusion of names of Tudenham and 
Bedingfield in the person of this Sir Edmund 
probably arises from the fact[!] that he was 
equally known by one or the other surname," &c. 
(note to p. 151). Mr. Scott, to make good this 
statement, should show from documentary sources 
that any of the Bedingfields were ever styled 
"Tudenham." At least, he has no warranty in 
Blomefield for the double name. That historian 
has carefully set out all the particulars relating to 
the Bedingfield pedigree in the account of Ox- 
burgh (vol. vi.), and, since Mr. Scott quotes the 
work as his authority, I cannot understand how it 
can be so misconstrued ; more especially when 
Blomefield says in his account that he has most 
particularly set down the evidence of certain wills 
and other records upon which the pedigree is 
founded, in order that there might be no mistakes, 
as mistakes had been made with respect to the 
subject. At p. 150 of his book Mr. Scott has 
this : " Sir Edmund Bedingfield, or Tudenham, 
for he appears to have been known by both these 
names, the latter probably in the first instance as 
heir of his mother (sister and heir of Sir Thomas 
Tudenham, beheaded in 1461)," &c. Now 
Margaret Bedingfield. nee Tudenham, was not 
mother to Sir Edmund Bedingfield, but grand- 
mother, he being son and heir of Thomas Beding- 
field, Esq., son and heir of Edmund Bedingfield, 
Esq., by his wife the said Margaret Tudenham. 
Again, in the note to p. 151 Mr. Scott observes : 
" There can be little question, therefore, that the 
heir general [i.e. of Lord Wenlock] married to a 
kinsman of Archbishop Eotherham was no other 
than the prelate's sister Margaret, married to Sir 
Edmund Tudenham or Bedingfield," &c. The 
truth, however, with respect to this passage is that 
in the first place the heir general of Lord Wenlock 
was a male (one Thomas Lawley, Esq.) ; secondly, 
it is on record that the archbishop had a sister 
certainly, but most assuredly she co.uld not have 
been Margaret Scott. In the same note Mr. Scott 
goes on to say : 

" Looking therefore to the facts[!] of the case, whilst 
not unmindful of its difficulties [there are no difficulties], 

5'h S. IX. FEB. 2, 78.] 



we come to the conclusion that Margaret Bedingfield 
(nee Scott) conveyed by marriage the manor of Oxburgh 
to her husband, as heir-at-law of Lord Wenlock, or 
Archbishop Rotherham her brother." 
It seems almost unnecessary to repeat that 
Margaret Bedingfield, nee Scott, was not the heir 
of Lord Wenlock, or sister or related to Arch- 
bishop Rotherham, and that prelate in nowise 
related or heir to Lord Wenlock. Mr. Scott, 
before penning the above, might have elicited from 
the Inquisitions post mortem in the Public Record 
Office the information that Margaret Bedingfield, 
nee Tudenham, relict of Edmund Bedingfield, Esq., 
died seised of the manor of Oxburgh, she having 
inherited it as sister and heir of Sir Thomas 
Tudenham, who had likewise died seised of the 
same.* From which it is clear that Margaret 
Bedingfield, nee Scott, second wife of Sir Edmund 
Bedingfield, cannot by any possibility have been 
associated with the acquisition of the manor of 
Oxburgh by the Bedingfields. 



(Bibliographical Notice.) 

I. Manuscripts. (a) The Cottonian, Caligula 
A. vii., parchment 8vo., first mentioned in Hickes, 
Institutions grammatical Anglo - Saxonica et 

* Chancery Inquisitions post mortem, A 15 Edw. IV., 
No. 38. This comprises several inquisitions taken in 
different counties after the death of Margaret Bedyng- 
felde, widow. In one of them, taken at Norwich, 
April 25, A 16 Edw. IV., the jurors say that she was 
seised, inter alia, of the manor of Oxburgh ; that said 
Margaret died Jan. 25, A 15 Edw. IV.; and that 
Edmund Bedyngfelde, son and heir of Thomas Bedyng- 
felde, Esq., son of aforesaid Margaret, is cousin (or, as 
we should say, grandson) and heir of the said Margaret, 
and aged twenty-one years and more. 

Hid., A 33 Hen. VI., No. 7, taken at Weybrede, co. 
Suffolk, Nov. 8, A 33 Hen. VI., after the death of 
Thomas Bedyngfelde, Esq. The jurors say that he was 
seised in fee of a tenement called Skottes, in the vill of 
Westylton, worth per annum 3s. id., and that he held 
no other lands or tenements in this county ; also that 
he died Oct. 12, A 32 Hen. VI., and that Edmund 
Bedyngfelde is son and heir, and aged five years and 

Ibid., A 5 Edw. IV., No. 34. Two inquisitions taken 
after the death of Thomas Tudenham, Knt. In one, 
taken in co. Norfolk, the jurors say that he was seised, 
inter alia, of the manor of Oxburgh ; that said Thomas 
died Feb. 23, A 1 Edw. IV. ; and that Margaret (else- 
where in the inquisition she is described as Margaret 
late wife of Edmund Bedyngfelde, Es^q.), daughter ol 
the aforesaid Robert Tudenham, sister of the aforesaic 
Thomas, is next heir of the same Thomas, and agec 
sixty years and more. The other inquisition, taken ir 
co. Suffolk, sets out the Tudenham pedigree in the fol 
lowing manner : first, as below, by an account of th< 
descent of the manor of Ereswell' in said county, which 
was settled in tail by a fine levied in Michaelmas 
term, A 54 Hen. III., the underneath Robert Tudenham 

Mcuogothicce, Oxon., 1689 ; described by H. Wan- 
ey in Hickes' Thesaurus, iii. 225, and in Schmeller's 
Heliand, vol. ii. p. vii : fac-simile in Schmeller, 
specimens in Hickes' Thesaurus. The MS. was 
copied in September, 1768, by C. Frid. Temler for 
tfyerup, Symbolce ad literaturam teutonicam anti- 
quiorem, Havn., 1787, No. V., pp. 130-146 ; also 
introd., pp. xix-xxiii. Copy in the Bodleian, by 
Francis Junius ; another in the Royal Library at 
Copenhagen, by Friedr. Rostgaard. 
(6) Monacensis in the Royal Library of 

and Eve his wife being the plaintiffs, and Robert de 
Westone and Hawisia his wife the deforciants. 

Robert Tudenham=Eve. 

died seised of it. 

Robert Tudenham, s. and 
i., seised of it, but ob. s.p. 

Thomas Tudenham, bro. 
and h., died seised of it. I 

Robert Tudenham, Kt., s. and h.,~ 
died seised of it. 

John Tudenham, Kt., s. and h.,== 
died seised of it. 

Robert Tudenham, s. and h.,== 
died seised of it. 

[Robert Tuden- Thomas Tudenham, Margaret, late 
ham, ob. s.p.] Kt. [br. and h.], seis- wife of Edmund 
See below. ed of it, but ob. s.p. Bedyngfelde, Esq. 

Secondly, by an account, as under, of the descent of the 
manors of Brandeston and Westerfelde, in said county, 
which were settled in tail upon Robert Weylond and his 
wife Cecilia, nee Baldok', by a fine levied in Hilary 
term, A 19 Edw. II., between Master Robert de Baldok', 
junior, plaintiff, and the underneath William Weylond, 
Chivaler, deforciant. 

William Weylond, == Thomas de Baldok'= 

Chivaler. I 

Robert Weylond, s. and h.==Cecilia. 

Margaret, d. and h.= John Tudenham, Kt. 

Robert Tudenham, s. and h. of Margaret== 


[Robert Tudenham, ob. Thomas Tudenham, Kt., " son 
s.p.] See below. and heir " (really brother and 

heir to Robert), ob. s.p. 

Ibid., A 1 Hen. VI., No. 77. Proof of the age of 
Thomas Tudenham, brother and heir of Robert Tuden- 
ham, son of Robert Tudenham, defunct. Taken at 
Bertoii, in co. Suffolk, on the Tuesday after the feast of 
the Epiphany, A 1 Hen. VI. The jurors say that he 
was born at Ereswell' and baptized in the church there, 
and that he was twenty-one years old on the feast of 
SS. Gordianus and Ephimachus last past (i.e. May 10, 



. IX. FEB. 2, 78. 

Munich, Cod. Germ., 25, Oimel. III., 4, a ; small 
folio presented to the Chapter Library of Barn- 
berg by Henry II. in 1012, taken to Wurzburg, 
then again to Bamberg, whence it came to Munich 
first mentioned by Eckhardt in Veterum.monu- 
mentorum catecheticorum theotiscorum Quaternio, 
Lips., 1720, p. 42 ; then in Commentarius de rebus 
FrancicB orientalis et episcopatus Wirceburgensis, 
Wirceb., 1729, ii. 325 : fac-simile in Schmeller. 

The Cottonian MS. is written in the North 
Frankish dialect, and probably a translation from 
the original poem in the Old Saxon dialect of 
Westphalia, of which the Munich MS. is a copy. 
Both MSS. belong to the ninth century. 
II. Editions. 

1. Heliand, poema saxonicum seculi noni, accurate 
expressum ad exemplar Monacense insertis e Cottoniano 
Londinensi supplements nee non adjecta lectionum 
varietate nunc primum edidit J. A. Schmeller. Monachii, 
Stattgartue et Tubingae, Gotta., 1830, 4to., vol. i., text. 
Glossarium Saxonicum e poemate Heliand inscripto et 

minoribus quibusdam pri&cae linguae rnonumentis collec- 
tum cum vocab. lat.-saxonico et synopsi grammatica. 
Hid., vol. ii., 1840. 

2. Heliand, oder das Lied vom Leben Jesu, Urscbrift 
mit Uebersetzung und Anmerkungen von J. K. Kone. 
Munster, 1855. (The Cottonian text.) 

3. Heliand, mit ausfuhrlichem Glossar, herausgegeber 
von Moritz Heyne. First ed., Paderborn, 1865 ; second 
Hid., 1873. (Collated from both MSS.) 

Considerable portions in 1. Bieger, Alt- und Angel 
suchsisches Lesebuch neb?t friesischen Stiicken. Giessen 
1861. 2. Oscar Schade, Altdeutsches Lesebuch. Halle 
1862. 3. Mullenhoff, Altdeutsche Sprachproben. Secon< 
ed., Berlin, 1871. 4. Wackernagel, Gothische uni 
AltsLichsische Lesestiicke. 1871. 

III. Translations. 

1. Kanne^ies?er. Berlin, 1847. 2. Grein. Rinteln 
1854, and Cassel, 1869. 3. Kone. Milnster, 1855. 4 
Simrock. Elberfeld, 1856 and 1866. 5. Rapp. Stutt 
gart, 1856. 

IV. Criticism. 

1. Vilmar, deutsche Alterthiimer im Heliand als 
Einkleidung der evangelischen Gesch.ich.te. Marburg, 
1845 and 1862. 

2. Purring, Gymnasialprogramm. Recklingshausen, 

3. H. Middendorf, Ueber die Zeit der Abfassung des 
Heliand. Miinster, 1862. 

4. E. Beh ringer, Zur Wiirdigung des Heliand. Wiirz- 
burg, 1863. Krist und Heliand. Wiirzburg, 1870. 

5. Windisch, der Heliand und seine Quellen. Leipzi^ 

6. Grein, Heliandstudien. Cassel, 1869. 

7. Schulte, Ueber Ursprung und Alter des altsachs- 
ischen Heliand. Glogau, 1872. 

8. Schulte's article in Zacher's Zeitschrift fiir deutsche 
Philologie, vol. iv. pp. 49-69. Halle. 

9. Heyne's article in ibid., vol. i. pp. 288, sen. 

10. Grein's article in Pfeiffer's G 
pp. 209, sefj. 

With regard to the authenticity of a Latin preface to 
the poem : Zarncke in Berichte der Kbri. Sachsischen 
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften Philologiach-historieche 
Classe. 1865. 

Tettenhall College. 

SWEETHEART. In a review of Chips from a Ger- 
man Workshop, Dec. 5, 1877, the Times says : "Prof. 
Max Miiller shows clearly that these words (Maru- 
zion and Marketjew) have as little to do with the 
Hebrew people as sweetheart with a heart," &c. Cor- 
nishmen owe thanks to the professor for his learned 
researches into Cornish matters. But the case of 
sweetheart is not quite so clear as the reviewer 
would have us believe. Some time ago, in writing 
an English grammar, I instanced sweetheart as a 
word whose termination had changed its form 
from sweet-arc? in order to show a meaning ; in 
fact, it was a pretty instance of false analogy, as 
female. But a colleague of mine absolutely refused 
to believe the statement, and challenged proof. 
I produced as my authority Prof. Max Mullens 
Rede Lecture of 1868, who compared sweetard 
with the Ger. liebhart. When my friend said the 
authority was not proof enough, I brought forward 
others Dr. Richard Morris's Historical Outlines 
of English Grammar, Messrs. Abbott and Seeley's 

iermania, vol. xi. 

English Lessons for English Headers, Chambers's 
Etymological Dictionary, but all to no purpose. 
So I set to work to make inquiry, and the 
authorities melted away ; in fact, when the case 
was fairly put, they kindly helped to show that no 
proof was forthcoming. The form siveet-ard is not 
in Matzner's list of words in -ard. It cannot be 
produced from English literature. Bailey's Dic- 
tionary gives a "Saxon swaet-heert" as sweetheart ; 
but I am afraid that is of his own manufacture (it 
is not in Bosworth), and it would seem to mean 
sweet-hearted, if it meant anything. Dear heart 
and sweet heart, which occur a good way back in 
English, though with a slightly different sense, 
point to another origin, and hardly leave time for 
the loss or weathering down of sweetard. I do 
not know how early sweet-heart, meaning lover, is 
found. Shakespeare is quoted; but the word is 
in Roister Doister (A.D. circa 1550), i. 2, "my 
swete hearte Custance " ; and i. 4, iii. 5 ; and in 
Euphuee to Philautus (A.D. 1579), p. 114 (Arber's 
Reprint) : " And although thy sweete hearte binde 
thee by othe alwaye to holde a candle at hir shrine, 
and to offer thy devotion to thine owne destruc- 
;ion," &c. I removed my rash statement from a 
lecond edition after Dr. Abbott wrote to me that 
t was clear that " siveetard was exploded. ;; It is 
ilrnost a clearer case than beef-eater, for which so 
nany authorities and so little proof can be quoted. 

"MUGGING TOGETHER." This expression might 
e worth comparing with " mucked to death " 
5 th S. ix. 6). I have heard it in Berks thus used : 
They are all, father, mother, and children, 
nugging together in one room " ; that is to say, 
his family is living in the crowded, dirty, littery 
f -ate which arises from eating, sleeping, dressing, 
orking, all within the compass of, say, nine feet 

5th s. IX. FKB. 2, 78.1 



u I u are. Halliwell gives mudgc as a Derbyshire 
form of mud or dirt. Mr. Wedgwood, under 
" mucker," to hoard up, observes, " hence muck or 
mug appears as a root giving rise to a number of 
words connected with the idea of privacy or con- 
cealment." Mud, muddle, muck, buck, &c., seem 
probably from- a separate root, whose fundamental 
idea is moisture or softness. When we say at the 
present day, "People are living in hugger-mugger," 
we mean much what the Berkshire mugging 
together does, the old and proper meaning of 
living clandestinely being in the main lost sight 
of. I know not therefore whether to connect mug, 
mugging, in its provincial use, through mudge with 
muck, mud, muddle, &c. ; or, as seems more likely, 
with mucker, hugger-mugger, &c., and all that 
class of words. HORATIO. 

CHILDREN IN THE WOOD." Although in Hotten's 
History of Signboards an instance is adduced, 
from Yorkshire, " among the more uncommon 
; ballad signs," of one called "The Babes in the 
Wood," no instance is mentioned of the sign of 
" The Children in the Wood," much less of such 
a singular sign as that of " The Three Children in 
the Wood." It seems, therefore, worth noting that 
there was such a sign somewhere in London (as 
it would seem, in the neighbourhood of Billings- 
gate) in the year 1770. I find it mentioned in 
the Oxford Magazine, July, 1770 (pp. 26-27), in 
ome " Particulars of the Trial of Peter Conway 
and Michael Richardson for the Murder of Messrs. 
Rogers and Venables, on Monday, July 16, at the 
Old Bailey." The prisoners had been at "The 
Three Children in the Wood " on the night before 
the murder, as was deposed to by " Smith, a 
ipublican, who keeps the Three Children in the 
Wood," and also by their companion, Thomas 
Blackstone, who " drank with them at the Three 
Children in the Wood." CUTHBERT BEDE. 

Annual Register for 1805 (Rivingtons) I find the 
following curious anticipation of the Boyton life- 
saving dress, and also of his method of exhibiting 
its capabilities : 

" A trial was lately made in the river Thames of the 
life-preserver invented by Mr. Daniel, surgeon, of 
TVapping. It is composed of waterproof leather, pre- 
pared to contain air, and is inflated in half a minute 
through a small tube, with a cock, which is turned when 
the jacket is sufficiently expanded; thus prepared it 
supports the bead, arms, and body out of the water, the 
person wearing it having it at all times in his power, by 
means of the tube and cock, to increase or diminish the 
-quantity of air. Several persons thus equipped quitted 
the boats from off the Old Swan, and floated through 
London Bridge and down the river with the greatest 
ease and safety, without being obliged to use the slightest 
exertion to secure their buoyancy, some smoking their 
pipes, and others playing the German flute, which they 
did with as much convenience as if on land. In this 

manner they proceeded below the London Docks, near 
the residence of the inventor, Mr. Daniel, where, on 
their landing, he was greeted with three cheers from the 
numerous spectators, who were gratified with the sight 
of such a novel and really useful invention. Chronicle, 
October 14th." 

Richmond, Surrey. 

" MANSE." The term " manse " in Scotland is 
the universal equivalent for the English parsonage- 
house, and, as far as I am aware, it is not em- 
ployed there in any other way than to denote the 
abode of the minister of a parish. In England 
the word is now in complete abeyance; but in 
former times it appears, by the following extracts 
from the Sixth Report of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission, p. 291, to have been used as the 
synonym for an ordinary habitation : 

"1278, Feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross- 
Agreement between the Prior and Chapter of Ely and 
John de Walford, physician. John promises to attend 
the Prior and Monks. They to supply him and two boys 
with board, forage for one palfrey, and a manse within 
the court where Stephen the mareschal used to live." 

" 1278, Morrow of the feast of St. Nicholas, Bishop 
and Confessor Agreement between the Prior and Con- 
vent of Ely and Nicholaz Dusic of Strahan. They grant 
to him for his life 2 acres in the vill of Strahan, whereof 
half an acre, called Croft, lies at Lunewelle, to build 
him a manse." 

" 1280, 24> year of Pontificate, Kal. Jan. Durham. 
Hugh, Bishop o*f Ely, with the consent of the Prior and 
Convent of Ely, grants to Symon de la More and 
Waletham, Kts., that in consideration of the bad ways 
and long distance from their mantes of Brame to the 
mother church of Ely, they may have in the oratory at 
Brame daily office by a fit chaplain for them and their 
wives and families. The chaplain is to swear on the 
Gospels that he will answer to the sacrist of Ely for all 
oblations and obventions." 


Waterloo Lodge, Reading. 

OWL-PERCH. Recently, on" visiting an old hall 
in Cheshire, now used as a farmhouse, the tenant 
said to me, " Now you have been all over the 
house, except into the owl-perch," pointing to the 
trap-door leading to the cock-loft. 

On inquiring afterwards of a tenant farmer if 
this was a common word in Cheshire, he replied, 
" I never heard it before, but it is a likely Cheshire 
word, as in every old Cheshire house there was a 
hole left in the gable for the owls to go in and 

Col. Egerton Leigh, in his Cheshire Glossary, 
does not give owl-perch ; but he does give 
" Hattock, a hole in the roof where owls harbour." 




[5 th S. IX. FEB. 2, 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

OLD STORIES. A story used to be told in my 
younger days in the Lowlands of Scotland in 
ridicule of the Highlanders. It was as follows. 
Some Highlanders were ignorant of the English 
language, and as they intended to proceed to the 
low country in hopes of getting employment, they 
were primed with three English phrases, which it 
was hoped would help them on among the Sasse- 
nachs. The first phrase was, " We three Hielan- 
men," intended as a reply to any one inquiring 
who they were. The next one was, "For the 
mony and the penny siller"; this was meant as an 
answer to the question why they had come. In 
case the questioners should not engage their ser- 
vices, there was a third phrase in reserve, " If 
you don't, another will." 

The Highlanders accordingly set out, and had 
scarcely crossed the Lowland border when they 
came on the corpse of a man who had been slain. 
They stopped to look at it, and while they were 
engaged in so doing the ministers of justice came 
up, and, turning to the Highlanders, inquired, 
" Who did this 1 The reply was, " We three 
Hielannien." The next question was, " Why did 
you do it?" The answer was ready, "For the 
mony and the penny siller." The sheriff, pleased 
at having so easily made out the evil doers, ex- 
claimed, " You scoundrels, I shall hang you for 
this." To which the Highlanders complacently 
replied^ "If you don't, another will." On which 
the poor Highlanders were carried off to jail. 

Some years ago I read an exactly similar story, 
only that it was three monks who set out from 
their monastery furnished with three sentences, 
which were in Latin. The first, I recollect, was 
" Nos tres monachi." I think the second sentence 
may have been " Pro re et crumena." I entirely 
forget the third. Doubtless some of the readers 
of " N. & Q." will "be able to say where the story 
is to be found. I think it was told in old French. 
It is possible that a story like this may be current 
in many parts of Europe. It may also vary in 
Scotland at different points along the Lowland 
border. I. M. P. 

Cur/on Street. 

[With variations, this almost universal story comes 
from the East. In Prussia it takes this form. An Irish 
recruit, enrolled in the Grenadiers, who were about to 
be inspected by the "great" Frederick, is told that the 
king would ask him three questions, which he invariably 
addressed to foreign recruits on his first recognizing 
them. The questions would be. "How old are you?" 
" How long have you been in the service?" and "Are 
you satisfied with your pay and rations?" The Irish 
recruit, ignorant of German, was furnished with the 

answers he was bound to make, namely, " Twenty yearg," 
" Six months," and " Both, your majesty." But the king 
began with the second query, " How long have you been 
in the service ? " Paddy replied, " Twenty years." " Why, 
how old are you?" "Six months." "Six months? 
Either you or I must be mad." " Both, your majesty."] 

tell me anything about an ancient ornament which 
is lying before me 1 ? It is a double cross every way ; 
in shape like the common puzzle, made up of six 
bars with different notches, that we have seen in 
toyshops all our life ; but this will not take to 
pieces, but each end is heavily mounted in silver 
and has an engraved device 1. A fleur-de-lis ; 
2. a tower ; 3. a horseshoe ; 4. an anchor ; 5. I. R. ; 
6. R. S. (or S. R.) ; 7. lion rampant ; 8. W. W. ; 
9. a heart pierced with three darts ; 10. a vampire ; 
11. a lion couchant; 12. a unicorn. All three of 
the initials have true lovers' knots. J. C. J. 

his Dictionary, speaking of him, says : " He would 
deserve a long article here, but not having received 
the memoirs " what memoirs are these ? " I 
expected, I am forced to defer it to another time." 
Did he do so ? " He is one of those great men 
whose history ought to be written by an able pen. 
I do not doubt but that the Duke of Schomberg, 
his worthy son, has already thought of procuring 
this honour to his family, and this fine present to 
the commonwealth of learning." Has this ever 
been carried out, or have materials for such a his- 
tory been collected, and where? OTTO. 

I have been informed that they assume as arms a 
bloody hand grasping a drawn sword. Are these 
Standerwicks descended from Nathaniel Stander- 
wick, who was expatriated in 1685 for participa- 
tion in the Monmouth rebellion ? On what 
authority and by whom were the arms originally 
assumed ? ANTIQUUS. 

" CALLIS," used in Stamford for almshouses. 
What is its derivation, and is it used elsewhere? 

E. D. 

Calvert, brother of Cecil Calvert, second Lord 
Baltimore, sailed with two ships from the Isle of 
Wight on Nov. 22, 1633, and landed at Old Point 
Comfort, Virginia, America, on Feb. 24, 1634, it 
is stated that he had with him two or three 
hundred emigrants with which to establish the 
English colony of Maryland. Among the emi- 
grants were Lieut. Thomas Courtney, of the Royal 
Navy, and Ap Jenkin, of Wales, whose son is said 
to have afterwards married Courtney's daughter.. 
Historical information towards identifying the 
family from, which the emigrant Ap Jenkin 
emanated, as well as that to which the foresaid 

5th s. IX. FEB. 2, 78.] 



Thomas Courtney belonged, is solicited for an 
archaeological work. LLALLAWG. 

"0 NIMIS FELIX," &c. In the Breviarium 
Romanum, pars cestiva, ad Laudes on June 24 
(the feast of St. John Baptist), is the hynin com- 
mencing " nimis felix," &c. The second verse 
is as follows : 

u Serta ter denis alios coronant 

Aucta crementis, duplicata quosdam ; 

Trina te fructu cumulata centum 

Nexibus ornant." 

Will some one of your readers kindly give as 
literal a translation as possible of these lines, and 
state something of the allusions contained in them? 
What is the date, and who was the author of the 
hymn? H. N. 

SOLOMON GRILDRIG. Who was he? It appears 
to be a " fictitious name," though it does not ap- 
pear in OLPHAR HAMST'S book. He was " of the 
College of Eton," and conducted The Miniature : 
a Periodical Paper, 8vo., 1805. 


Years ago I discovered after a weary search, in a 
newspaper of the period, the name of the famous 
sentinel at Windsor who heard St. Paul's bell 
strike thirteen times, and the story I see sometimes 
repeated without acknowledgment. Sic vos non 
vobis. Piracy and compilation go hand in hand 
together. What was the " old soldier's " name ? 

TOWN MARKS. In an entry of the business 
done at a Court Leet and Court Baron held at Mel- 
ton-Mowbray, Leicestershire, on April 21, 1675, 
mention is made that they " marked " certain land 
" with two steps, being the towne rnarke of Mel- 
ton." Was this to mark boundaries before the 
open fields were enclosed ? THOMAS NORTH. 

JETTON. Brass, the size of a sixpenny piece, 
and unusually thick. Obv. Laureated head to the 
left ; legend GVLIELMVS . DEI . GRATIA. Rev. 
The crown of England, with two sceptres in saltire 
behind it ; in base i . GVINEA . w. Is this a known 
jetton, or was it ever made to pass for money ? 


HENRY VAUGHAN. A Henry Vaughan in 1680 
signed an inventory of the goods of an intestate 
who was formerly at Hythe, Kent. He signs him- 
self " Eegistrarius." I am particularly anxious, 
for a literary not genealogical purpose, to 
identify him in his official capacity, and to ascer- 
tain when and where he died. WALTER RYE. 

St. Anne's Hill, Wandsworth. 

Extinct Peerage, 1866, p. 367, we are informed 
that John Middleton, first Earl of Middleton, 

" married secondly, at St. Andrew's, Holborn, in 
Dec., 1667, Lady Martha Gary, daughter of Henry, 
Earl of Monmouth, but by her had no issue." 

On p. 103 appears the following sentence in the 
course of a foot-note : " Lady Elizabeth Spelman, 
daughter of Martha, Countess of Middleton, who 
was daughter of the second Earl of Monmouth." 

Which of these conflicting statements is correct ? 
and, if the latter, who are the heirs general of 
Lady Elizabeth Spelman, and did Martha, Countess 
of Middleton, leave any other descendants ? 


DRAYTON. What is the derivation of the com- 
mon English local name Drayton ? There are 
eighteen parishes of that name in England, besides 
four named Draycot. A. L. MAYHEW. 


JOHN BRINDELL. The following quaint epitaph 
deserves a place in " N. & Q." I found it in St. 
Giles's Cemetery collection. Who was this man 
of evil life so long ? Who was the writer of the 
epitaph ? 

" The mortal remains of 

John Brindell, 
after an evil life of 64 years, 

Died June 18th, 1822, 
and lies at rest beneath this stone. 

' Pause, reader ; reflect; 
Eternity, how surely thine.' " 


told one of the cries in the city of Norwich, on 
Ash Wednesday, is " hot cocquaille," a species of 
bun. Your former correspondent, DR. HUSEN- 
BETH, gives cocquaille as from the Saxon or Ger- 
man, meaning broken in ashes (I quote from 
memory). Does not the same word mean in Old 
Norman French egg-shell ? And if these cakes or 
buns are, as I am told, made with eggs, this would 
seem a better derivation. But, again, eggs were 
not allowed after Shrove Tuesday. May it not be 
that some former Bishop of Norwich has granted 
a dispensation allowing the poor to use the 
remainder of the eggs on Ash Wednesday, which 
of course otherwise would be wasted ? I should 
be very glad to learn anything further on this sub- 

The Grove, Pocklington. 

MYSTERIOUS LIGHTS. The following notice 
appeared in a recent number of the Oswestry 
Advertiser : 

" From time to time the west coast of Wales seems to 
have been the scene of mysterious lights. In the fifteenth 
century, and again on a larger scale in the sixteenth, 
considerable alarm vras created by fires that ' rose out of 
the sea.' Writing in January, 1694, the rector of Dogelly 
stated that sixteen ricks of hay and two barns had been 
burned by ' a kindled exhalation which was often seen to 
come from the sea.' Passing over other alleged appear- 
ances, in March, 1875, a letter by the late Mr. Picton 



. IX. FEB. 2, 78. 

Jones appeared in Bye-qones, p. 198, giving an account 
of curious lights which lie had witnessed at Pwllheli, and 
now we have a statement from Jovvyn that within 
the last few weeks ' lights of various colours have fre- 
quently been seen moving over the estuary of the Dysynni 
river and out at sea. They are generally in a northerly 
direction, but sometimes they hug the shore, and move 
at a high velocity for miles towards Aberdovey, and sud- 
denly disappear.'" 

Can any authorities upon natural phenomena fur- 
nish further information on the subject ? 

71, Brecknock Road, N. 

TIRLING-PIN. At the recent sale of the effects 
of James Drummond, Esq., of Edinburgh, two 
tirling-pins were disposed of : one which came 
originally from Leith Tower fetched 51. 10s., and 
another was secured by a friend of mine for 2Z. 2s. 
My friend has written to inquire from me the 
mode of the use of the tirling-pin, and not being 
able satisfactorily to answer his query, it is con- 
sequently referred to "N. & Q." Glossaries of 
Scotch words give the meaning of "tirling" as 
unroofing, but that of course cannot be the uni- 
versal application of the word. Amongst Scottish 
ballads I have found the following allusions to 
this relic of antiquity, and doubtless there are 
many others. One from Lord Beichan, an Aber- 
deenshire ballad : 

" And whan she cam' to Lord Beichan's yetts, 

She tirl'd gently at the pin, 
Sae ready was the proud porter 

To let the wedding guests come in." 

Another is in Sweet William's Ghost : 
" There came a ghost to Marg'ret's door 

With many a grievous groan ; 
And aye he tirled at the pin, 
But answer made she none." 

A third instance occurs in Prince Robert : 
" he has run to Darlinton 

And tirled at the piri ; 
And wha sae ready as Eleanor's sel' 
To let the bonnie boy in!" 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

FANS. There Is now open in New York an 
exhibition of decorative art, including a loan col- 
lection of fans. The first loan collection of fans 
was held at South Kensington in 1870. Of this I 
have the catalogue. Have there been any other 
such exhibitions, and did they issue catalogues ? 
Two or three years ago M. Blondel published in 
Paris a Histoire des Eventails. In the September, 
1877, number of Scribner's Monthly is an admi- 
rably illustrated article by Mr. Maurice Mauris on 
fans. Scattered through the Art Journal, the 
Gazette des Beaux-Arts, and L'Art are many 
engravings of fans. Can any reader of " 1ST. & Q.'" 
refer me to further sources of information ? 


Lotos Club, New York. 

"THE BOOK-HUNTER." Can the originals of 
the sketches drawn by Dr. Burton in the second 
section of this charming work (" A Vision of 
Mighty Book-Hunters ") be identified 1 1. Arch- 
deacon Meadow ; 2. Fitzpatrick Smart, Esq. ; 
3. Inchrule Brewer ; 4. Thomas Papaverius ; 5. 
Magnus Lucullus, Esq. ; 6. The Vampire. No. 2, 
I would suggest, stands for Charles Kirkpatrick 
Sharpe, while the original of No. 4 (according to- 
the Times of August 27, 1877) was Thomas De 
Quincey. Who are the others 1 C. D. 

HERALDRY. What is the crest for the family 
Macginty, or Macgenty an Irish family ? 

A. E. M. 

HERALDIC. Can any one inform me to whom 
the following armorial bearings belong, which 
appear on two large three-quarter-length portraits, 
of about the time of Queen Anne 1 On that of 
the man, Vaire, four bars gules ; on that of the 
lady, in an oval shield az. an arm in armour,, 
issuing from the dexter, holding three arrows,, 
points to the base, all or. E. K. 

SUTTON MUTTON. There is a saying, said to be 
of considerable antiquity, in this part of Surrey, 
which has taken the form of a vulgar rhyme, and 
has been often quoted : 

" Sutton for mutton, 
Carshalton for beeves ; 
Epsom for jades, 
And Ewel for thieves." 

In the adjoining county of Kent these lines are 
also known, but in a modified form ; there they 
are : 

" Sutton for mutton, 
Kirby for beef; 
South Darne for gingerbread, 
Dartford for a thief." 

As Sutton (south town) is a very common name r 
and there are villages which bear it in at least 
twenty-five counties, I should be glad to know if 
these lines are applied in any other counties besides 
Surrey and Kent. EDWARD SOLLY. 

Sutton, Surrey. 


1. Politeuphida, Wits' Commonwealth, or a Treasury of 
Divine, Moral, Historical, and Political Admonitions, 
Similes, and Sentences. For the Use of Schools. (By 
N. L., 12mo.) London, 1699. 

2. The Accomplished Courtier. Consisting of Institu- 
tions and Examples. By which Courtiers and Officers of 
State may square their Transactions Prudently and in Good 
Order and Method. By H. W., Gent. (12mo.) London, 
Printed for and Sold by Thomas Dring, Fleet Street, 
1658. The dedication is dated, " Ex Musseo meo, prope- 
Bangor-howse primo Januarii, 1658. Stylo novo." 


1. Air a- Mule ; or, Love and Empire: a Tragedy. 
London, 1743. 

2. The Yahoo: a Satirical Rhapsody. New York,, 
printed and published by H. Simpson, 1830. F. P. B. 

5th s. IX. FEB. 2, '78.] 





(5 th S. i. 102 ; v. 501 ; vi. 21, 81, 141, 161 ; 

ix. 50.) 

I am very glad that COL. CHESTER has sent 
you the dedication to Washington which my 
grandfather prefixed to his sermons on the Causes 
and Consequences of the American Revolution, 
published in 1797. As I said at the time, my 
reason for not including it in my articles con- 
taining the extracts from my grandfather's auto- 
biography was solely because these extracts had 
extended to so great a length that I was afraid of 
trespassing any further on your space. As it 
was, they occupied nearly twenty-four columns 
of " Q.," exclusive of the previous extracts 
I sent you in February, 1874. COL. CHESTER is 
quite right in saying that the " antidote," that is 
the dedication written in 1797, should have been 
published in close juxtaposition with the " bane," 
that is the damnatory allegations contained in 
Mr. Boucher's letter to Washington written in 
1775. There is, however, one phrase in COL. 
CHESTER'S article which I must take exception to. 
Mr. Boucher's dedication to Washington is un- 
doubtedly very " manly," and " alike honourable 
to the man who wrote it and him to whom it was 
addressed," but I cannot regard it in the light of 
an " apology." I feel sure that Mr. Boucher did 
not mean it for one, as this would have been to 
admit that he was wrong in addressing Washing- 
ton as he did in 1775. From COL. CHESTER'S 
point of view, as also from my own, he was 
wrong, but was he so from his own point 
of view? It must be remembered that from 
the date of his letter to that of his dedication 
twenty-two years had elapsed ; this is a long 
period at any time, but especially so when we 
remember that these twenty-two years comprised 
the two greatest events of the century, the Ameri- 
can and French revolutions. In 1775 Washington 
was nothing but a revolutionary soldier. I do not 
mean that there is any harm in a man's being 
what Hampden, Dumouriez, and Garibaldi were* 
but in the eyes of my grandfather a staunch 
church and king man, a Tory of the Tories a 
revolutionist was very much what a Puritan was 
in the eyes of Laud, a play-actor in the eyes of 
Prynne, or a poacher in the eyes of Squire Broad- 
acres. Washington's chara-cter had not at that time 
fully unfolded itself, and Mr. Boucher, although pos- 
sessed of considerable shrewdness and penetration, 
could no more suppose that his " shy, silent, stern, 
slow, and cautious " friend would one day develope 
into the wise and noble president who has left 
an example to all succeeding ages, than Sir Philip 
Warwick could suppose that the Long Parliament 
member for Cambridge, whose " plain cloth suit 

seemed to have been made by an ill country tailor, 
whose hat was without a hat-band, whose voice 
was harsh and untuneable," and whose oratory had 
nothing but its fervour to recommend it, would some 
fifteen years later develope into one of the greatest 
rulers that Europe has ever seen. It is perhaps 
one of the brightest testimonies to Washington's 
pureness of soul, and general nobility of character, 
that he should have been addressed in such 
eulogistic terms by one who detested his political 
principles, and who regarded the revolution of 
which he was the guiding spirit as a huge mistake, 
not to say a crime. 

There is another thing that may have helped to 
soften Mr. Boucher towards Washington, namely, 
the fact that the dedication was written in 
November, 1797, only two years after the final 
suppression of the French revolution by the " whiff 
of grapeshot," delivered by Citoyen Napoleon 
Bonaparte on the 13th Vendemiaire, 1795. May 
he not have felt the contrast between the leader of 
the American and the leaders of the French revo- 
lution 1 However much we may acknowledge 
the necessity for that gigantic bonfire of shams, 
the French revolution, it is hardly possible, 
with any amount of good will thereto, to extend 
much admiration to its leaders ; and Washington 
seems grander than ever when we compare him 
with Kobespierre, Marat, and St. Just, or even 
with Danton. It is very possible that my grand- 
father was struck by this contrast. 

COL. CHESTER says there is no evidence that 
Washington received Mr. Boucher's letter. As 
there is no evidence to the contrary, I should think 
it is probable that he did receive it ; but I do not 
know what sorb of a reply he returned. It will, 
however, interest COL. CHESTER to see the reply 
(if he has not already seen it) which the great 
president returned to the dedication, and for 
which I am indebted to Notes on the Virginia 
Colonial Clergy, by the Rev. E. D. Neill, of 
Macalester College, Minneapolis, published last 
year in Philadelphia. I do not know from what 
source Mr. Neill obtained this letter. From the 
somewhat abrupt way in which it begins it appears 
to be only an extract from the original letter. It 
is dated Mount Yernon, Aug. 15, 1798 : 

" For the honour of its dedication, and for the friendly 
and favourable sentiments therein expressed, I pray you 
to accept my acknowledgment and thanks. Not having 
read the book, it follows of course that I can express no 
opinion with respect to its political contents ; but I can 
venture to assert beforehand, and with confidence, that 
there is no man in either country more zealously devoted 
to peace and a good understanding between the nations 
than I am; no one who is more disposed to bury in 
oblivion all animosities which have subsisted between 
them and the individuals of each." 

One cannot but regret that after such a " redin- 
tegratio amoris " the two old friends had no oppor- 
tunity of meeting and renewing their former inti- 



[5th s. IX. FEB. 2, '78. 

rnacy ; but in 1798 my grandfather was quietly 
settled in his Surrey* vicarage, closely occupied 
with his philological pursuits, and Atlantic 
steamers had not been invented. 

In the above-mentioned dedication Mr. Boucher 
speaks of some one, " not inconsiderable in fame," 
who dedicated a book to Washington, and who, 
"from having been his (Washington's) fulsome 
flatterer, became his foul calumniator." Does any 
one know to whom my grandfather alludes ? 


Bexley Heath, Kent. 


(5 th S. viii. 429, 453 ; ix. 58.) 
I was " pausing for a reply " from your original 
querist, C. E. G. H., when the further answers of 
R. P. and MR. W. D. PINK unexpectedly proved 
the existence of a wider interest than I had anti- 
cipated to see roused in what might seem a mere 
family matter. I think there are good reasons 
why I should make some further remarks on the 
subject, partly in correction of both R. P. and MR. 
PINK, and partly in explanation of what may have 
seemed an excessive reticence on my own part. I 
considered the question so entirely one of private 
genealogical interest that I contented myself with 
the statement of some bare facts, not clothing 
them with any names. As, however, both your 
recent correspondents have mentioned names, I 
think it right that I should point out some par- 
ticulars in which they are either inaccurate or not 
warranted by the facts, and that I should state 
more fully than in my first reply what are the 
actual facts of the case. 

I may say, at the outset, that I was 'perfectly 
cognizant of all the history which R. P. relates, 
and of a good deal more besides. But I did not 
think that it bore upon the question asked, and I 
therefore refrained from inserting it into my reply. 
As it is, I must say that I do not think any amount 
of references to Carlyle's Frederick the Great likely 
to help the inquirer into the genealogy of the Car- 
michaels of Hyndford. In criticism of R. P., I 
must farther observe that it is rather worse than 
useless to encumber a well-ascertained history 
with a date of uncertain sound such as he gives 
for the death of the sixth earl, viz. " after 1809," 
when it is perfectly well known that Andrew, sixth 
Earl of Hyndford, died in 1817, as MR. PINK 
rightly states. Also I must protest against the 
use of the slipshod expression " Earl Hyndford " 
for " Earl of Hyodford," the title being derived 
from a place, and not, like some more modern 
earldoms, from a family name. It is possible that 
in another of his mistakes, that of calling the sixth 
earl Thomas instead of Andrew, R. P. may have 
been misled by the erroneous account in the 

Gentleman's Magazine, which confounds the two 
brothers of the line of Carmichael of Mauldslie, 
who succeeded after failure of the lines of the third 
and fourth earls. The fifth earl was Thomas, and the 
sixth Andrew. Into the tempting field still open, 
I conceive, to genealogists of the descent of the 
ancient earldom of Mar, I am not going in the pre- 
sent place to enter. I will only remark that the 
decision in the case of the claim of the Earl of Kellie 
affords, so far as I understand it, not the slightest 
clue to what might be decided in the case of a 
patent " hseredibus masculis et talliae." And the 
recent case of the barony of Balfour of Burleigh is 
just as much against the theory of R. P. as the 
earlier case of the earldom of Sutherland. But it 
would be altogether unsafe to argue from pre-Par- 
liamentary I had almost said pre-historic titles 
to those of a comparatively late period. R. P. may 
rest assured, however, that in my first reply I 
purposely minimized the possible rights of the 
heir male, so as not to be liable to the charge of 
exaggeration. MR. PINK errs, in a different sense 
from R. P., in asserting that " both the earldom 
and barony were granted with remainder to heirs 
male and of entail." This was only the case with 
the earldom. 

The difficulties attendant upon proof of ex- 
tinction of intermediate heirs form a class of 
difficulties which I may assure MR. PINK that I am 
far from undervaluing. But I have never yet, in 
the course of a study of the genealogy in question 
extending now over a period of some fifteen years, 
met with any proved facts calculated to shake my 
conviction that the late most distinguished genea- 
logical antiquary and peerage lawyer, John 
Riddell, was perfectly justified in his opinion that 
Dr. Carmichael - Smyth of Aitherny, the un- 
questioned heir male of the Carmichaels of Mea- 
dowflat and Balmedie, was heir male general of 
the Carmichaels of that ilk, both of the older line 
and of the line of Hyndford. The heir male of 
Sir David Carmichael of Balmedie is also the heir 
male of Sir John Carmichael, last of the Captains 
of Crawford of the line of Meadowflat, whose 
daughter Margaret was served heir to her father 
May 24, 1638, Sir John himself having been 
served heir, in 1595, to his father, grandfather, and 
great-grandfather. The last of the oldest line of 
that ilk, Sir John Carmichael, who became in- 
volved in difficulties which were among the prin- 
cipal means of the rise of the Hyndford family, 
was served heir to his grandfather, Sir John, the 
Warden of the Middle Marches, in 1627, and died 
s. p. at some date, not exactly determined, before 
July 17, 1649, when his two surviving sisters, 
Jean and Anna, were served his heirs portioners 
of line, their elder sister, Margaret, being also 
then dead. 

I do not doubt that Sir Bernard Burke is per- 
fectly capable of defending any judgment on a 

5'kS. IX. FBB. 2,78.] 



point of genealogy or peerage law which he ma^ 
have expressed in any of his works. But I fee 
bound to state that Sir Bernard's view, doubtfully 
quoted by MR. PINK from the Extinct and Dor 
mant Peerage, that the chiefship of the name o 
Carmichael, and the male representation of th< 
Earls of Hyndford and Lords Carmichael, are botl 
vested in the present Sir James Robert Car 
michael, Bart., is in exact accordance with the 
opinion known to have been entertained by the 
sixth earl himself, as well as by the heritors o 
Lanarkshire at the time of the earl's death, and b} 
such eminent Scottish genealogists as the late 
John Riddell and Alexander Sinclair. 

New University Club. 

F. BARTOLOZZI, R.A. (4 th S. xii. 110 ; 5 th S. ii. 
335.) It is certainly true that this eminent artisl 
was " admitted to the full honours of the Roya~ 
Academy"; but it was as a painter, not as an 
engraver, that he received this distinction, which 
by a law of the body, could not be conferred upon 
one of the latter class. W. H. Pyne says : 

" Bartolozzi sometimes engraved from his own designs 
but he obtained very little acquisition of fame from the 
attempt ; yet he drew the human figure to admiration, 
and he could paint ; for he acquired his diploma in the 
Royal Academy for a picture which was exhibited at 
Somerset House." Somerset House Gazette (1824, 4to.), 
vol. i. p. 353. 

Likely enough there was some jobbery in the 
matter, suggested by the true British admiration 
of the " foreign." Further on in the same mis- 
cellany, in a special article on the engraver, we 
read : 

"Bartolozzi was a member of the Royal Academy; 
this is said to have given great offence to Strange, who 
was unsuccessful in his attempts to be admitted a mem- 
ber of that body, particularly as it was notorious that 
the picture which the former painted as the preliminary 
to his academical honours was either wholly executed, or 
at least touched off, by Canaletti." Ibid., vol. ii. p. 249. 
Elsewhere I have read that it was Cipriani who 
performed this friendly office for his countryman ; 
it may have been either or neither, and does not 
much matter which now. Anthony Pasquin (J. 
Williams) says : 

" According to the institutes of the Royal Academy, 
the number of engravers was limited to six, and they are 
considered in the inferior scale of merit with the 
painters. Mr. Bartolozzi, conscious of his own strength, 
presented himself as a painter, and was admitted as such ; 
and happy were they all to have such an acquisition. 
All this was just ; for to denominate him a mere engraver 
would be to circumscribei my language within the 
limits of ignorance, as he is not only something more, 
but almost everything that the hope of imitative science 
can embody. He draws better than any other man in 
the world, and can give a truth and durability to that 
design beyond the powers of any other individual in the 
same department." 

When Sir Robert Strange offended Lord Bute, 

Mr. Dalton was commissioned to invite to this 
country the most promising historic engraver he 
could find in Italy. Bartolozzi, then studying in 
his native Florence under Wagner, was selected ; 
and thus there existed a special enmity and rivalry 
between the two eminent artists. The Englishman 
no doubt " smoked " the Academic jobbery, the 
successful issue of which must have been hugely 
galling to him. In his interesting little work on 
the rise of the Royal Academy he says : 
" No sooner had the Academicians passed this law, 

which excluded every ingenious engraver native of 

this kingdom, than they admitted amongst them M. Bar- 
tolozzi, an engraver, a foreigner. The Academicians 
soon felt the disapprobation of the public, for their pro- 
ceedings were universally condemned. To cover, there- 
fore, their reprehensible conduct, they said that they 

had copied that part of their institution which regarded 
the exclusion of engravers from the Royal Academy of 
Painting at Paris. This they did when, at the same 
time, every one of them knew that I had been received 
a member of that Academy as an engraver." Inquiry 
into the Rise of the Academy of Arts, 1775, 8vo., p. 112. 

An eminent engraver, the late John Pye, writes : 
" The alteration subsequently made in the Academy's 
original law, so far as to allow of six engravers becoming 
associates, i.e. members of the third class, disqualified 
them, whatever their merit might happen to be, from 
rising higher, from holding any office amongst the 
Academicians, or voting in their assemblies, and vir- 
tually told native engravers, while Bartolozzi was enjoy- 
ing the Academy's highest honours, that six of them 
might become appended to the outside of the royal esta- 
blishment, into which artists of every other class might 
enter; but that those who did allow themselves to be so 
appended would thereby recognize a position of degra- 
dation as an honour the just and munificent reward of 
their merits ! "Patronage of British Art (Lond., 1845, 
8vo.), p. 191. 

It may not be amiss to remind the reader 
that the " diploma pictures " of the long series of 
members of the Royal Academy during its century 
of existence are now on view, and form a most 
interesting exhibition. WILLIAM BATES, B.A. 


ARCHBISHOP SHARP (5 th S. viii. 149, 187, 295.) 

The family of Archbishop James Sharp (not 

" Sharps "), of St. Andrews, is given incorrectly in 

Anderson's Scottish Nation (iii. 445), and I am 

unable to admit that his work is " remarkable for 

accuracy in matters connected with Scotch family 

listory," for I have frequently ascertained it to be 

ust the reverse, in numerous instances, where he 

repeats the old fables of the asserted origin and 

descent of so many ancient Scottish houses. 

In an article on this archbishop, martyred by the 

'ovenanters, which was furnished by me ten years 

ago to the pages of " N. & Q." (3 r * S. xii. 321, for 

Oct. 26, 1867), there is a tolerably full account of 

he members of his family, which, here repeated, with 

ome abbreviations and emendations, may serve 

is a reply to your correspondents P., T. F., and 

A. E. F., and establish the question as to which 


[5 th S. IX. FEB. 2, 73. 

daughter was along with him when his assassina- 
tion took place, and who was herself wounded 
slightly, as also robbed of her purse and other 
valuables, by the cowardly ruffians who so bar- 
barously murdered her venerable father on ^atur- 
day, May 3 (not "2"), 1679. The archbishop 
married, April 6, 1653, Helen, daughter of William 
Moneriefte, of Randerstone, in Fifeshire, as 
appears from The Diary of Mr. John Lamont, of 
Newton, 1649-1671 (4to., printed at Edin., 1830) : 

" 1653, April 6. Mr. James Sharpe, minister of Craill, 
married one of Randerston's daughters : the marriage 
feast was att hip father's house in Randerston." P. 54. 

" 1655, Jul. The young Laird of Randerstone, in Fyfe, 
surnamed Moncriefe, depairted out of this life att Rander- 
stone, and was interred at Craille the 23 of July, 1655." 
P. 90. 

"1659, Nou. The Laird of Randerston, elder, sur- 
named Moncreife, in Fyfe, depairted out of this life at 
Randerston. He disponed his estate not long before (to 
defraud his son, a lousse liuer) to his two goodsonns, viz. 
Kiagaske, surnamed Ingels, in Cuper, and Mr. James 
Sharpe, minister of Craill." P. 119. 

" The day after [Feb. 7, 1662] the Lady Randerston 
was interred at St. Andrews." P. 144. 

"1663. This summer [Alex. ?] Balfoure, of , 

second son to the deceassed old Laird of Dinmille, in 
Fiife, bowght the lands of Randerston att Craill from 
Mr. Sharpe, Arc. bishope of St. Androws, and Alex. 
Ingells of Kingaske, the two sonns in law of the de- 
ceassed Laird of Randerston. It stood him about sextie 
thowsande marks or therby. Ther was as mutch gotten 
as payed the old mans debt, the sellers tochers, and ten 
thowsande marks more, which was to be giuen to the 
yowng man formerly mentioned, to helpe his portion. 
Itt was rentald to him about 25 cliald. of victual!, and 
100 marks togither." P. 167. 

The date of Mrs. Sharp's death I have not ascer- 
tained, but it is believed that she predeceased her 
husband, fortunate in that she did not survive his 
melancholy death. 

One son and two daughters only were living at 
the period of the murder ; although, from excerpts 
from the archbishop's Household Book, 1663-1666, 
it appears that another daughter, Agnes, was 
buried in March, 1666; and in February pre- 
ceding a son, John, was christened, who must also 
have predeceased his father. The surviving 
children were 1. Sir William Sharp, of Scots- 
craig and Strathtyrum, in Fifeshire, " who was 
provided by his father to a competent estate, and 
married Mrs. Margaret Erskine, daughter to Sir 
Charles Erskine of Camlo, Baronet, Lyon King- 
at-Arms, by whom he hath a numerous and hope- 
ful issue." There is a difficulty here, as it is stated 
in Douglas's Peerage of Scotland (edit. Wood, ii. 
21) that it was the third and youngest daughter of 
Sir Charles Erskine, Sophia, who " married Sir 
James Sharp of Scotscraig," and no mention is 
made of his daughter Margaret ; while Sir James 
Sharp of Strathtyrum, Baronet, who was the son 
and successor of Sir William Sharp, and conse- 
quently grandson of the archbishop, was still 
living in the year 1725 ; but whether married, with 

uccession, or when the baronetcy became extinct, 
>y his death or otherwise, is not recorded in any 
work known to me. 2. "Mrs. Isabel" Sharp, 

who was in the coach with her father at the time 
of his barbarous murder, was afterwards married 
before 1686) to John Cunningham, of Barns, a 
jentleman of good note and antiquity in the shire 
of Fife," and had, with other issue, a son, John 

unningham of Barns, in 1704; but the lands 
were "adjudged to Scotstavit in 1743" (Wood's 
East Neuk of Fife, pp. 90, 173, 259, 296). 3. 
' Mrs. Margaret," who was born Dec. 8, 1664, and 
shristened Feb. 12, 1665 (cf. Household Book, 
ut supra). She married, in 1683-4, the Eight 
Honourable William Fraser, Master of Salton, 
who was born Nov. 21, 1654, succeeded his grand- 
? ather Alexander, tenth Lord Salton (at his death 
^n his ninetieth year), Aug. 11, 1693, and died 
March 18, 1715, leaving a family of three sons and 
four daughters. Lady Salton died at Edinburgh 
Aug. 29, 1734, in the seventieth year of her age : 
tier third daughter, the Hon. Mary Fraser, was 
married to William Dalmahoy, of Ravelrige, who 
was served heir of provision-general to his brother, 
John Dalmahoy of Ravelrige, Jan. 21, 1720 
(Reg. in Libris Talliarum, Edinburgen., Jan. 25, 
1720). It was his father, William of Kavelrige, 
who died at Edinburgh in 1704 ; cf. The Family 
of Dalmahoy of Dalmahoy, Rotho, County of 
Edinburgh (privately printed 1867), for numerous 
notices of this family. The elder William was an 
officer in the Scots Horse Guards, or, as styled in 
the family pedigree, " Quartermaster to His 
Majesty's Life Guard of Horse," in the year 1682, 
and, in 1687-89, " late Quartermaster of the 
King's Troop of Guards"; his wife was Helen 
Martine. " James Dalmahoy, Lieutenant of the 
Earl of L "[even's regiment?] in 1676, appears to 
have been the fourth son of Sir John Dalmahoy 
of Dalmahoy, Knight, and is mentioned in a deed 
dated July 24, 1666 (Reg. of Deeds, Edinburgh, 
vol. xxv.). 

The reference to Eraser's Family ofBaird, where 
William is entitled " second Lord Salton," is cer- 
tainly incorrect ; he was undoubtedly the eleventh 
who held that title, which was created by King 
James II. June 28, 1445, in the family of Aber- 
nethy, and carried on by an heir female to the 
Erasers of Philorth in December, 1668, as con- 
firmed by patent of King Charles II. July 11, 
1670, and ratified by Parliament on the 21st of 
the same month ; the present possessor, and 
seventeenth Lord Salton of Abernethy, Sir Alex- 
ander Fraser, being thus the descendant of Arch- 
bishop Sharp : cf. Douglas's and Crawfurd's Peer- 
ages (pp. 469, 664, and 435), also Carmichael's 

Tracts concerning the Peerage of Scotland (4to. 
Edin., 1791, pp. 16, 36-8). The quoted portions 
of the above, relating to the archbishop's three sur- 
viving children, are from a scarce little book 

S. IX. FEB. 2, '78.] 



printed at Edinburgh in 1723, entitled A True 
and Impartial Account of the Life of the Most 
Reverend Father in God, Dr. James Sharp, &c., 
in 12mo. Though an anonymous production, it is 
known to have been written by David Simson, 
the historian of the House of Stewart. 

A. S. A. 

viii. 428.) The quotation from De Quincey is not 
the earliest form of the supposed derivation. One 
of the first correspondents of " N. & Q.," MR. 
BOLTON CORNET, stated, in 1 st S. v. 178, that it had 
appeared in an epigram in Wits' Recreations, first 
published in 1640. He copied the following lines 
from an edition in 1817 : 

" When news doth come, if any would discusse 
The letter of the word, resolve it thus : 
News is convey'd by letter, word, or mouth, 
And comes to us from North, East, West, and South." 

This was the last communication in a discussion 
which he characterizes as " fierce and tiresome." 
It commenced with a note by MR. J. U. G. GUTCH, 
vol. i. p. 270, in which was brought forward the 
conjecture that the word was derived from a 
practice of prefixing at the head of newspapers the 
cardinal points 



It was shown, p. 369, that there was a volume en- 
titled N ewes, from Scotland, which was published 
in 1591. Its derivation from the German was 
insisted on at p. 428, and combated p. 487, and 
defended vol. ii. pp. 23, 81, 82 (where Olde Newes or 
Stale Newes is cited from Baret's Alvearie in 1573). 
The singular form " a news " is referred to from 
Pepys's Diary, at p. 107. The discussion is 
continued at p. 137, and MR. S. W. SINGER 
contributes some notes for the elucidation of the 
subject at p. 180. It is shown at p. 181 that the 
word was first printed by Caxton in the modern 
sense in the Siege of Rhodes, 1490. The con- 
troversy is continued at p. 218, and Dr. Latham's 
remarks on the use of the word are adduced. It 
is .remarked that " much wit and ingenuity have 
been wasted on the -word," at p. 397. Some 
remarks are offered in vol. iii. p. 300, upon the 
early use of it, with a professed disinclination to 
continue the discussion. No one ventures upon 
the question in the course of vol. iv., and MR. 
BOLTON CORNET, as mentioned above, "just two 
years after " the first statement, brings the subject 
to a close in vol. v. p. 178. ED. MARSHALL. 

It is hardly credible that an etymologist should 
ever think it possible to find the derivation of the 
word news, as quoted by CAVE NORTH, unless it be 
given as a joke, for if every word was as easily to 

be traced as this one there would be little difficulty 
in getting a complete and correct etymological 
dictionary. News is an old genitive, and may be 
compared with the French article partitive. Like- 
wise, I think, we have to account for means. In 
German such genitives are nichts, neues. Not 
unfrequently the genitive is used adverbially, e.g. 
nowadays, needs, sideways, &c., as in Ger. morgens, 
abends, and thus we have also to explain of course, 
of truth, of yore (cf. Koch's Eng. Gram., iii. 1, 
122). With these forms we may also compare 
the Low Genii, van dage (to-day), van nacht (to- 
night), &c. There are also English datives used 
in this way, e.g. whilom, seldom, aye (cf. Sources 
of Standard English, by Kington Oliphant : 
this excellent book, so popularly written, ought 
to be in every Englishman's library ; cf. also 
Koch, ib., 125). Likewise we must explain to- 
morrow, to-day, to-night, and corresponding with 
these is the Low Germ, to jare (last year). Finally, 
I may add that Ogilvie is altogether wrong when he 
says, " News has a plural form, but is almost 
always united with a verb in the singular" (cf. 
Ogilvie's Dictionary, s.v. " News ") ; for I think I 
have plainly enough proved that it is a singular in 
the genitive case, and this it is always whenever 
it is " united with a verb in the singular." 


No doubt this " theory " is a mere conceit, and 
has no foundation but in the imagination of some 
pseudo-etymologist. Wedgwood's explanation is r 

" 1 . Fr. nouvelles, new things, and 2. Dan. nys, to get 
wind of a thing, to get news of it. O.N . hny'sa, to search 
for, spy out; hnysinn, curious; Du. neuselen, to sniff 
after, to scent out; neuswijs, sagacious, having good 
scent, curious." 


I saw the same derivation of news, as given by 
your correspondent, in a small duo. vol. entitled 
Antiquitates Curiosce, published in 1818. It says : 

"The four cardinal points of the compass, marked 
with the letters N. E. W. S., standing for North, East, 
West, and South, form the word news, which coming 
from all parts of the world gave derivation to the word." 

Again, under the word in question, Ogilvie's 
Ety. Diet, has the following : " Dr. Trusler gives 
a fanciful derivation from N. E. W. S., the cardinal 
points of the compass, because news comes from 
all directions." MINNIE DOBSON. 

ANTHONY GRIFPINHOOF (5 th S. viii. 460.) It is 
something for EARLSCOURT to be able to give the 
date (August, 1814) of the death though I much 
fear he will never be able to produce the certificate 
of burial of the ever to be lamented Anthony 
Griffinhoof, author of " The Maskers of Moorfields, 
a Vision, by the late A. G., Gent., edited by W. 
Griffinhoof, 1815," inasmuch as " Anthony Griffin- 
hoof" is a phrenonym for John Humphreys Parry 


. IX. FEB. 2, 78. 

(father of the esteemed and learned Serj. Parry ),who 
was author of several'fugitive pieces, essays, &c. ; 
amongst others the Cambrian Plutarch, published, 
according to Lowndes, in 1824 ; according to Hand- 
book of Fictitious Names, 1834. In said Hand- 
book also the Christian name Humphreys is 
further on spelled Humffreys. Again, Lowndes 
has, " Griffinhoof, Ant., i.e. George Colman the 
younger," whilst under the head " Colman the 
Younger " he has, " Arthur Griffinhoof. Turnham 
'Green." In Peake's Memoirs it is "Arthur 
Griffinhoofe." The Biog. Dram. (1812), omitting 
the final e, says the name " is well known to have 
been used by Mr. Colman as a nom de guerre, 
through the apprehension that disrepute as a farce 
writer might have been prejudicial to him as the 
author of any kind of regular drama." Verily 
printed " dates and names" appear to be as un- 
reliable as " facts and figures." A word about 
Colman's Random Records, of which Lowndes 
notes one impression only (and not the first), of 
the year 1830 (Loud., post 8vo.). In my copy 
(Lond., Bentley, 1830) there is a MS. note follow- 
ing the words, " End of the Second Volume " : 

"A third time on March 29, 1833. A fourth do. 
Feb. 20, 1836. How much it is to be regretted that no 
more volumes have yet appeared. Alas ! poor Colman : 
he was called away on Oct. 26, 1836, aged seventy-four. 
April 10, 1838; Nov. 7, 1840; May 7, 1842; Feb. 23, 
1846 ; in all eight times a sure sign of its interest and 


"Anthony Griffinhoof" is a pseudonym. See the 
Handbook of Fictitious Names, pp. 55 and 209. 
If there ever was a real person of this name who 
was an author, EARLSCOURT will oblige by giving 
more particulars than he has. 


" CHRONIQUES DE L'CEiL DE B(EUF " (5 th S. ix. 
29.) J. K. may not be aware that two Chroniques 
de I'CEil de Bceuf exist, and that the one attri- 
buted to Touchard-Lafosse is apocryphal. The 
true chronicle is anonymous, but is the reputed 
work of Lebel, a valet de chambre of Louis XV. 


[Why does not the name of Touchard-Lafosse appear 
in the Nouvelle Biographic Generate ?] 

THE BED MOUSE (5 th S. ix. 49.) An example 
of the use of the red mouse in German literature 
is to be found in the Walpurgis Night scene in 
Goethe's Faust. EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

The Temple. 

JACK OF HILTON (5 th S. viii. 504.) In Erdes- 
wicke's Survey of Staffordshire, edit. Harwood, 
Lond., 1820, pp. 133-4, occurs the following notice 
of Jack of Hilton : 

" William Evendon and Thomas Evendon,25 Hen. VI., 
by fine gave the manors of Hilton and Essington to 
Thomas Swinnerton and Elizabeth his wife, and the 

heirs of their bodies. The Lord of the Manor of Essing- 
ton was formerly bound to bring to the hall at Hilton a 
goose on the first day of every year, and drive it at least 
three times round the fire, while Jack of Hilton wa& 
blowing the fire. This Jack of Hilton was a small hollow 
image of brass, which leans upon its left knee, and has 
its right hand placed on its breast. This service was 
performed for upwards of one hundred and forty years, 
but has long been discontinued, probably because the 
two manors have been united in the same lord." 


Jack of Hilton is still carefully preserved there, 
though I believe the curious service in which he 
played so important a part is no longer performed, 
the Vernons being now lords both of the manor of 
Hilton and of that of Essington. Jack has made 
at least one journey to London to the Royal 
Archaeological Institute. Plott, in his History of 
Staffordshire, gives an account of this grotesque 
service, and also a representation (not, however, 
entirely accurate) of the figure of Jack of Hilton, 
whom some have considered to be an ancient 
Scandinavian idol. 



MRS. JUDITH WELD (5 th S. viii. 507.) If MR. 
GREEN consults Notes on Burgundy, by Charles 
Richard Weld, edited by his widow (London, 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1869), it may help him 
to identify the above. 

E. J. TAYLOR, F.S.A. Newc. 


TIGER DUNLOP (5 th S. ix. 29, 72.) Maclise's 
pseudonym in the Fraser Gallery was " Alfred 
Croquis " (Fr. croquis, a sketch). " Alfred Crow- 
quill " was the pseudonym of a most estimable and 
indefatigable, but mediocre, comic artist, named 
Forrester. G. A. SALA. 

"HOPING AGAINST HOPE" (5 th S. ix. 68.) It is 
at least worthy of remark that hope in Middle 
English merely meant, in many cases, expect, with- 
out implying desire. Examples are in Tyrwhitt's 
note to Chaucer, Cant. Tales, 1. 4027 ; Shak., Ant. 
and Chop., ii. 1, 38; and "Hope" in Nares's 
Glossary. A clear case is that in the speech of the 
Tanner of Tamworth, who said, " I hope [i.e. fear] 
I shall be hanged to-morrow." Another instance 
is in Piers Plowman, Text C., Pass, xviii. 313, 
from, my note on which I have copied the above. 

2, Salisbury Villas, Cambridge. 

Charles Wesley has, in his well-known hymn, ' 

" Jesu, lover of my soul," 
and written in 1740, the line, 

" Hoping against hope I stand." 
It was probably suggested by our not very accurate 
translation of the Greek of Rom. iv. 18, "Who 
against hope believed in hope," referring to what 

5th S. IX. FEB. 2, 78.] 



is said in the Old Testament of Abraham's faith 

in respect to Isaac. The same Greek word for 

" hope" is used twice in the New Testament verse. 


MODERN GREEK BIBLE (5 th S. ix. 68.) There 
exists a recent translation of the whole Bible in 
Neo-Hellenic by the learned archimandrite Neo- 
phytos Vambas, who translated the Old Testa- 
ment from the Hebrew text. He was much blamed 
for not having conformed to the Septuagint (see 
Oikonomos, Treatise on the Septuagint, 4 vols.) 
The best Bible commentary in modern Greek is 
that of Th. Pharmakidis, in seven volumes. If 
MR. BLEW wishes for any of these works, he may 
order them through Mr. David Nutt, bookseller, 
270, Strand, who has an excellent agent at Athens. 

Tettenball College. 

Apply to Mr. W. H. Howe, Sudbury, Suffolk, 
who has, I think, a pocket size, mounted in silver, 
do. clasps, perfect, in good preservation, and very 
scarce. F. HOWE. 

27, Hamsell Street, E.G. 

" FIFTEENTHS " (5 th S. viii. 490 ; ix. 15.) We 
meet with the payment of " fifteenths "as far back 
as the statute of Magna Charta, in the conclusion 
of which the Parliament grant the king, for the 
concessions by him therein made, a " fifteenth " of 
all their movable goods. This taxation was 
originally set upon the several individuals. After- 
wards, in the year 1334, a certain sum was rated 
upon every town by commissioners appointed in 
the Chancery for that purpose, who rated every 
town at the fifteenth part of the value thereof at 
that time, and the inhabitants rated themselves 
proportionally for their several parts. This " fif- 
teenth " amounted in the whole to 29,OOOZ., or 
thereabouts. " Fifteenths " continued in use 
down to 1624, in which year three " fifteenths " 
were granted to James I. This was the last grant 
of the kind, for when in the first Parliament of 
Charles I. a motion was made for adding two 
" fifteenths " to the subsidies granted to the king, 
it was rejected, and the next Parliament was 
dissolved before this vote of three "fifteenths" 
passed into law. FREDERIC BOASE. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster. 

^A JACOBITE CONTRIVANCE (5 th S. viii. 328, 
375, 516.) It is interesting to learn that another 
of these Jacobite " perspective " portraits is in ex- 
istence. The one to which, at p. 328, I referred 
is at Lower Tabley Old Hall, a " show " place some 
fifteen miles south-west of Manchester, and acces- 
sible enough therefrom by rail or highway. Any 
reader of " N. & Q." in that city might, on his 
next spare afternoon, dot down a more exact 
description of the Jacobite contrivance than I was 
able to supply above. There is a long and excellent 

note in the glossary to Mr. Dyce's edition of Shak- 
speare on the various " perspectives" of Elizabethan 
times,* but I find nothing therein directly bearing 
upon my original query, namely, this very ingenious 
perversion of optical science to the service of a lost 
political cause. I should quite expect that allu- 
sions would occur in the literature of those times 
to the distorted portrait and the cylinder. Can 
none of your readers help me to such a passage 1 
Imagine a tableful of hot Jacobite squires, with 
the " contrivance " as a kind of centre-piece to 
their dessert, pledging the reflected features of the 
Young Chevalier, and quickly pocketing the 
cylinder on the intrusion of any dubious visitant. 
Such an incident has much of the romantic and 
the picturesque, especially if the party were, as 
sometimes occurred, marched off to prison straight 
from their wine and walnuts. How well the 
author of Waverley and Eedgauntlet would have 
worked up such materials ! A. 

SNUFF SPOONS (5 th S. vii. 428 ; viii. 275, 396, 
497.) C. G. says, " It is sixty years since snuff 
spoons were in use." I was at Callander in August, 
1874, and, whilst waiting for the train to Stirling, 
saw a respectable farmer use one. He took it out 
of his snuff-box and shovelled a quantity of snuff 
into his nostrils with great gusto, and to my dis- 
gust, never having seen anything of the kind 
before. L. MACREADY. 

I saw one used as naturally as possible by an 
old man at Norham on Tweed, Dec. 15, 1877. He 
was a retired exciseman. 

I have now before me a large mull, or snuff- 
horn, made of a buffalo's horn, with silver lid, on 
which are engraved the letters T. M., surmounted 
by a falcon (?) on a crest wreath. ,Near the top is 
a ring, from which are suspended by chains (1) a 
snuff spoon, with eight perforations ; (2) a sort of 
rake ; (3) a simple point ; (4) a fox's foot ; (5) a 
small ivory hammer. Whether all these instru- 
ments were employed in snuff- taking I cannot say. 
It belonged to the late Mr. Thomas Milson, of 
Lincoln, wine merchant, and is supposed to have 
formed part of the paraphernalia of some club to 
which he belonged. He died about fifty years ago 
at least. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Brigg. 

S. vii. 228, 274, 294 ; viii. 192, 215, 238, 397.) 
The last three references, while they deem 
ihe statement made at p. 192 improbable, ask for 
:he production of the documents on which it is 
based. With regard to the probabilities (laying 
aside the variations in the different accounts of the 
duke's movements, illness, and death, which do not 
at all harmonize), if an impartial view is taken of 

* I have been referred to this note through the kind- 
ness of a correspondent. 



[5th s. IX. FEE. 2, 78. 

the circumstances stated, they will be found to be 
more in favour of the' duke's having acted in the 
manner disclosed than that he died at Monaco. 

There can be no doubt that the duke had 
sufficient cause for acting in the way he did. His 
brother the king had angrily rebuked him for 
his interference in politics, while he as angrily 
replied, resenting also the domineering influence 
of Bute, who instigated his being ordered out to 
the Mediterranean so shortly after his return. 
The duke in his anger, and for other reasons, 
determined to give up his position and large in- 
come, preferring rather to retire into obscurity than 
be burdened with the many annoyances of his life. 
In this he but acted in accordance with his family 
nature, as shown by his brother the king, and the 
Georges before him, repeatedly threatening to 
throw up the kingdom and retire to Hanover, 
rather than be thwarted in their views. Once 
resolved to carry out this scheme, there can be no 
doubt the fewer concerned in the secret the better, 
and so, to avoid having many attendants, the duke 
went to Monaco. 

As regards the production of papers, I cannot 
see of what use they would now be ; for it must be 
borne in mind that the duke, to conceal his 
existence, had to assume a name, and these papers 
would have to be connected with him before they 
would be of any value. 

Be the probabilities, however, what they may, 
there is no gain in weighing them, since they will 
not decide the question of the duke's death at 
Monaco or elsewhere. But if this is deemed of 
historical importance, it can easily be determined 
by a test which is in the hands of the nation, and 
that is by an examination of the coffin said to 
contain the body. This is the more necessary as 
there is no record of a lying in state, and of the 
body having been seen and identified after the 
arrival of the coffin in England. G. D. P. 

LEIGH OP co. WARWICK (5 th S. ix. 8.) The 
second Lord Leigh had eight children. Of the 
four sons, Thomas and Lewis both died young 
{Collins's Peerage*, 1709), and Edward succeeded 
afterwards as third Lord Leigh. That the eldest 
son, Thomas, may have had some share in the 
death of a servant is quite possible, but that it 
could be given out that he was dead, and that h 
should be residing in a neighbouring county under 
his paternal name, is surely most improbable 
Lord Leigh died in 1710, and when his third sur- 
viving son, Edward, succeeded to the title anc 
estates, he must have been able to prove that his 
two elder brothers were dead. It would be diffi- 
cult to disprove the local legend, but probably the 
family tombs at Stoneleigh will show when these 
two young men, or boys, died. The expression 
used by Collins leads to the presumption that the} 
-died infants. EDWARD SOLLY. 

OLDHAM (5 th S. viii. 460) = old ham =.the old 
lome. " Old " might perchance come from the 
Grael. edit, a stream (though I have yet to know of 
one instance of it in English names of places), or, 
again, it might be a corruption of Wold (as Old or 
Wold in Northamptonshire ; cfr. Oakingham and 
Wokingham in Berkshire) ; but, in the absence of 
ocal evidence to the contrary, it seems more than 
>robable that " old " is simply the A.-S. aid, whose 
;ognate forms we recognize at a glance on look- 
ing at a map of Northern Europe. 

Altenburg, Oldenburg in Germany, and Ald- 

mry, Aldborough, Oldborough in England ; Alten- 

dorf in Ger. and Althorp in Lincoln ; Oudenarde 

n Holland and Oldland in Glouc., all tell the same 

ale; whilst, without leaving England, we have 

Aldridge in Dev. and Staff, and Oldberrow in 

Worcest., Aldcliff in Lancast. and Oldcleeve in 

Somerset, Aldham in Essex and Suff. and Oldham, 

cfr. Newharn in Northumberland) in Lane., &c. 

As to " ham," few roots are more frequent in 
English names of places. I have under my eyes, 
as I write, an unfinished MS. list of them, in 
which "ham" occurs nearly one hundred and 
fifty times. It is, of course, the A.-S. ham, akin 
the Germ, heim, Go. haims, Lith. kaimas, Gr. 
fM], a village, a dwelling ; hence the name of 

" Spot of earth supremely blest, 
A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest," 

our own " home." ALPHONSE ESTOCLET. 

CHESS (5 th S. viii. 269, 316, 438, 495 ; ix. 5V.) 
I beg to assure MR, WARREN that I fully under- 
stood the import of his proposed innovation. In 
answer to a remark of mine he says : " On my 
suggestion black is not ' in a position of check- 
mate ' as long as white's knight covers his own 
king from black's check." It is certain, I reply, 
that the situation does place black in a position of 
checkmate, although according to MR. WARREN'S 
proposal the mate is not to take effect until the 
knight is liberated by the removal of the white 
king to another square. A position including the 
conditions in question is now on a chessboard 
before me, and my assertion may be tested by any- 
body who chooses to set up a similar one. I would 
send it in a diagram, were such a thing admissible 
in " N. & Q." MR. WARREN again says : " Sup- 
posing black is so silly as to let his king stay 
where it is," &c. Now if black's best play is to 
move his king when the white knight interposes, 
as that would be the ordinary and natural move, 
MR. WARREN, it is clear, at once knocks his own 
suggestion to the ground ; but we are supposing 
the black king to be in a state of checkmate, so 
that the unfortunate monarch must perforce remain 
immovable. To carry on a partie in such circum- 
stances would, I repeat, create an unspeakable 
absurdity, and be a violation of one of the first 

5th S. IX. FEB. 2, 78 J 



principles of the game of chess, which is to shield 
the king from harm. If MR. WARREN doubts the 
correctness of what I state, I would recommend 
him, when leisure permits, to visit any chess club 
in his neighbourhood, and propound the case to 
the leading players of that club, whose opinion, 1 
entertain no doubt, will coincide with mine. 
Touching the definition of checkmate, I by no 
means coincide with MR. WARREN that he and I 
" say the same thing in different words." 



YARD (5 th S. viii. 46'1, 489; ix. 9.) I give you a 

list of a few plays from my collection printed in 

Paul's Churchyard, which may be of interest to 

your readers : 

Date. Sign, Ac. Old Play. Pullisher. 

1611. Sold at his shop Golden Age. Printed by Wil- 
near the Great Thomas Hey- Ham Barrin- 
door of Pauls. wood. ger. 

1630. Dwellinge at the A Chaste For Francis 

Signe of the Mayde in Constable. 
Crowne in Pauls Cheapside. 
Churchyard. Thomas Mid- 

dleton, Gent. 

1637. White Lion in Hannibal and Richard Oul- 
Pauls Church- Scipio. Thos. tonforCharles 
yard. Nabbs. Greene. 

1649. Princes Anns in Tragedy of Humphrey 
St. Pauls. Thierry, by Moscley. 

and Fletcher. 

1649. Same. Woman Hater, Same, 

by same. 

I have no instance prior to 1649 of the addition of 

St. to Paul's. 

1652. At the Three The Cardinal, ForHumphrey 
Pigeons and at by James Robinson & 

the PrincesArms Shirley. Humphrey 

in St. Pauls Moseley. 


I observe this as the first time I have met with 
the sign of the Three Pigeons, and the partner- 
ship between Robinson and Moseley in this play, 
although in the same year their joint names are 
omitted in the next one in this list. 
1652. Princes Arras in The Change- Humphrey 
StPaulsChurch- ling. T. Mid- Moseley. 
yard. dleton and 


The Crowne, like the Crane, seems to have been 
an old publishing house. We find : 
163C. At the Crowne in The Crvell A. M., for 
Pauls Church- Brother. Dr. John Water- 
yard. Avenant. son. 
1630. Do. TheRenegado. 
P. Massinger. 
Also published at this house, Drayton's Muses Eligivm. 

This John Waterson was probably son of Simon 
Water son, publisher of Robert Stafforde's descrip- 
tion of the globe. JOHN WILLIAM JARVIS. 
19, C harles Square, N. 

MAC MAHON FAMILIES (5 th S. ix. 7, 59.) 
I think MR. BONE is not correct in stating 
that Arthur Augustin de Mac Mahon, who was 
Provost of the Collegiate Chapter of St. Peter, at 
Cassel, France, from 1682 to 1710, was " Arch- 
bishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, who 
had taken refuge in exile from the persecution at 
home." I cannot find that Arthur Augustin Mac 
Mahon was ever Primate of Ireland or Archbishop 
of Armagh, and at the time mentioned the see of 
Armagh was filled by other ecclesiastics. Oliver 
Plunkett was, A.D. 1669, promoted to the see by 
Pope Clement IX. He was arraigned on a charge 
of holding treasonable correspondence with the 
French Court. His accusers were Murphy, cho- 
rister of the R. C. Cathedral, Armagh, and certain 
friars and laymen. He was seized and sent to (the 
Dublin) Newgate, December 6, 1679, and thence 
in October, 1680, removed to London. " Here the 
first attempt to convict him failed, and the grand 
jury refused to find the bill against him ; but 
additional evidence having been procured, he was 
in the end pronounced guilty of the crimes laid to 
his charge, and he was sentenced to be executed 
on July 1, 1681. He was taken on a sledge to 
Tyburn, and there executed in the presence of a 
great concourse. With his latest breath he called 
on Heaven to witness his innocence, and asserted 
that it was impossible for him to carry out the 
plans laid to his charge." Archbishop Plunkett 
was succeeded by Dominick Maguire, who was 
appointed in 1681 by Pope Innocent XI. Arch- 
bishop Maguire fled to France after the surrender 
of Limerick, and died in Paris in 1708. He was 
instrumental in preserving the valuable library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, during the troubles in 
the reign -of James II. Archbishop Maguire was 
succeeded in 1708 by Dr. Hugh Mac Mahon. I 
should think this is the prelate described by MR. 
BONE as Bishop of Clogher ; he died in 1737. 
I have thus covered the period from 1669 to 1737, 
showing that the see of Armagh was filled bv other 
prelates, and that Arthur Augustin Mac Mahon 
was not Archbishop of Armagh or Primate of Ire- 
land. MR. BONE will find further information in 
King's Primer of Irish Church History, vol. iii. 
pp. 1242 et seq. JOSEPH FISHER. 


I have just been reading the Presbyterian Dr. 
Killen's Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, in which 
I find a disagreement with MR. SHIRLEY as to the 
Mac Mahon archbishops. At chap. ii. p. 253, and 
notes, Dr. Killen says that Bryan or Bernard Mac 
Mahon was archbishop from 1738 to 1747, and 
was succeeded (according to Brenan) by Ross Mac 
Mahon. But MR. SHIRLEY says Ross died in 1740. 
I suppose he is right, as he quotes the tomb- 
stone ; but then what is Dr. Killen's mistake, or, 
rather, Brenan's ? It would seem as if Ross had 



[5th s. IX. FEB. 2, 78. 

not been archbishop at* all. Dr. Killen says also 
that Bryan, or Bernard, Mac Mahon was the im- 
mediate successor of Hugh Mac Mahon; and, 
primd facie, one really is inclined to doubt whether 
three Mac Mahons could have been translated from 
Clogher to Armagh in immediate succession. Two 
is bad enough. 


[An account of the Mac Mahon family will be found 
in Mr. Sullivan's New Ireland; and a statement of the 
Marshal being descended from Brian Boru (!) is referred 
to in The Secret History of the Fenian Conspiracy.] 

351, 398, 435, 479 ; ii. 38, 92 ; 5 th S. viii. 72, 140, 
153, 179, 232, 330; ix. 12.) -In reply to MR. 
EAYNER and MR. WHITE at the last reference, I 
would refer to the first allusion to this subject 
(3 rd S. i. 287), in which the oldest Nottingham 
paper is stated -to be the Journal, 1710, the date of 
which is corrected in the same series (pp. 351, 435) 
to 1716. This is altogether wrong. The Journal 
was not started till 1757, and eventually bought 
up the Courant, which was amalgamated with it, 
and appropriated the Courant 7 s date, 1716, as the 
first date of its own publication. On p. 479 of the 
same series the Post is stated to be the first paper 
by one correspondent, and the Courant by 
another. The subject seems to have dropped 
at this time (1862), and was not renewed till last 
year (5 th S. viii. 72) by MR. EAYNER, when he 
gives the Courant as the first paper, and the date 
1710. This I corrected (p. 331), and I may say 
that the date there given (1719) is evidently a 
printer's error, and I think my copy will be found 
to be 1716 a mistake I only noticed on my atten- 
tion being drawn to it by MR. WHITE. And now 
for my authorities. Deering, in his History of 
Nottingham, says that " Mr. William Ayscough/ 
who died in 1719, "is remarkable for having first 
established the art of printing in this town about 
the year 1710." The subject is elaborated in 
Blackner's History of the town, p. 96, wherein he 
states that, " about six years after the introduction 
of printing as above named, Mr. John Collyer 
commenced a newspaper called the Nottingham 
Post, which was continued till 1732 " (this date is 
no doubt 1723, as given in Bailey's History, and 
most likely a printer's error by transposition) 
" when Mr. George Ayscough (son of Wm.) began 
the Nottingham Courant in the house where his 
father commenced the business of printing." 

There can be no doubt, I think, that the Pos 
was the first paper, and not the Courant. Bj 
MR. WHITE'S copy, July, 1711, he would rnak< 
the first number of the Post appear to date earl] 
in 1710, as he states his copy to be 42 ; and '. 
should doubt its having been printed weekly, more 
likely at uncertain intervals. I should be glad i 

e would give the printer's name and address of 
he copy he possesses. EDWARD T. DUNN. 

Queen's Terrace, Hammersmith. 

FRAGARIA VESCA (5 th S. viii. 329, 456.) DR. 
^HARNOCK might easily find the wood strawberry 
growing abundantly in very many districts in 
Norfolk. T. S. N. 

Sparham Rectory, Norwich. 

"CHic" (5 th S. viii. 261, 316, 436, 458.) 
A. Hebrew scholar, a friend of mine, says that the 
word chic in Hebrew is applied to distinction in 
peaking. B. 

KATHERINE KALEGH (5 th S. viii. 309, 515.) I 
iave always understood that one of the last in- 
unctions of Walter Kalegh was : " Bury me with 
my father and mother in Exeter Church." 


CURIOUS NAMES (5 th S. viii. 127, 237, 516.) I 
mve before me " Pindari Carmina, recognovit 
W. Christ" (Lipsise, Teubner, 1873). 


S. v. 28 ; ix. 56.) I am greatly obliged to MR. 
POTTS for his reply to my query. The marriage 
of Alderman Henry Sewall to Margaret " Graz- 
brook" is (I am informed by COL. CHESTER) 
asserted in a pedigree drawn up by a member of 
the Sewall family, who was born in 1652, and died 
in 1730. 

Since my query appeared I have acquired a 
good deal of information about the Sewalls and 
the Ropers. The Eichard Sewall who married 
Mary Dugdale was, I find, the younger son of 
Henry and Margaret. MR. POTTS says his will is 
" extant." I do not think this is so ; but ad- 
ministration of his effects was granted Jan. 2, 
1638-9, to Mary his widow. His eldest son, 
Eichard Sewall, of Nuneaton, Gent., refers in his 
will (proved at Lichfield in 1648) to his "aunt 
Dugdale " ; and his uncle (Sir) Wm. Dugdale and 
his " brother Dudley " (husband of his sister Mary) 
were the executors. I find from Hamper's Life of 
Dugdale that Wood, in stating that Samuel Eoper 
and Eichard Sewall were " cousins german," was 
quoting the ipsissima verba of Dugdale himself. 

Samuel Eoper, as I stated in my query, was the 
son of Thomas Eoper by Anne, the daughter of 
Alverey " Greisbrooke " (so he wrote his name), of 
Middleton ; and there can be no doubt that Mar- 
garet " Grazbrook " was her sister ; for Alverey 
had a daughter of that name who is mentioned in 
his will. 

The Eopers were an old family at Heanor. The 
Irish Viscounts Baltinglass were of the same 
family. Dr. Fuller (who had married for his 
second wife *the Hon. Mary Eoper, daughter of 
the first viscount) refers, in his Church History^ 

S. IX. FEB. 2, '78.] 



to Samuel Roper as his kinsman " that skilful 
antiquary and my respected kinsman Samuel 
Roper, of Lincoln's Inn." 

Samuel Roper died Sept. 2, 1658. His will, 
wherein he is called " Samuel Rooper, of Heanour, 
Esquire," is dated Aug. 31, 1658, and was proved 
in London on Oct. 14 following. The Roopers of 
Abbott's Ripton, co. Huntingdon, claim to be 
descended from him. See their pedigree* in 
Burke's Landed Gentry. H. S. G. 

DR. PITCAIRN (5 th S. viii. 498 ; ix. 55) may at 
any time have taken his religious duties too easily, 
but during the greater part of his professional life 
in Edinburgh, detesting as he did the revolu- 
tionary disestablishment of episcopacy in Scotland, 
it must have been an unusually heavy shower that 
drove him, cloakless probably, and certainly 
"umbrella-less," into a "kirk" at sermon time. 
His vigorous lines on the death of Viscount 
Dundee, Ultime Scotorum, &c. (indifferently Eng- 
lished by Dryden), sufficiently express his senti- 
ments : 

" Te moriente, novos accepit Scotia cives, 

Accepitque novos, te moriente, Deos." 
" New people fill the land now thou art gone, 
New gods the temples, and new kings the throne." 

" THE WHOLE DUTY OF MAN " (5 th S. viii. 389, 
515.) I flattered myself I had in my query 
guarded against the mistake into which Miss BOYD 
has fallen, namely, that I referred to three dif- 
ferent editions of the same book, whereas I spoke 
of three distinct works, though under almost 
identical titles. Miss BOYD'S note clearly refers 
to the earliest of the three, though giving it (from 
the Literary Churchman) an author which had 
never before been suggested. My inquiry 
(viii. 389) referred to the second book, which even 
on its title-page states itself to be a different work, 
and first published 1747, while the first edition 
of the earlier one was, I believe, in 1657. 

W. M. M. 

The authorship of the Whole Duty of Man 
formed the subject of critical investigation in the 
History of Meltham, near Huddersfield, published 
by Messrs. Crossley of that town in 1866. This 
local historical work was reviewed in " N. & Q." 
of the following year. Two chapters, consisting 
of thirty-six pages, are devoted to the inquiry, 
which is apparently exhausted. Among the dif- 
ferent claimants enumerated the name of John 
Ischam is not included, nor can I find any account 
of him in biographical books to which I have 
referred. The only mention of him in Watt's 
Bibliotheca Britannica is the following : " Isham, 

* In this pedigree Thomas Roper, of Heanor, is stated 
to have married Anne, daughter of " Aluzed Gresbroke.'> 

John. A Daily Office for the Sick. Lond., 1694, 
8vo." As he appears to be put forward as a new 
claimant to the authorship of the Whole Duty of 
Man, it is of importance to know what are the 
evidences in support thereof. LLALLAWG. 

"PEUESY" (5* S. viii. 288, 356, 518.) There 
need be no doubt about the words. T. F. R. has 
overlooked the horizontal stroke through the stem 
of the p, making " separale." The passage reads 
(the printed book before me) : 

" Item [presentant quod] pratum separale pertinens 
ad dictam ecclesiam valet per annum xl s . Item [pre- 
sentant quod) pastura separalis pertinens ad eandem 
valet per annum xx s . Item." &c. Nonarum Inn. Com. 
Wiltes, p. 173. 


viii. 409; ix. 16.) I am much obliged to MR. 
C. A. WARD for his reply; bub the question I 
asked related to the earl's family, not to himself. 
Could he further oblige me by pointing out where 
I could find the pedigree of the Hydes of Dinton, 


COPIES OF SHAKSPEARE, FOL. 1623 (5 th S. vii. 
247, 277, 455 ; viii. 78.) A copy is in the small 
but valuable library of Sir William FitzHerbert, 
Bart., the Hall, West Farleigh, Kent. 

W. M. M. 


"I give him joy that's awkward at a lie." 

Young's Night Thoitghts, night viii. 
G. F. S. E. 


Lectures on Mediaeval Church History ; being the Sub- 
stance of Lectures delivered at Queen's College, Lon- 
don. By Richard Chenevix Trench, D.D., Archbishop 
of Dublin, Chancellor of the Order of St. Patrick. 
(Macmillan & Co.) 

THOUGHTFUL and thought-inspiring in a very high 
degree, refined in expression and language, and sober in 
judgment, this volume cannot fail to be welcome to all 
students of history. The lectures of which it is com- 
posed do not, indeed, themselves constitute a history of 
the mediaeval church, neither could they be used merely 
to " cram up " for an examination. Dates are only 
incidentally introduced, and foot-notes, with references 
to authorities, are entirely absent. This is a peculiarity 
not to be recommended for general adoption, though no 
doubt, in the case of the volume before us, any informa- 
tion which the hearers of Abp. Trench may have sought 
was supplied orally in the lecture-room. The world at 
large, however, has not this advantage, and we should 
have been glad to have seen something more, which 
could not but have been instructive, of the process by 
which the writer arrived at his conclusions. In the 
case of a volume covering so large a field both of time 
and subjects, it is impossible to do more than hint at 
the many beauties which it contains. But at a moment 



[5"' S. IX. FEB. 2, '78. 

when the fate of the power of Islam in Europe seems 
trembling in the balance, if indeed the decree has not 
already gone forth against it, we may be excused for 
selecting a brief extract on this subject out of the many 
which we should like to cull from the same source. 
" Mahomedanism," says A bp. Trench, "has no ideal of 

holiness after which it invites its votaries to strive It 

has all the faults, all the narrowness, of a local religion, 
which by strange unexpected successes has outgrown the 
region of its birth, a region where it was not without its 
fitness, and has obtained a dominion not limited but 
universal The despotisms of the East are not acci- 
dents, but the legitimate outgrowths of the Koran; and 
so long as this exists as the authoritative look, they top 
must exist icith it." Written years ago, this sentence is 
full of applicability to the present circumstances of 
Eastern Europe. With every desire to be just towards 
those who have attempted, though at the eleventh hour, 
to establish a constitutional form of government in the 
Ottoman Empire, we fear that the teaching of history is 
with Abp. Trench, and against the possibility of free 
parliaments under the rule of the "shadow of God upon 
earth." Those who value a loving appreciation of high 
qualities, combined with scrupulous fairness of historical 
judgment, will welcome the Archbishop of Dublin as a 
guide and companion through the intricate paths of 
mediaeval church history. 

Ancient History from the Monuments. The History of 
Babylonia, By the late George Smith. Edited by 
Rev. A. H. Sayce. Assistant Professor of Comparative 
Philology, Oxford. The Greek Cities and Islands of 
Asia Minor. By W. S. W. Vaux, M.A., F.R.S. 
(S. P. C. K. Depositories, London.) 

THE two further instalments, now before us, of the series 
of volumes dedicated to telling the tale of ancient history 
by means of its monuments, give a very favourable view 
of the intelligent activity with which the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge is fulfilling the useful 
task which it has set before itself. Nobody could be 
more competent than Mr. Sayce to take up the thread 
of the work left unfinished, though nearly ready for 
press, by the late Assyrian explorer, George Smith. 
Those who are not acquainted with Mr. Smith's larger 
works will find here a brief but clear precis of the his- 
torical results of his labours, to which Mr. Sayce has 
appended occasional notes, together with tables explain- 
ing the meaning of the names met with in Babylonian 
history, which will add greatly to the convenience of the 
student. In the Cities and Islands of Asia Minor, Mr. 
Vaux unfolds a story of more directly Western interest, 
bound up with indelible memories of Homeric song and 
Greek and Roman oratory, as well as with the early days 
of Christianity. The blue waves of the JEgean wash the 
shores of which he tells us, just as they did in the days 
of the blind old man of Chios. It is a kaleidoscope of 
history, in which Priam and Xerxes, Cicero and St. 
Paul, by turns attract our attention, and in which the 
information, graphically given in the text, is carried 
down to the latest results of the excavations of Mr. 
Wood and Dr. Schliemann. 

IF Mr. Gladstone's article, " The Peace to Come," 
forms, from the present circumstances of the country, 
the most important feature of The Nineteenth Century 
for this month, i* may be truly said that Mr. Knowles 
has supplied the public with other equally attractive and 
generally interesting matter. The articles on Ritualism, 
Spinoza, and Mrs. Siddons cannot fail to find many 
a reader. 

The Cornhill Magazine opens with a new story, en- 
titled " Within the Precincts." In " Over the Balkans 
with General Gourko " is a spirited account of the perils 

and hardships undergone by correspondents in order to 
afford food for the voracious appetite, to quote the 
writer's own words, of that never to be satisfied monster,, 
the British public. 

THE Midwinter number of Scrilner's Monthh/ (Warne- 
& Co.) has reached us ; it is profusely illustrated. 

THE LITE DR. Doiux, F.S.A. A valued correspondent 
writes : " I am sure there is not a contributor to- 
' N. & Q.' who will not mourn for our late Editor as for 
a father a father both kindly and wise ; as kindly when 
he wisely suppressed as when he courteously accepted 
the communications sent him. A week has not elapsed 
since I wrote to thank him for the kindly reception with 
which I, a stranger both to him and to fame, had met 
from him." It is a melancholy satisfaction to know that 
these words do but give expression to the sense of loss 
caused to numerous contributors to " N. & Q." by the- 
death of their common friend. 

$0ttte4 to 

ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

P. T. A note on Sir John Vanbrugh, by Peter 
Cunningham, will be found in our Second Series, vol. i. 
p. 7, and another at p. 116 of the same volume. H^ 
was buried in St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 

W. A. 

" Where sprawl the saints of Verrio or Laguerre." 
Pope, Moral Essays, Ep. iv. 146. 

E. T. M. WALKER asks in what numbers of Eraser 
he will find Thackeray's story of The Hoggarty 
Diamond ; also, how many volumes of the poets, edited 
by Rev. G. Giifillan, have been published. 

W. P. C. With regard to the Middle Hill Library of 
the late Sir Thomas Phillipps, apply to Mr. Fenwick, 

M. P. The fullest account is to be found in A Lady 
of the Last Century (Bentley & Son, 1876). 

M. E. C. WALCOTT ( The Old Soldier at St. Paul's.") 
Anticipated, o' 1 ' S. viii. 512. 

L. C. R. A short time since the Builder gave a de- 
scription of the removal of the obelisk to Paris. 

j. G. W. GARNETT TAUNTON, 22, Charles Street,, 
Brighton, will be glad to hear from you. 

J. W. W. asks for the best English work on banking, 
currency, and commerce in Austria and Hungary. 

A LADY (" Cockades") should refer to "N. & Q.," 4"' 
S. i. 126, 255 ; v. 81 ; vi. 94. 

L. N. We cannot undertake to answer queries 

J. BORRAJO. See Wheeler's Noted Names of Fiction. 

G. R. Letter to Montrose forwarded. 

F. RULE. Forwarded to K. N. 
N. M. Letter forwarded to E. S. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

*h S. IX. FEB. 9, 78.] 





NOTES : Arms on the Stalls in the Choir of the Cathedral at 
Haarlem, 101 Shakspeariana, 103 Moore and Reboul, 104 
A Quaker Spelling Reform The " Marseillaise"" Uxori- 
cide," 105 Purefoy Latin as an Official Language, 106. 

QUERIES: The Prices of Corn, Labour, &c., 1401-1582 
" It is easier for a camel," &c. Dana " Cloister Pealing," 
106 Name of Artist Wanted Badges Riulstone Obelisk- 
Marie Antoinette Milton Queries St. Paul's School" The 
Palace of Truth" James Bruce, 107 Revelation, ch. xiii. 
Heraldry Bacon's Essay "Of a King" "Notes of a Re- 
cruiting Officer "Authors Wanted, 103. 

REPLIES : " Rubbish" and "Rubble," 108 Paupers' Badges : 
Vagrants' Passes, 109 The De Stuteville Family St. Mary 
Matfelon Sunday Schools E. Farr, 110 Lowland Aber- 
deenYorkshire Superstition St. Tyrnog Bp. Yonge The 
Clubs of Dublin-" Sweetheart," 111 The Mayor of Hun- 
tingdon and the Sturgeon Schomberg Arms G. and H. 
Cabot, of Boston Chronograms Was St. Peter a Married 
Man? 112 "Sydyr" The East Brodhurst Family 
"Kex "Adverbs: "Overly," 113-Old Words with New 
Meanings " The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich " " The 
Shepherd of Hermas" Joan Plantagenet, Lady Talbot 
The Windsor Sentinel and St. Paul's Jetton -Sousa Family, 
114 " Stone Butter " " Dame " and "Lady " " Estridges " 
Mrs. Judith Weld S. Roper, 115 Dr. T. Cogan John 
Hook Sir J. Csesar Proclaiming an Earl's Titles at the 
Altar Mandril " Mauleverer," 116 " 8kal " Wyvill 
Baronetcy " Tattering a kip " Silphium Raff aelle less 
useful than a Pin-maker Birding-piece Authors Wanted. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


(Concluded from p. 62.*) 


1. Quarterly, 1, Sa., a lion ramp, or (Brabant), 
impaling Burgundy ancient ; 2 and 3, Burgundy 
modern ; 4, Or, a lion ramp. gu. (Holland), im- 
paling Burgundy ancient. Over all, Or, a lion 
ramp. sa. (Flanders). This is an inversion of the 
usual coat of the Dukes of Burgundy, which is 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, Burgundy modern ; 2, Bur- 
gundy ancient, impaling Brabant ; 3, Burgundy 
ancient, impaling Holland. See Vree, De Seghelen 
der Graven van Vlaendren (plate 33, et seq.), and 
his Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre. 

2. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gu., three mill-rinds arg. 
(Zuylen, v. No. 12, Gospel side) ; 2 and 3, Sa., 
a fess arg. (Borselen). Here the usual arrange- 
ment of the quarters is inverted. 

3. Sa., a fess arg. (Borselen) : the escutcheon 
crowned with a count's coronet, and surrounded 
by the collar of the Golden Fleece. 

4. The same in all respects as No. 3. 

5. The same as Nos. 3 and 4, with the collar, 
but without the coronet. These four stalls bear 

* The reader is requested to supply the omission of 
the tincture of the lozenges in the arms of Lalain (No. 4 
p. 61 ante) ; it is argent. The third quarter of the arms 
of the Counts of Mannsfeld (No. 16, p. 62) ia for 
Heldrungen, not " Heldrun gen," as printed. 

the arms of members of the great family of Borse- 
len, Marquesses of Veere, or Carapvere, and Flush- 
ing. The head of the family was considered the 
" premier noble de Seeland " (Spener, Op. Her., 
p. 661). Three of this family were Chevaliers of 
the Toison d'Or : (1) Francis de Borselen, Stadt- 
holder of Holland, fourth husband of Jacqueline, 
Countess of Holland, Hainault, Zealand, and Fries- 
land, daughter of William of Bavaria, K.G., Count 
of Ostrevant (afterwards reigning Count of Hol- 
land, &c.), by Mary of Burgundy. Allusion has 
already been made to this marriage, of which the 
Duke of Burgundy so strongly disapproved that 
he arrested Borselen and compelled the princess 
io cede her states to him. Jacqueline died at 
Teilingen in 1436, after which event Philip of 
Burgundy released Borselen, gave him the county 
of Ostrevant, and invested him with the Order of 
the Golden Fleece. He died in 1470 (Ohifflet, 
Insig. Gent. Equit. Ord. Veil. Aur., No. xlii. ; 
Beltz, Memorials o/ the Order of the Garter, 
pp. 341-2). According to Chifflet his 'arms were 
those blazoned in No. 2 above, but with the 
quarters reversed, Borselen being in 1 and 4, 
Zuylen in 2 and 3. This is confirmed by the 
series of arms of the Knights of the Golden Fleece 
in Notre Dame at Bruges, and in the church of 
St. Bavon at Ghent. In both places I noted that 
the Zuylen quartering is put in 2 and 3, Borselen 
in 1 and 4. (2) Henry de Borselen, Seigneur de 
Veere, Comte de Grandpre, was nominated Knight 
of the Golden Fleece at the same chapter, held at 
Ghent in 1445. He bore Borselen plain, without 
the Zuylen quartering (Chifflet, No. xliv.). In 
the series at Notre Dame at Bruges the arms are 
Borselen quartering Zuylen. At Ghent the Borse- 
len armsjjalone appear. (3) The last of the knights 
was Wolfart de Borselen, Comte de Grandpre, 
Seigneur de Veere. He was elected at Bruges in 
1478, and bore the arms of Borselen alone (Chifflet, 
No. Ixxix.). He died without male issue by his 
wife, Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier. Their 
daughter and heiress, Anna de Borselen, brought 
the marquessate of Veere and Flushing to her 
husband, Philip of Burgundy, Lord of Beveren, 
who was a son of " le grand batard de Bourgogne," 
Antoine, Comte de la Roche, Chevalier de la 
Toison d'Or, son of Duke Philippe le Bon. 
Philip of Beveren styles himself " Knight of the 
Golden Fleece, Councillor of the Order, Chamber- 
lain of the King of the Romans (Maximilian of 
Austria, husband of Mary of Burgundy), and 
Governor of the Archduke (their son) ; Lieutenant- 
General of Artois, and Admiral by Sea." See his 
titles given at length from a charter, dated 1493, 
in which he pledges himself for the observance of 
the treaty of peace between Maximilian and 
Philip of France, drawn up at Senlis (Vree, 
Genealogie des Comtes de Flandre, tome ii. p. 392). 
On the extinction of the line of Philip, two gene- 



[5h S. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

rations later, William, Prince of Orange, with the 
consent of the estates of Zealand, purchased the 
marquessate of Veere and Flushing, and obtained 
investiture in 1581. From the House of Orange 
the royal House of Prussia derived its c^im to 
these possessions, and so the quartering, Sa., a fess 
arg. the arms of Veere and its lords of the House 
of Borselen came into the " Majestats Wappen " 
of Frederick the Great (see Triers, Einleilung zu 
der Wapen-kiinst, p. 308). 

6. Quarterly, 1, Or, a bend sinister gu. (Baer) ; 
2 and 3, Or, chevronny gu. (Egmont) ; 4, Arg., two 
bars counter embattled gu. (Arkel). The escutcheon 
is surmounted by a count's coronet, and surrounded 
by the collar of the Golden Fleece. In base are 
two badges, each consisting of a pair of broyes 
closed or, the lines az. These are the inverted 
arms of the Counts of Egmond, of whom four were 
Knights of the Golden Fleece, the last being the 
famous but ill-fated Lamoral von Egmond, who 
was executed at Brussels during the regency of 
the Duke of Alva for Philip II. of Spain. The 
one here commemorated was probably John, Count 
of Egmond (Chifflet, No. cxlix.), one of the twenty 
new knights created by Charles V. at his ex- 
tension of the order. The order had previously 
been conferred on his progenitor, Jean, Count of 
Egmond and Lord of Baer, in 1491, in the blazon 
of whose arms Chifflet (No. ci.) correctly places 
Egmond in the first and fourth quarters, Baer 
(a bend dexter) in the second, and Arkel in the 
fourth. The reason of the inversion in the present 
instance will be given below. 

7. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Az., a fess or (Leide) ; 
2 and 3, Gu., three crescents arg. (Wassenaer). 
The arms are surrounded by the collar of the 
Golden Fleece ; around it are four crescents arg., 
the two in chief placed upon a golden letter J. 
These are the arms and badges of Jean, Seigneur de 
Wassenaer, Viscount of Leyden, created Knight of 
the Golden Fleece at the same time as No. 6 above. 
As given by Chifflet (Insig. Gent. Equit. Veil Aur., 
No. cxlvi.) the arms correspond in arrangement 
with those already described in No. 5 on the 
Gospel side (ante, p. 61), Wassenaer being in the 
first and fourth quarters. Here, consequently, 
the arrangement is inverted. 

8. A lozenge-shaped shield of Brederode and 
Valkenberg (see No. 3 on the Gospel side), im- 
paling Or, a lion ramp, (contourne) gu. Around 
and above the shield are the flames, while the 
boar's head badges are arranged in base, as in 
No. 3 of the Gospel side, and the well-known 
Burgundian badge of the saltire-raguly also appears 
among the flames. 

9. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Az., three fleurs-de-lis or, 
over all a bend sin. gu. (Bourbon) ; 2 and 3, as 
No. 3 on the Gospel side, but with the quarter- 
ings in reversed order. Over all, Borselen. This 
coat, of which, as in the instances above, the 

quarters are inverted, must be intended for the 
arms of Philip of Beveren (vide supra, No. 5) or 
his son Adolphus. In my notes taken at Haarlem 
there is no reference to the canton of Dauphine, 
which forms the upper part of the bend in the 
brisure of the house of Bourbon-Montpensier ; but 
as on the seals of Adolphus and Maximilian of 
Beveren the full quartered arms of Burgundy are 
placed in the first and fourth quarters, Bourbon- 
Montpensier in the second and third, and Borselen 
over the whole (see Vree, Ginialogie des Comtes 
de Flandre, plates 126, 127), I am inclined to 
suspect that in the second and third quarters 
the reference should be rather to No. 2 than to 
No. 3. I may have erred in the reference, though 
my pencil note is quite distinct. 

10. Brederode only ; on the shoulder of the lion 
a small escutcheon of the same (for Holland ?), viz. 
Or, a lion ramp. gu. 

11. Arg., two chevrons az. The shield is en- 
signed with a count's coronet, but I am unable to 
say what family it indicates. 

12. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Or, a lion ramp, gu., 
a label azure for brisure : see No. 9 on the Gospel 
side (Brederode) ; 2 and 3, Arg., three zuilen gu. 

13. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Or, a lion ramp. sa. 
(Flanders ?) ; 2 and 3, Arg., fretty sa. ; on a chief 
or three canettes, or martlets, of the second (. . . ?). 
The second and third quarters (which in reality 
are probably intended for the first and second of 
the shield, as will be presently explained) seem to 
be those of the family of D'Estrees. 

14. Egmond, &c. (as No. 6 above). 

15. Brederode (Or, a lion ramp, gu.) ; on the 
shoulder of the lion a small escutcheon of Mark : 
Or, a fess chequy gu. and arg. 

16. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Arg., a mill-rind gu., in 
base a rose of the second (....?); 2 and 3, Or, 
a cross vert (....? perhaps for the Burgundian 
family of St. Croix, which bore the same). A 
pastoral staff is placed in pale behind, and an epis- 
copal hat above the shield (see my note on No. 14, 
Gospel side). 

This concludes a series which I think is of con- 
siderable interest and importance. I have only to 
remark that that curious inversion of the quarters 
and of the position of the charges in several of the 
coats on the Epistle side (see Nos. 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9), 
which cannot fail to strike any one who has a 
decent knowledge of continental heraldry, arose 
simply from the ancient custom of which we find 
analogous examples at Dijon and elsewhere of 
making the position of the quarterings, charges, and 
crests depend upon that of the high altar of the church. 
Thus, in several of the above instances, the 
quarterings which were ordinarily borne in the first 
and fourth places of the shield are transferred to 
the second and third, because on the north, 
or Epistle, side the second place was nearer 

5* S. IX. FEE 9, 78.] 



to the high altar than the first, and was therefore, 
for the time being, the more honourable. This is 
how we come to find here the " repeated " coat of 
a family borne in the second and third, rather 
than in the usual first and fourth places. This 
again is how the bend of Baer becomes converted 
into a bend sinister in the shield of Egmond. 
The bend of Bourbon-Montpensier undergoes 
a similar change, and in No. 8 the lion is contourne. 
I have already noticed in " N. & Q." (4 th S. xii. 
444 ; 5 th S. i. 155) that at Dijon, on the Epistle 
side of the choir, all the helmets and crests of the 
Knights of the Golden Fleece were turned to the 
sinister, in order that they might look towards 
the high altar, and that the old stall plates of 
the Knights of the Garter in St. George's Chapel at 
Windsor show that the same custom obtained in 
England also, 



" HAMLET." Act i. sc. 1, 11. 117, 118 : 

" t As stars with trains of fire and dews of blood, 

Disasters in the sun." 

Any one who observes the similarity in the com- 
mencement of the two lines 
"As stars- 
Disasters " 

must see how very easily a printer's error may 
have arisen from transposition. I read : 
"Disasters from the sun as dews of blood, 
And stars with trains of fire." 

Act i. sc. 3, 11. 72-74 : 
" For the apparel oft proclaims the man, 
And they in France of the best rank and station 
t Are of a most select and generous chief in that." 

Punctuate 1. 74 thus : 

" Are, of a most, select and generous, chief in that." 
By " of a most " I understand " for the most part." 
Polonius says that in France men of rank in 
general show fine taste, and are unsparing of 
expense, chiefly in the matter of dress. 
Act i. sc. 4, 11. 36-38 : 

" The dram of feale 

Doth all the noble substance fof a doubt 

To his own scandal." 

The conjecture is surely reasonable that " eale " is 
a misprint for " evil." That granted, the second 
line may be restored without adding to or taking 
from it a single letter : 

" The dram of evil 

Doth o' the noble substance fall a doubt 

To his own scandal." 

" Fall " in the sense of " let fall" we find in the 
Comedy of Errors, Act ii. sc. 2 : 

" As easy mayst thou fall 
A drop of water in the breaking gulf" ; 

and in Antony and Cleopatra, Act iii. sc. 2 : 
" Fall not a tear." 

As illustrative of the meaning of the passage, 
compare Ecclesiastes x. 1 : 

" Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to 
send forth a stinking savour : so doth a little folly him 
that is in reputation for wisdom and honour." 

Act iii. sc. 4, 11. 161-165 : 
" That monster, custom, who all sense doth eat, 
fOf habits devil, is angel yet in this, 
That to the use of actions fair and good 
He likewise gives a frock or livery, 
That aptly is put on." 

The meaning seems to be That monster custom, 
who destroys the sense of shame, though by habit 
a devil, is yet an angel in this, &c. The word 
habit is used in its two senses of "wont" and 
" dress." Custom, which usually appears in garb 
a devil, is yet an angel in this respect, that his 
wardrobe also affords for the use of actions fair 
and good a suitable frock or livery. 

Act iii. sc. 4, 11. 168, 169 : 

" For use almost can change the stamp of nature, 
-f And either the devil, or throw him out." 

Kead : 

" And tether the devil, or throw him out." 
As an unruly beast he must either be confined or 

Act iv. sc. 1, 11. 38-44 : 
" Come, Gertrude, we '11 call up our wisest friends; 

And let them know, both what we mean to do, 

t And what's untimely done " 

There may be no lacuna here, but merely a broken 
line, of which there are so many in Hamlet. If 
we read " both " in 1. 39 as a pronoun, the whole 
passage may be made intelligible, with no change 
but in punctuation : 
" Come, Gertrude, we '11 call up our wisest friends ; 

And let them know, both (of us), what we mean to do : 

And what 's untimely done 

(Whose whisper o'er the world's diameter, 

As level as the cannon to his blank, 

Transports his poisoned shot) may miss our name, 

And hit the woundless air." 

In order to prevent suspicion that any mischief 
was intended to Hamlet, the King was anxious it 
should be known that Hamlet's mother as well as 
he saw the propriety of his temporary exile : 
hence the force of " both." Being followed by 
" and," it has not unnaturally been mistaken for 
a conjunction ; but in Act ii. sc. 2, 1. 29, we find 
"both" followed by "and," where "both" is 
evidently a pronoun. Speaking for Rosencrantz 
and himself, Guildenstern says : 

" We both obey, and here give up ourselves." 

Act v. sc. 1, 1. 68 : 

" Go, get thee to fYaughan : fetch me a stoup of liquor." 
Yaughan is probably the name of a vintner, not of 
a place. 

Act v. sc. 2, 1. 118 : 

" I know to divide him inventorially would dizzy the 
arithmetic of memory, fand yet but yaw neither, in 
respect of his quick sail." 



S. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

I suggest the reading, "And yet not yaw 
either, in respect of 'his quick sail." Yaw is 
a nautical term signifying " to steer out of the 
line of the 1 course." See Marine Dictionary. 
It seems to-be used here in the sense of evajding 
pursuit by dodging. Hamlet tells Osric that even 
in his plainest mood Laertes was beyoad. his com- 

Act v. sc. 2, 11. 196-202 : 

" Thus has he and many more of the same bevy that 
I know the drossy age dotes on only got the tune of the 
time and outward habit of encounter ; a kind of yesty 
collection, which carries them through and through the 
most ffond and winnowed opinions; and do but blow 
them to their trial, the bubbles are out." 

I believe Warburton is right in substituting 
"fanned "for "fond." The men of whom Osric 
was a specimen had " got the tune of the time and 
outward habit of encounter " could go the round 
of courtly observances ; they were possessed of 
"a kind of yesty (frothy) collection" of words, 
"which carried them through and through the 
most fanned and winnowed opinions" which 
served for the interchange of conventional 
commonplaces ; " but blow them to their trial, the. 
bubbles are out" test their knowledge of aught 
beyond those, and their utter ignorance was 
manifested. R. M. SPENCE, M.A. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

"MACBETH," n. 3. 

"Porter Who's there, i' the name of Beelzebub? 

Here 's a farmer [&c.] Knock, knock ! Who 's there 

in the other devil's name ? " 

I do not remember having seen any explanation 
as to who the " other devil " may have been ; but 
I think it may be found in the following extract 
from James I.'s Dcemonologie : 

" The knauerie of that same deuil; who as hee illudes 
[=deludes] the Necromancers with innumerable feyned 
names for him and his angels, as in special, making 
Sathan, Beelzelub, and Lucifer to be three sundry 
spirites, where we finde the two former, but diuers 
names giuen to the Prince of all the rebelling angels by 

the Scripture And the last, to wit, Lucifer, is but by 

allegoric taken from the day Starre (so named in diuers 
places of the Scriptures) because of his excellencie (I 
meane the Prince of them) in his creation before his fall. 
Euen so I say he deceaues the Witches, by attributing 
to himselfe diuers names : as if euery diuers shape that 
he transformes himselfe in, were a diuers kinde of spirit." 
Book iii. ch. v. (p. 76, first ed.). 

I neither say nor mean that the Porter was a 
witch, but that which was a witch- belief was 
doubtless a popular belief. B. NICHOLSON. 

" PEERETH." What is the meaning of the word 
peereik in 

" As the sun breaks through the darkest clouds 
So honour peereth in the meanest habit " ? 

Taming of the Shrew, iv. 3. 

Does it mean simply (as its etymology from paroir 
might show) "appeareth," or is it from par, a 

peer? And .has it then the signification of ex- 
celleth ? My notes do not touch upon the word. 


MOORE AND REBOUL. The above are the names 
of an Irish and of a French poet. Moore was the 
gracefully inspired son of a grocery and whiskey 
dealer in Dublin ; Reboul was a working baker in 
Nisnies. The Irish bard was born in 1779 ; Jean 
Reboulinl796. The former died in 1852 ; theFrench 
child of song in 1864. In the year 1816, when 
Moore was thirty-seven years of age, and Reboul 
only twenty, the Irishman published the first of 
his Sacred Songs. The dedication to the poet's 
friend Dalton is dated May, 1816, and the songs 
were mostly written in the preceding year. In the 
first number is the following song, for which Sir 
John Stevenson furnished the music : 
" This world is all a fleeting show, 

For man's illusion given ; 
The smiles of joy, the tears of woe, 
Deceitful shine, deceitful flow ; 

There 's nothing true but Heaven. 
And false the light on glory's plume 

As fading hues of even ; 
And love, and hope, and beauty's bloom 
Are blossoms gathered from the tomb ; 
There 's nothing bright but Heaven. 
Poor wanderers of a stormy day, 

From wave to wave we 're driven ; 
And fancy's flash and reason's ray 
Serve but to light the troubled way; 
There 's nothing calm but Heaven." 

The Sacred Songs were soon after published in 
Paris. They are also included in an edition of 
Moore's Works, in 4 vols., " printed by Fain," and 
sold by Galiguani in 1821. ' A year before M. 
Thierry wrote an essay on the Melodies, and their 
author, Moore, became well known and highly 
appreciated in France. In 1829 Madame Belloc 
published a translation of the Melodies ; and the 
Sacred Songs must at least have been known to 
her. About this time Reboul is said by a writer 
in the Irish Monthly to have written a sacred 
song called " Soupir vers le Ciel," and which runs 
thus : 

"Tout n'est qu'images fugitives, 

Coupe d'amertume ou de miel, 
Chansons joyeuses ou plaintives 
Abusent des levres fictives : 

II n'est rien de vrai que le ciel. 

Tout soleil nait, s'eleve, et tombe, 

Tout trone est artificiel. 
La plus haute gloire succombe ; 
Tout s'epanouit pour la tombe, 

Et rien n'est brillant que le ciel. 

Navigateur d'un jour d'orage, 

Jouet des vagues, le mortel, 
Repousse de chaque rivage, 
Ne voit qu'ecueil sur son passage, 

Et rien n'est calme que le ciel." 

The above poor version of Moore's song is in the 
CEuvres de Jean Reboul, with no indication that it 

IX. FEB. 9, 78.] 



is a translation. The writer adds that " it is very 
inlikely that a Nismes baker should know English, 
especially forty or fifty years ago." It is more 
than sixty years since Moore published the Songs, 
and Reboul may have seen some prose translation 
of them, such as there used to be of the Melodies, 
in French literary papers. The imperfect lines 
claimed by Reboul read very like a version by an 
educated Englishman, who, with all his ability, 
could catch neither the grace of the original nor 
the charm of the French ballad lyre. D. N. 

early Quakers tried their hands at the barbarous 
amusement which some people pleasantly call 
spelling reform. That curious book, " The Arrain- 
ment of Christendom, Printed in Europ, 1664," is 
printed entirely in a new spelling. The following 
is a portion of the prefatory notice : 

" The Corrector to the Reader, concerning the Ortho- 
grafy or Spel-ing herrin us'd. 

" Reader, Wonder not to see me Spel, as thy self dayly 
gpeakest, & hearest others sound -words. 1 hav beer 
indevored to spel as we speak, for the advantag' sak 
which I know wil therby ensu if practised, I., To Children 
in learning to read, whos tender capacitys ar over 
charged, memorys burtbened and dul'd witb harsh spel- 
ing, by which tbey ar kept longer in learning. 

" II., To Men and Women in wryting, who tho tbey hav 
learnd to read wel enuf, when they corn-to wryt, ar at a 
los bow to spel aryt as its cal-ed. 

" III., To strangers in learning English, wbo ar dis- 
coraged & almost put out of bops of ever learning to 
speak, read & wryt good English. And al this only 
tbroub tbe present harsh manner of spel-ing, scars to be 
comprysd in Ruls, wbich is the only means strangers 
abroad bav for learning to speak, & for al, tho in England, 
to read & wryt trii English. Besyds the multituds of 
superfluos Letters in the present Speling, al which is 
amended & avoyded by spel-ing & wryting simply as we 
speak : As no les tban 5. in tbe word Righteousness (as 
thus commonly spelt) ar avoyded by speling it tbus, 
Ryteosnes, & no less than 3. of 6. letters in the word 
Though, spelt thus, TM. Which do as perfectly sound 
tbe words as the other, tlio ny twys so many letters. 
Wherfor I bav thus don, 1., Chiefly for the benefit of 
strangers, in al words in which the letter (i) is sounded 
as (y). which no other Nation but ours doth, I hav us'd 
(y). Tbe old English way, throuh chang' of wbicb, into 
(i) sucb confusion is happend in sounding that letter 
somtyms on way, as in King, Tbing, &c., and somtyms 
another way, as in Kind, Mind, Cbild, &c., that a stranger 
cannot by Ruls be tauht when to sound it as in the 
former words softly, or as in tbe lat-er words fully as (y). 
Whicb being spelt with (y)., Kynd, Cbyld, &c., is 

" 2. The letter (e) wber it is mut and maketb not a 
syllabi, but only the former syllabi long, I hav left out ; 
strangers commonly in that cas pronouncing mor syllabls 
tban ther ar, as ti-me for time, lo-ve for love, ti-mes for 
times, &c. Which being writ-en tym, lov, tyms, &c., tber 
is but on syllabi for them to sound. And how is it pos- 
sibl otherwys to giv certain Ruls wben to sound the (e) 
and when not ; seing in the word plases ; it must, and in 
times, it must not be sounded? And for compensing tbe 
us of the (e) viz. of distinguish a short from a long syllabi, 
I bav oft us'd the Accents, (") or ('). Whicb doth again 
distinguish (as e did) betwixt words of dyvers signifi- 

cations, tho of tbe sam letters. As mad from made tbus, 
mad. bat from bate thus, bat. on from one tbus, on. us 
from use thus, us. Wbicb yet ur sufficiently dis- 
tinguisb'd by tbe sens." 

George Fox appears to have spelled like a 
Leicestershire peasant. C. ELLIOT BROWNE. 

THE " MARSEILLAISE." The following, from 
the Times of Feb. 1, 2, and 4, should find a corner 
in"N. & Q.": 

" Sir, Tbe late Baron de Bunsen used to assert that 
tbe ' Marseillaise ' was an old South German, perhaps 
Alsatian, air adapted by Rouget d'Isle on the reception 
of tbe Marseilles regiment at Strasburg, whence it spread 
like wild-fire throughout France. I should be glad if 
tbis supposition could be fairly examined. Having the 
volume of Rouget de 1'Isle's compositions before me, I 
am struck by tbe immense superiority of this melody 
over all tbe rest, tbe only one that shows anything of a 
similar vigour being the song of tbe fabulous destruction 
of tbe ' Vengeur,' the cborus of which, ' Mourons pour 
la patrie,' was attached to the ' Parisienne ' of 1830. 

" Were this origin authenticated, the French might 
find some consolation in tbe knowledge tbat ' God Save 
the King ' was composed by Lully, and first produced on 
tbe visit of Louis XIV. and Madame de Maintenon to 
tbe convent of the Desmoiselles de St. Cyr. Some years 
after it was happily and unscrupulously appropriated 
by Dr. John Bui!, organist of St. Paul's. I am, Sir, 
yours obediently, HOUGHTON." 

" Sir, The discovery tbat Rouget de Lisle, when com- 
posing tbe music of tbe 'Marseillaise,' at Strasburg, 
where he was stationed as a French officer in 1792, was 
consciously or unconsciously under the charm of 
some reminiscences of a German Volkslied, belongs to 
Dr. F. K. Meyer, for many years tbe friend and secre- 
tary of Baron Bunsen, and for a time German librarian 
to the Prince Consort. Lord Houghton will find the 
arguments in support of this theory and the music of the 
German song in a little pamphlet, s.l.e.a., Zwanzig Vater- 
Icindische Gedichte, nebst einem Aufiatz uber den Ur sprung 
der Marseillaise, von F. K. J/. Your obedient servant. 

"M. M." 

" Lord Houghton says that ' God Save tbe King' was 
composed by Lully, first produced on the visit of 
Louis XIV. and Madame de Maintenon to the convent 
of St. Cyr, and some years after ' bappily and unscrupu- 
lously appropriated ' by Dr. John Bull, organist of St. 
Paul's. I am sorry to destroy so fair and coherent an 
edifice ; but St. Cyr was founded in 1686, while Bull was 
buried at Antwerp, March 15, 1628. Bull was organist 
of the Chapel Royal and Gresbam Professor, but there 
is no trace of bis having been organist of St. Paul's. The 
history of ' God Save the King ' is curiously meagre and 
obscure, but I believe I am rigbt in saying that there is 
nothing to give Lully, and very little to give Dr. Jobn 
Bull, any share in its composition. G. GROVE." 

H. Y. 
[See MR. CHAPPELL'S note, 5"' S. viii. 209.] 

" UXORICIDE." The Chicago Tribune of Sept. 
6, 1877, records a " probable murder " arising from 
jealousy. The details need not be given of what 
the reporter considers " may prove an uxoricide." 
This is surely one of the latest additions to the 
" American " language. It is perhaps with a view to 
the prevention of wife- murder that this terrific word 
has been invented. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 



. IX. FEB. 9, ','8. 

PUREFOY. This name occurs on a mural 
tablet on the chancel wall of St. Mary's, Stock- 
port. It is mentioned in Earwaker's History of 
the Macchsfield Hundred of Cheshire. 



NINETEENTH CENTURY. In an official document 
now before me I read : 

"Deeds of gift, as written and passed in the offices of 
the Great Seal and Quarter Seal of Scotland, are in 
Latin, being literal translations of the terms of the 
royal warrants upon which they proceed, and it has 
therefore been thought better to give the terms of the 

This is an instance of Latin being in actual use 
as a language at the present day. It would be 
interesting to know of other cases in this country 
in which Latin is the compulsory orthodox lan- 
guage employed. H. Y. N. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

I shall be under great obligations to any reader of 
" N. & Q." who may be able and willing to give 
me any information, from original documents in his 
possession, as to prices of corn, labour, and produce, 
home and foreign, between 1401 and 1582. I 
have already a large mass of information for this 
period of English history, but the statistics in my 
possession are broken and unequal. I am led to 
believe that documents containing such information 
may be in the hands of private gentlemen ; for I 
obtained some time ago some very valuable figures 
from the late Mr. Walbran, who possessed docu- 
ments of Fountains Abbey for the fifteenth century, 
and I have consulted some purchases made from 
the private collection of a Kentish antiquary, and 
now in the British Museum, for the parish of 
Sutton at Hone during the same period. I am 
not inquiring for documents in public collections. 

8, Beaumont Street, Oxford. 

" IT is EASIER FOR A CAMEL," &c. It may have 
occurred to many of your readers, as it has to me, 
that the phrase, repeated by three of the evange- 
lists in the New Testament, " It is easier for a 
camel to go through the eye of a needle, than 
for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of 
God," is not only hyperbolical, but also wanting 
in that propriety which usually characterizes the 
metaphors employed by Jesus Christ in his 
parables. Now I can distinctly remember read- 

ing, more than thirty years ago, either in a book 
of travels in the East, or a novel the scene of 
which was laid in Persia, a note in which it was 
stated that the small door or wicket, through 
which foot-passengers entered the town (the great 
door or gate of which was only opened for the pas- 
sage of camels, carriages, &c.), was called "the 
needle's eye," and it struck me at once that if this 
metaphorical name for a wicket was known in 
Palestine at the time of our Saviour's preaching, 
the propriety of the metaphor would be under- 
stood by all his hearers, while the difficulty of the 
camel's passage, that is, the moral of the parable, 
remained the same. Unfortunately I omitted to 
follow the good advice contained in your motto, 
and I did not " make a note of it," and I have 
now forgotten the name of the book in which I 
found it. My present object is to inquire whether 
any of your travelled or learned contributors can 
confirm the existence of such an appellation for a 
small door or wicket in any Eastern country. I 
must admit that, although I have since resided 
some time in Persia, and occupied myself with 
Oriental literature, I have not been able to confirm 
from my own experience the accuracy of the state- 
ment above referred to. My thoughts have, how- 
ever, been lately directed to a subject which I had 
almost forgotten by finding a metaphorical phrase 
precisely similar in another country and language. 
On reference to the Purgatorio of Dante, canto x. 
verse 16, there occurs the following line : " Che 
noi fossimo fuor di quella cruna" the poet and his 
conductor Virgil having just been creeping through 
i "narrow passage," termed here a " cruna," i. e. 
' the eye of a needle," and is so properly explained 
by the Italian commentator, " la fenditura di 
quella via, angusta come la cruna d'un ago." All 
scholars know how numerous are the instances of 
an apt metaphorical expression being found in 
many different peoples and languages, and I hope 
some one of your readers will be able to confirm 
:he sense herein suggested for the " needle's eye " 
in the parable. CH. A. MURRAY. 


DANA. What is the origin of this name, which 
is so well known as a literary one in the States? 
fn England we have it thus : towards the end 
of the last century the Hon. Helen Kinnaird, 
daughter of the sixth Lord Kinnaird, married the 
Rev. Edmond Dana, Vicar of Uttoxeter. 


"CLOISTER PEALING." Can any old Wyke- 
lamist explain the origin at Winchester of the 
curious custom of "cloister pealing"? At one 
particular time of the year, called cloister time, 
because anciently the boys learned their lessons 
in the college cloisters during the summer months, 
the juniors assailed the prefects with a series of 
satirical lampoons, attacking them on every possible. 

5th s. IX. FEB. 9, 78.] 



point their personal appearance, extraction, old 
school scandals, &c., and with complete impunity. 
The twentieth part of the impertinences uttered 
would, at other times, have brought the direst 
consequences on the offenders, but at this time (it 
usually lasted for perhaps twenty minutes for three 
or four days) it was allowed to pass unnoticed. 

J. R. B. 

NAME OF ARTIST WANTED. On a fan in my 

Possession is a very beautiful classical composition, 
rawn delicately in sepia, and in the margin is 
the inscription, "Eques D. Nicolaus Capulus 
calamo delineavit." Can any of your readers help 
me to discover the artist? The work is probably 
of the beginning of the last century. TEUCER. 

BADGES. I have before me some badges in 
modern painted glass which simulate the Tudor 
style. They are all surmounted by the crown 
imperial, and are as follows : 1. Gu., planta-genista 
ppr. ; 2. Gu., a portcullis or ; 3. Az., a fleur-de-lis or ; 
4. Az., a rose az. and gu. ; 5. Gu., on a tower or an 
owl az. ; 6. Gu., a tree eradicated, leaves ppr., trunk 
and branches az., roots or. 

No. 1 is, of course, the name-giving badge of our 
Plantagenet kings ; 2, 3, and 4 were adopted by 
Henry VII. ; but what do 5 and 6 profess to 
represent? for I fancy they may have been copied 
from fifteenth century examples. It has occurred 
to me that 6 may be intended for the hawthorn 
bush of Bosworth Field it will not do for the 
tree root of Edward III. and that 5 may have 
been a badge assumed by Henry VII. as Earl of 
Richmond. The arms of the town of Richmond 
are given by Guillim thus : " Gu., an inner bor- 
dure arg., over all a bend ermin"; but on the 
elaborate cover of Baines's Yorkshire Past and 
Present the bearings of the place are represented 
as being "Gu., an owl ar., over all a bend ermine." 
What has the owl to do with Richmond ? If any- 
thing, my view of badge 5 may be confirmed. 


RUDSTONE OBELISK. In the churchyard of 
Rud stone, near Bridlington, in Yorkshire, there is, 
or was, a very remarkable monolith, somewhat 
similar in character to the stones at Burrowbridge, 
and probably, like them, brought from a quarry 
some miles distant. In Cox's Magna Britannia, 
1731, vi. 529, it is described as " an obelisk of 
Ragg or Milstone grit, standing in the churchyard, 
and of a very great height." In the Universal 
Magazine for March, 1782, there is an account of 
this stone and an engraving of it, from which it 
would appear that the stone is about three feet by 
seven feet, and fifty feet high ; half being buried 
in the ground and half above it. This length of 
the stone is said to be given on the authority of 
"experiments" made by Sir William Strickland, 
but the nature of these experiments is not indi- 

cated. Is the real size of this stone accurately 
known? and is there any quarry from which it 
might have been brought nearer to Rudstone than 
that at Ilkley, from whence it has been supposed 
that the Burrowbridge monoliths were brought ? 
According to Camden's Britannia (Gibson's edit., 
1722, ii. 874), the distance from Ilkley to Burrow- 
bridge is about sixteen miles ; but the distance 
from Ilkley to Rudstone is probably not much 
under fifty miles. EDWARD SOLLY. 

NETTE. I have read in some memoirs that (con- 
trary to the received idea that the necklace was 
broken up) it was seen, years afterwards, on the 
neck of a Russian lady I think, at any rate, in 
Russia. The lady who wore it was connected by 
marriage with some of the most intimate friends 
of Marie Antoinette. Is there any foundation for 
such a story, or what can have given rise to it ? 

K. H. B. 


is the meaning of the line ? 

" And the mute Silence hist along." 
The context is almost too well known to require 
quoting. The poet invokes Melancholy : 
" First and chiefest with thee bring 
Him that soars on golden wing, 
Guiding the fiery-wheel&d throne, 
The cherub Contemplation, 

And the mute Silence hist along, 
'Less Philomel will deign a song." 

" 'Less " is, of course, " unless" ; but "hist along," 
what is that ? One annotator kindly informs us 
that "hist is hushed, the same as whist." But 
" hushed along " is to me just as incomprehensible 
as "hist along." What part of speech is " hist " in 
this passage ? J. DIXON. 

ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL. Is there any history of St. 
Paul's School containing biographic notices of the 
scholars educated there ? any work of a similar 
kind to Rev. H. B. Wilson's History of Merchant 
Taylors 1 School, or the Admission Register of the 
Manchester School, edited by Rev. J. F. Smith ? 


" THE PALACE OF TRUTH." What is the name 
of the French piece from which Mr. Gilbert's 
Palace of Truth is derived or adapted ? 

H. J. S. 

JAMES BRUCE. In Gough's Camden's Britannia, 
ii. 112, under head of " Cley, Norfolk," I find the 
following extraordinary statement. Can any of 
your readers throw light upon it? 

" The fishermen of this place accidentally falling in 
with James, son and heir of Robert Bmce, King of 
Scotland, who was going to France for education, with a 
bishop and the Earl of Orkney, made them prisoners, 
and sent them to Henry IV., who lodged them in the 



[5th s. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

Tower, which broke his father's heart. He was released 
seventeen years after, 1473, and succeeded to the crown 
of Scotland. Buchanan says he was taken off' Flam- 
borough Head, either driven in by stress of weather or 

It is clear this James was not the son oT King 
Eobert Bruce. Who was he ? W. B. A. 

REVELATION, CH. xni. I have seen it lately 
suggested in print (though I regret to say I did 
not make a note of it) that, in the Chaldee or 
Aramaic language, the letters which express the 
number of the beast (Rev. xiii.) form the name 
Nero. I should feel greatly obliged to any of 
your correspondents acquainted with those lan- 
guages who would tell me if there is any t^uth in 
this. J. C. M. 

HERALDRY. Is either of the following coats 
of arms borne by any English family of the name 
of Bolton? Argent, on a chevron gules, three 
lions passant gardant of the first ; or, Argent, on 
a bend gules, between two fleurs-de-lis azure, 
three lions' heads or. Crest in both cases, "A 
stag's head pierced through the nose with, an 
arrow or." SENEX. 

BACON'S ESSAY " OF A KING." Bacon's Essays 
(Glasgow, Urie, 1752) has the fourteenth essay 
entitled " Of a King." This essay does not appear 
in Bonn's Standard Library edition. Why has it 
been suppressed ? M. N. G. 

Kiember to have read in some magazine, I believe 
about the year 1861, an article entitled " Notes of 
a Recruiting Officer." It contained statistics of 
the respective average height, breadth of chest, 
&c., of^the English, Irish, and Scotch members of 
the British army. Having some present necessity 
for referring to this, can any one oblige me with 
the name and date of the magazine in question 1 

H. N. 


The Tutor of Truth. My copy has no date, but it 
must have been published before 1790. M. N. G. 

The following verses, written on a slip of paper, I 
found between the leaves of a novel recently purchased 
from a second-hand bookseller. Could any obliging cor- 
respondent furnish me with the name of the author of 
these lines 1 

"In Praise of Tobacco. 
Mighty aroma, thine the power 
To ripen to the full-blown flower, &c. 

The Smoker. 

His manner easy, person neat, 
Whilst modest pride doth hold her seat, &c. 
Translated from the French by T. B." 

" In the glow of thy splendour 
Descend from above, 
beautiful mother 
Of beautiful love ! " H. P. ROCHE. 

(5 th S. viii. 423 ; ix. 15.) 

I feel honoured by the critiques of two gentle- 
men so well known in the philological world as 
Like Cassius, I am " always glad to learn of noble 
men." I ask, however, space for a few words in 

In writing my paper I had not, as my critics 
suppose, overlooked the article in the Promptorium 
Parvulorum. I had before me both that and 
MR. WEDGWOOD'S notice in his Dictionary ; but 
I thought then, and still think, that the reference- 
is irrelevant. 

The two words rubble and rubbish, which are 
continually confounded, have really nothing to do 
with each other. Their origin is different, and 
their meaning entirely separate. 

I claim to know something about rubble, having,, 
in years gone by, had largely to do with rubble 
constructions. I never met with a mason's 
labourer who did not perfectly understand the 
essential difference between the one and the other. 

Bubble is thus described by Gwilt in his En- 
cyclopedia of Architecture : " A wall which con- 
sists of unhewn stone is called a rubble wall, 
whether mortar is used or not. The uncoursed 
rubble wall is formed by laying the stones in the 
wall as they come to hand, without gauging or 
sorting." It is the opus incertum of Vitruvius, 
described in the eighth chapter of the second 
book of his work on architecture. The term 
rubble is also applied to the stone chippings mixed 
with mortar used in Roman and mediaeval build- 
ings to fill in the core of a thick wall. This is 
undoubtedly the sense of the word roboivs in the 
Promptorium. It is translated petrosa, pdro, and 
made equivalent to coldyr and to schuldere, both 
of which are similarly translated by petrosa. 
Petro is correctly rendered by Mr. Way as the 
chippings of stone. So in the Catholicon, "Pe- 
trones sunt particule que abscinduntur de petris." 

In the note appended, reference is made to a 
document of 20 Edw. IV. (1480) for payment for 
" cariage away of a grete loode of robeux that was 
left in the strete after the reparacyone made uppon 
a hous," &c. The robeux here may be fairly in- 
ferred to correspond with the roboivs in the text 
above. Words of French derivation ending in 
eau or eu commonly interchange, their final syl- 
lable into el, as Beau-voir = Bel-voir ; Chapeau, 
Chapel-lerie, &c. It would not be therefore sur- 
prising to find roboiv altered to robel or rubbel. 

By the courtesy of a fair correspondent of 
" N. & Q." I have been favoured with some ex- 
tracts from the parochial accounts of the church of 
St. Michael extra Portam at Bath. The date is 
not given, but from the style they are evidently 

6"' S. IX. FEB. 9, 78.] 



of the sixteenth century. One item is for a sum 
paid ''pro equo ad cariendum rubyll" ; another 
"pro ablacione de rubyll coram campanile." There 
are other entries of the same kind, all evidently 
connected with repairs or building, as items are 
inserted of payments " hominibus laborantibus ad 

So far as my researches go, I can find no in- 
stance of rubble having any other meaning than 
that of undressed stone fragments or chippings. 
The derivation suggested by MR. WEDGWOOD 
from French repous is a very probable one. The 
term is now limited, according to Littre 1 , to a 
mixture of mortar and chippings in the core of a 
wall, the word moellon being used as the equiva- 
lent to our rubble. The employment of moellon, 
however, cannot be traced further back than the 
end of the sixteenth century, some time before 
which the word robows had been introduced into 

I maintain, therefore, that rubble cannot, under 
any circumstances, be identified with rubbish. 

Now a few words as to rubbish. 

Mr. Way's note in the Promptorium, under 
"Kobows," says that "in later times the word 
was written rubbrysshe," on which he quotes from 
Herman's Vulgaria, "Battz and great rubbrysshe 
serveth to fyl up in the myddel of the wall " ; and 
he quotes also a similar passage from Palsgrave. 
According to my view of the case, robows and 
rubbrysshe are entirely different words, which 
cannot by any process be made to coalesce. My 
statement remains uncontradicted, that our word 
rubbish cannot be traced further back than the 
sixteenth century. When once introduced, from 
its general aptitude it might be applied to waste 
stone or any other material. The authorities given 
for the identity of the two words are very weak. 
Minshew's note gives no information whatever. 
Both Cotgrave and Sherwood evidently considered 
that rubbish meant rubble, since they make it 
equivalent to Fr. moellon and reports, but of rub- 
bish in the modern sense of waste material of all 
sorts they give not the slightest intimation. This 
is not difficult to account for. The word was at 
that time comparatively new, and had not settled 
down to a general acceptation of its meaning. It 
is to be noted that neither Cotgrave, Sherwood, 
nor Minshew give any example or illustration of 
its use. 

The conclusions at which I arrive are the follow- 
ing. Both rubble and rubbish are words of foreign 
origin, the former most probably from the French, 
introduced about the fourteenth century, and 
always restricted to its original meaning. The 
latter is of much later introduction ; and, although 
liable at first to be confounded with the former, it 
cannot be shown that it has ever been generally 
employed in any other sense than that of waste 
material, exactly corresponding to the Italian 

robaccia, from which I think there is strong pro- 
bability that it has been derived. The omission 
of the word from early Italian dictionaries is not 
surprising. The " aumentativi " and " peggiora- 
tivi," one, accio, ino, &c., may be applied to any 
word , and even now very few of them are inserted 
in the dictionaries. 

I have to apologize for the length to -which these 
remarks have extended. J. A. PICTON. 

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. 

viii. 347, 513.) MR. PATTERSON has given a copy 
of a " Licence to begge," temp. Elizabeth, which 
appears to have been issued by the magistrates in 
session, and addressed to the particular justices 
residing within the hundred in which the poor 
person was to ask alms. Can any one give a copy 
of a vagrants' pass ] It is evident that the beggar 
had an exciting time of it in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. When he appeared in a 
town he certainly received relief, but it was fre- 
quently accompanied by a whipping which must 
have left so strong an impression upon his mind 
as well as upon his body that he probably did not 
pay the same locality a visit for some time after- 

In the accounts of the constables of Melton- 
Mowbray, Leicestershire, I find : 
1602. Geven to Robert Moodee for wippin tow pore 

folks ij (l 

And gave them when the were wipped ... ij d 

The infliction of this punishment was sometimes 
deputed to a boy with what must have been a 
most brutalizing effect : 
1602. Geven to Tomlyn's boy for whippin a man and 

And gave them when the went 
1601 . P a and geven to a poore man and his wiff 

..: IP 


that was wipped 
Again : 

1625-6. Payd for -whippinge 6 vagabonds ... 00 00 06 
After the twopenny worth of whipping and the 
twopennyworth of alms a pass was given : 
1625-6. Payd for pass and wax to make passes 

for wagrants w ch was punished ... 00 00 03 

This pass appears to have saved the back of the 
recipient at the next place he visited : 
1602. Geven to one that was whipped at buxminster ij d 
and from which village he, I presume, brought a 
pass ; but if he did not pass on he took .the con- 
sequences : 
1601. P d and geven to bluett that was taken 

vagrant after his wippinge 002 

P d more for wipping 002 


The Act of Parliament, 8 and 9 Will. III. cap. 
30, provides that on and after Sept. 1, 1697, every 
person receiving parish relief shall wear upon the 



IX. FKB. 9, 78. 

right shoulder of the, outer garment a badge cut 
either in red or blue cloth, consisting of a large 
Eoman P, together with the first letter of the name 
of the place where the person lives. Neglect or 
refusal to wear the badge may be punishe'd by 
stopping the relief, or by imprisonment for twenty- 
one days with hard labour and whipping. The 
portion of the Act having reference to the wearing 
of badges was repealed in 1810 by 50 Geo. III. 
cap. 52. The custom of wearing badges is alluded 
to in that quaint bit of county history (which all 
Salopians should make themselves acquainted 
with), Gough's Antiquities and Memoirs of the 
Parish of Myddle, p. 171 (Shrewsbury, Adnitt 
& Naunton, 1875). B. R. 

The children in a charity school at Amsterdam 
wear distinctive clothing to prevent them from 
frequenting taverns or gin-shops. I have seen the 
boys wearing coats half red and half black, the 
division being vertical. The proprietors of any 
taverns, &c., are liable to a penalty for serving in- 
toxicating liquors to these charity children. 



[Mr. Walford, in Old^ and New London, mentions, 
with reference to a hospital of Our Lady and St. Cathe- 
rine at Newington, that in 1551 " their proctor, William 
Cleybrooke, being dispossessed of his home, was fortunate 
enough to obtain a licence to beg."] 

THE DE STUTEVILLE FAMILY (5 th S. viii. 447 ; 
ix. 17.) One representative of this family is Sir 
Peyton Estoteville Skipwith, of Prestwould, co. 
Leicester, Bart. Robert Estouteville, son of 
Robert Estouteville and Adeliza, dau. of Ivo, 
Count de Beaumont, was in 1170 Justice Itinerant 
in counties Cumberland and Northumberland. 
He married Erneburga, dau. and heiress of Hugh 
Fitz Baldric, said to have been a great Saxon 
thane, and through her became possessed of large 
estates, among which was Schypwic, now called 
Skipwith, a small town in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire. He left three sons Robert, Osmond, 
and Patrick. The youngest of these, Patrick, had 
by gift from his father Skipwith, and assumed that 
name in lieu of his patronymic, and from him in 
a direct line is descended the above Sir Peyton 
Estoteville Skipwith. Their arms were, Argent, 
three bars gules, to which was added by one of 
the members of the Skipwith family, on account 
of marrying the heiress of the De Langtune family, 
a greyhound in chief sable, collared or. Their 
crest is, On a wreath a turnpike gate ppr. Motto, 
" Sans Dieu je ne puis." SYWL. 

ST. MARY MATFELON (5 th S. vii. 225, 314.) 
Two etymologies have been suggested in your 
columns matta fullonum and mate (daunt) felon. 
It might be to the point to compare Richard 
Coeur de Lion's tower, or engine of war, named 

Mate-Gryffon, the daunter or terror of the Greeks. 
Before the walls of Messina, in the metrical 
romance which bears his name, Richard is about 
to take vengeance 

" Of Frensch and of Gryffons 
That have despised our nacyons." 

The king continues : 

" I have a castel I understond 
Is made of timbre of Inglond, 
With six stages ful of towrelles, 
Well flourished with cornelles ; 
Therin I and many a knight 
Against the Frensh shall take the fight. 
That castel shall have a sory nom, 
It shall be hight the Mate-Gryffon." 
Henry Weber's Metrical Romances, Edinburgh, ]810, 
8vo. 3 vols.; see vol. ii. p. 73, " Richard Ccer de Lion.'* 


viii. 367.) Some correspondence having taken 
place upon this subject in the Gloucestershire 
Chronicle, a further communication to this effect 
has recently appeared : 

' It is a fact which does not admit of dispute that the 
first Sunday School was opened by the late Rev. Thos. 
Stock, A.M., and was held in the house of the late James 
King, in St. Catherine Street. That house the house 
in which James King lived, and in which the first Sun- 
day School was held by the late excellent Rev. Thos. 
Stock is still standing, undefaced and unaltered. I 
have written to the Rev. Jonathan Mayne to endeavour 
to induce him to make some inquiries respecting the 
Bible during his numerous pastoral visits. We may not 
get possession of that interesting Bible, but we may get 
possession of the house. I look upon that old house in 
St. Catherine Street as a sacred relic which should be 
carefully preserved. It should be valued by the citizens 
and corporation of the city of Gloucester as sacredly and 
carefully as Stratford appreciates and preserves the 
birthplace of Shakespeare. Will our mayor, will our 
corporation, will the Church of England clergy, will 
their congregations, will the citizens of Gloucester, per- 
mit the ' birthplace of Sunday Schools ' to be removed, 
desecrated, or destroyed ? " 

It appears that in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
1831, the Rev. J. Evans wrote : " I took orders in 
Gloucester in 1783, about three years after the 
commencement of this institution" (Sunday 
Schools). The first school he said " was held in 
the house of Mr. King, of St. Catherine Street," 
who " possesses a Bible given at the commence- 
ment of this institution." James King was a 
bricklayer. The writer who speaks so authorita- 
tively above signs simply by initials, so that the 
value of the evidence cannot be judged. 


EDWARD FARR (5 th S. viii. 429.) I am enabled 
to answer MR. INGLIS'S inquiry respecting Mr. 
Edward Farr. He died at Iver, Bucks, on Dec. 8, 
1867. He had a fluent and versatile pen, to which 
his honourable and indomitable industry, in the 
midst of other avocations, allowed but little rest. 
I have before me a list of his works in history, 

5 lh S. IX. FEB. 9, 78.] 



biography, poetry, &c., amounting to thirty-eight 
volumes, and the list by no means exhausts the 
number of his productions. Among these was 
A New Version of the Psalms of David, adapted 
to Psalmody, which received the commendations 
of James Montgomery. Perhaps the most import- 
ant of his labours was a Continuation of Hume 
and Smollett's History of England, to the Tenth 
Year of the Reign of Queen Victoria. This he did 
in conjunction with Dr. W. H. Russell. The his- 
tory was afterwards ably continued by Mr. J. 
Goodall. J. W. DALBY. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

LOWLAND ABERDEEN (5 th S. ix. 5.) As a native 
of Aberdeen, I may be supposed to know some- 
thing of the feelings of its inhabitants (I speak 
only of them, not of the Lowlands in general) to- 
wards the Highlanders ; and I can truly say that, 
so long as I lived in Aberdeen (twenty-four years, 
up to the year 1819), I never remember hearing a 
word of displeasure or dissatisfaction expressed 
regarding them ; but they were looked upon as a 
brave and loyal race, whose antipathies to the 
Saxon and deep-rooted prejudices had been long 
overcome by measures and acts of goodwill and 
beneficence on the part of Government and indi- 
viduals. There was, and I suppose still is, a 
Gaelic kirk in Aberdeen for enabling the Gaelic- 
speaking few for by far the majority of the in- 
habitants are of Anglo-Saxon or Danish descent 
to attend divine service in their native tongue ; for 
there certainly was a minister attached to the 
church in my time, and I always heard him men- 
tioned with great respect in that capacity. I can- 
not complete or give a different version of the 
rhymes quoted by I. M. P., but I remember hear- 
ing an expression which seemed to convey a sly 
smile at the predatory habits of the "Heelenmen" 
in old times, and it was this : " Ye fand faar the 
Heelenman fand the tengs," i.e. you found it where 
the Highlandman found the tongs, that is, by 
the fireside, alluding to the raids of the High- 
landers on their Saxon neighbours for purposes of 
plunder in the wild old times. I sign my name 
to this in the old Anglo-Saxon spelling, a name 
well known in Aberdeen, although since I came to 
England I have omitted the h, which I see is still 
retained by my Scotch cousin and fellow-townsman 
the Bishop of Rupertsland. JOHN MACHRAY. 

January 24, 1872, a boy named Harris fell into 
the stream at Sherborne, Dorsetshire, near Dark- 
hole Mill, and was drowned. The body not having 
been found for some days, the following expedient 
was adopted to discover its whereabouts. On 
January 30 a four-pound loaf of best flour was 
procured, and a small piece cut out of the side of 
it, forming a cavity, into which a little quicksilver 

was poured. The piece was then replaced, and 
tied firmly in its original position. The loaf thus 
prepared was then thrown into the river at the 
spot where the boy fell in, and was expected to 
float down the stream until it came to the place 
where the body had lodged, when it would begin 
to eddy round and round, thus indicating the 
sought-for spot. An eye-witness of this experi- 
ment, from whom I received this account a few 
days after it happened, told me that no satisfactory 
result occurred on this occasion. C. H. MAYO. 
Long Burton. 

ST. TYRNOG (5 th S. ix. 9.) There is no saint of 
this name. The parish church of Llandyrnog is 
dedicated to Twrnog or Teyrnog, a brother of St. 
Tyfrydog, and son of Arwyste Geoff ab Peithenyn 
by Tywynwedd, the daughter of Amlawdd Wledig. 
Twrnog was one of the British saints, his festival 
being observed on June 26. W. WILLIAMS. 

Oakfield, Pontypridd, Glam. 

The parish church of Llandyrnog, in the diocese 
of St. Asaph, was founded originally by Tyrnog, 
a saint of the sixth century, and brother of Deifar 
or Diheufar and Marchell, the respective founders 
of Bodfari and Whitchurch (Hist, of Diocese of 
St. Asaph, by the Rev. D. R. Thomas, London, 
1874, p. 413). GEORGE M. TRAHERNE. 

This saint is probably the same as St. Tigernach, 
who was a bishop in Ireland, and died in 550. 
See Butler's Lives of the Saints, April 5. 

C. J. E. 

There were two Bishops of Rochester surnamed 
Yong or Yonge. The first was Richard Yonge, 
who was consecrated Bishop of Bangor in 1400, 
and translated to Rochester in 1407. To him are 
assigned the arms, Per saltire az. and gu., a lion 
pass. gard. or. The other was John Yong, con- 
secrated Bishop of Rochester in 1578. To him 
Dethick, Garter, " confirmed " the same coat, with 
the addition of two fleurs-de-lis gold in pale. 
There is not, so far as I am aware, any ground for 
believing that the prelates were related or of 
Italian descent. J. WOODWARD. 

THE CLUBS OF DUBLIN (5 th S. ix. 28.) Your 
correspondent may find abundant information 
regarding club life in the Irish metropolis in 
Gilbert's History of the City of Dublin, Dublin, 
1854-59, 3 vols., 8vo. An index to the work has 
been printed, but is not to be found in every copy. 


SWEET-HEART (5 th S. ix. 84.) The origin of 
this phrase is much earlier than 0. W. T. sup- 
poses. It is due to Chaucer, and to his great 
influence. In Troilus and Creseide, bk. iii. 1. 988, 
we have, " Lo ! herte mine !" In the next stanza 



[5'h S. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

is "my derc herte"; and, lastly, in 1. 1173, the macher's Wappenbuch, ii. 143, Niirnberg, 1734). 
phrase, " swete herte mine Creseide." The talk These arms were borne by the Marquesses von 
about sweetard is all sheer invention, and we may Schoonenberg, of Holland, who were of Swiss de- 

draw two morals : (1) that Chaucer has been I scent (see 
neglected by the authorities ; and (2) that isome | 1861). 
etymologies are too clever to be true. Ingenuity 
is the sworn foe of true philology. 


GEON (5 th S. ix. 8.) The story referred to by 
Pepys dates to the year 1624, when there was a 
great flood on the river Ouse. Several inhabi- 
tants of Huntingdon, Godmanchester, and Bramp- 
ton were watching the flood, and saw a dark object 
floating towards them on the water. The Hun- 
tingdon folks guessed it to be a sturgeon ; the 
Godmanchester people surmised that it was a 
black hog ; and the Brampton men pronounced it 
to be a dead donkey ; and they were right. In 
Elder's British Merlin it states that, in the 
year 1624, " the two Bailiffes and York, the con- 
stable of Huntingdon, siezed Sir Robert Osborn's 
ragged colt for a sturgeon " ; and this account, 
with the colt instead of the donkey, agrees with 
Pepys's mention of the anecdote. The story gave 
rise to the contemptuous expressions, " Hunting- 
donshire sturgeons" and "Godmanchester black 
hogs." See The History of Huntingdon, 1824, 
without an author's name, but the preface signed 
" R. C." These were the initials of Mr. Robert 
Carruthers, who at that time was a junior master 
in the Huntingdon Grammar School. 


What Pepys referred to in the passage quoted 
is thus explained in a note by Lord Braybrooke 
(Pepys's Diary, May 22, 1667) : 

" During a very high flood in the meadows between 
Huntingdon and Godmanchester, something was seen 
floating, which the Godmanchester people thought was 
a black pig, and the Huntingdon folk declared was a 
sturgeon ; when rescued from the waters it proved to be 
a young donkey. This mistake led to the one party being 
styled ' Godmanchester black pigs' and the other 'Hun- 
tingdon sturgeo-ns,' terms not altogether forgotten at 
this day. Pepys's colt must be taken to be the colt of an 

Lord Braybrooke probably was unable to ascertain 
the name of the Mayor of Huntingdon when this 
was said to have taken place. 


SCHOMBERG : ScilONBERG ARMS (5 th S. ix. 8.) 

There are two Swiss families named Schonenberg 
(which we may take to be the same name as 
Schonberg) whose arms are known to me. The 
one bore, Per fess gu. and arg. (Wapperibuch 
Zurich, Taf. 4, No. 76 : a fourteenth century MS. 
published in 1860, in fac-simile, by the Anti- 
quarischen Gesellschaft in Ziirich) ; the other 
bore, Gu., a lion ramp, arg., crowned or (Sieb- 

Rietstap, Armorial General, Gouda, 
J. WOODWARD, F.S.A. Scot. 

G. AND H. CABOT, OF BOSTON (5 th S. ix. 9.) 
The North American Eeview for Nov.-Dec., 1877, 
contains a short notice of the Life and Letters of 
George Cabot, by H. C. Lodge (Boston, Little, 
Brown & Co.). This biography may perhaps give 
Mr. Cabot's ancestors. M. N. G. 

CHRONOGRAMS (1 st S. ix. 60, 61 ; 5 th S. ix. 69.) 
On medals of the seventeenth and early in the 
eighteenth centuries, struck on the Continent, 
chronograms frequently occur. 

Upon a set of twelve remarkable medals re- 
markable for the fineness of work and from their 
being struck in hard wood now before me, com- 
memorating various battles between the Hun- 
garians and Turks, coronation of the Emperor 
Joseph, various treaties, &c., this ingenious method 
of arranging the date occurs on several. 

The coronation medal has, upon a scroll under 
, which, added together, give the date 
of the medal, 1735, or perhaps 1739. 

Another, upon which a Turk is flying from the 
rays of light issuing from a Greek cross carried by 
an angel, has the inscription IMBELLES TVRCos 


Several others are adorned in the same curious 
manner. J. HENRY. 

Devonshire Street, W.C. 

[" One curious feature in the tomb " (that of Ludovic 
Stuart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox, 1623-4, cousin 
of James I., in the chantry on the south side of Henry 
VII.'s Chapel at Westminster) " deserves notice. In the 
inscription the date of the year of the duke's death is 
apparently omitted, though the month and day are men- 
tioned. The year, however, is given in what is called a 
chronogram. The Latin translation of the verse in the 
Bible, ' Know ye not that a prince and a great man has 
this day fallen?' (the words uttered by David in his 
lament over Abner) contains fourteen Roman numeral 
letters, and these being elongated into capitals are 
MDGVVVIIIIIIII, which give the date 1623. It is 
remarkable that words so appropriate to this nobleman 
should contain the date for this identical year ; and it 
shows much ingenuity on the part of the writer of the 
inscription that he should have discovered it." The 
Builder, June 19, 1875.] 

WAS ST. PETER A MARRIED MAN ? (5 th S. viii. 
346, 453, 492.) My critics do me good service by 
rejecting the hypothesis that the passage 1 Cor. ix. 5 
relates to matrimony. For, if the text has no such 
reference if St. Paul claims for himself and two- 
or three other apostles a special privilege (which 
privilege, in the case of the married Peter, was 
likely to have caused some little jealousy), 
Trepioiyeiv who~should not be his wife 

5> S. IX. FEB. 9, 78.] 



there remains one only passage of Scripture on 
which to rest the theory of St. Peter's being mar- 
ried. My acquaintance with the Greek tongue 
is, I own, not extensive ; and I am not able to 
determine the question whether the person who 
provided a meal might or might not have herself 
waited on the guests, or whether the waiting and 
the catering were necessarily performed by different 
people. I think I have read in tales of Eastern 
hospitality of the host personally seeing to the 
comfort of his guests. 

As to the conjecture that St. Peter would not 
have had patience to endure a household composed 
of such mixed elements as a wife, a mother-in-law, 
and a brother, it is not easy to argue ; common 
experience, I ain told, supports my view. If, as 
ETONENSIS urges, the house was joint property of 
Andrew and Peter, one can only admire the bene- 
volence of the younger brother in suffering the 
elder to take such a pars leonina of the common 
possession. MR. TEW seems to infer from St. Matt. 
xix. 27 that St. Peter had forsaken his wife at this 
early period of his apostleship, which of course 
puts a different face upon the question. Why, in 
that case, he had not also forsaken his house, his 
brother, and his mother-in-law, is a point worthy 
of inquiry. EDWARD H. MARSHALL. 

The Temple. 

Whether MR. E. H. MARSHALL is right in his 
conjecture is a separate question. But it appears to 
me that what he chiefly tries to establish, namely, 
that St. Peter's wife was dead, and not with him, 
is not very unlike what has elsewhere been ad- 
vanced. Cornelius a Lapide, on St. Matt. viii. 14, 
has : " Socrus hiec erat S. Petri ; ipse enim a con- 
jugio vocatus est a Christo, tumque reliquit uxorem 
et filiani ex ea genitam." The absence of St. 
Peter's wife, as supposed, is explained in the one 
case by the supposition of her death, in the other 
by the supposition of her having been put away. 
It is entirely a question for conjecture. 



BY WICKLIFFE (5 th S. viii. 464.) The word occurs 
in Chaucer (The Monke's Tale, 65) as siser: 
" This Sampson neyther siser dronk ne wyn." 


THE EAST (5 th S. viii. 465.) That the morning 
sun dances on Easter Day is still believed in some 
parts of Devonshire. See Trans. Devon. Assoc., 
vol. viii., 1876, p. 57; see on "An Easter Day 


ix. 8.) The name Broadhurst is a well-known one 
at Congleton, in the county of Chester, and has 

been so for many years. Congleton is close on the 
borders of Staffordshire, but whether the Broad- 
hurst family came from that shire to Congleton I 
cannot say. I should rather incline to the belief 
that it was an old Cheshire family. The name 
would be found constantly occurring in the muni- 
cipal records of that ancient borough ; and it may 
be worth noting additionally that few towns in 
England possess such an excellent and entire col- 
lection of them as Congleton does. In 1875 Mr. 
Earwaker collected and had bound up in nine 
large volumes, for the Corporation, the ancient 
charters and records of that borough, and it is 
needless to say that his care was only equalled by 
his zeal. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" (5 th S. viii. 169, 454.) Allow me to 
correct a little misprint in Miss PEACOCK'S quota- 
tion of Piers Plowman. It must be B., Passus xvii. 
1. 219, and not 119. The reading of text C., Pass. 
xx. 1. 185, is the following : 
" As do)? a kyx o]>er a candele J>at cauht has fuyr, and 

blase J>." 

There cannot be the slightest doubt that its mean- 
ing is hemlock, as given at the latter reference ; yet 
in the above- cited line it must mean a candle, for 
the preceding lines contain the following : 
" As glowing coals do not give light to workmen, 
Who are working and waking in winter nights, 
As does a kex or candle that has caught fire and blazes." 
Cf. Piers PL, B. xvii. 1. 217. 

May not small strips of kex have been used 
in the fourteenth century as wicks, as nowadays 
we find rushes used 1 Then also the line quoted 
from Percy's Eel. is quite clear, meaning that the 
wives of Tottenham came with kex-candles and 
rush- candles, and the same it would mean in Piers 

I cannot well believe that kexes without any 
preparation would be able to burn as a candle. 
Another way to explain the sense would be to 
assume that the whole stalk was used as a wick in 
torches ; then, of course, kex would stand for a 
torch. Maetzner, in his Sprachproben, ii. p. 414, 
says nearly the same as Halliwell. 


I believe with Miss MABEL PEACOCK that kex 
means the hemlock. " As dry as a hence " is a 
very common expression in the district within 
which she resides, but I never heard the word 
pronounced as hex or kexes. W. E. HOWLETT. 

North Lincolnshire. 

ADVERBS : " OVERLY " (5 th S. viii. 406, 475.) 
In the original Example given by M. D. H. this 
word was rightly called an adverb. In the two 
quotations from Hall, and the one from Sanderson, 
put forward by E. A. D., it is an adjective. As 



[5th s. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

the note of M. D. H/ was headed " Adverbs," it 
may be well to call attention to this. Webster has 
it as an adjective, and so has Halliwell ; but the 
latter adds that it is sometimes used as an adverb. 

W. T. M. 
Shinfield Grove. 

424 ; viil 354.) Please add to my note on this 
subject : 

The Bible Word- Book : a Glossary of Old English 
Bible Words. By J. Eastwood, M.A., and W. Aldis 
Wright, M.A. London, Macmillan, 1866. 

The following further works are mentioned by 
Mr. Wright in his preface to the above : 

1. A Short Explanation of Obsolete Words in our 
Version of the Bible, &c. By the Rev. H. Cotton, 
D.C.L. Oxf., 1832. 

2. A Glossary to the Obsolete and Unusual Words and 
Phrases of the Holy Scriptures, in the Authorized Eng- 
'lish Version. By J. Jameson. London, 1850. 

3. Motes upon Crystal ; or, Obsolete Words of the 
Authorized Version of the Holy Bible, &c. Part I. By 
the Rev. Kirby Trimmer, A.B. London, 1864. 

Shawlands, Glasgow. 

viii. 88, 198, 395, 435, 474.) I have not Arthur 
Clough's poem to refer to, and I have not been in 
that part of Braemar. It is asked what is the 
meaning of the above and of Toper-na-Fuosicli, 
and which of them is the right name. Bothie, is 
a hut or cottage, from the Gaelic both, a hut. 
Tobar is a well ; it is wrong to spell it with a p 
or an e. Fiosaiche is a diviner, one who tells what 
is to happen in the early future. Bealach is a pass 
between hills, or between a hill and a river. In 
some circumstances b becomes bh, sounded like v. 
It is from beul, the mouth. Perhaps the name 
means the Well of the Soothsayer, or possibly the 
Well of the Pass. I do not know if it be a real 
name. If it be, perhaps the latter explanation 
may suit the characteristics of the spot. 


Stoke, Devonport. 

"THE SHEPHERD OF HERMAS" (5 th S. viii. 410, 
455, 511.) MR. E. H. MARSHALL speaks of "an 
English edition of this book," and I do not know 
whether he has overlooked or not the fact that 
Hone's is a mere reprint of Archbishop Wake's. 
If he has not, I beg his pardon. 

C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 


328, 375, 396.) Beatrice was married to Sir 
Gilbert Talbot not later than 1413, for she is called 
his wife in a charter dated at Blakemere on 
Monday after the feast of St. Luke, 1 Hen. V. 
(Oct. 23, 1413). She was, therefore, the mother 
of Ankaret Talbot, who was heir also to her 

father's brother, Sir Thomas Talbot, who died on 
Saturday, Sept. 16, 1419. Sir Gilbert Talbot 
(Inq. 7 Hen. V. No. 68) died at "Koone," in 
Normandy, Oct. 19, 6 Hen. V. (1418), not 1419 
(Nicolas, Historic Peerage). Beatrice, Lady 
Talbot, died on Christmas Day, 1447, William 
Fetteplace being her son and heir, aged twenty- 
four years. No mention is here made (Inq. 26 
Hen. VI. No. 7) of Thomas Fetiplace, but I find 
that Sir Gilbert Talbot, by charter dated Sept. 17, 
1 Hen. V. (1413), appointed Thomas Fetiplas to 
be steward of the manor and hundred of Bampton, 
co. Oxford, with yearly wages of fifty shillings, 
and also steward of the manors of Shryvenham, co. 
Berks, and of Swyndon, &c., co. Wilts, with yearly 
wages of thirty and twenty shillings respectively. 
Mr. J. M. Davenport, in Lords Lieutenant and 
High Sheriffs of Oxfordshire, gives as sheriff of 
the county with Berks, in 14 Hen. VI., Sir 
Thomas Fetiplace, of Childrey, Knight ; and, in 
the course of a long note appended to the name, 
he says that " in the reign of King Henry the 
Sixth the family received a great addition of 
blood and honour, by marrying Beatrix, daughter 
of the King of Portugal; which match is men- 
tioned, and allowed of, in the pedigree of the 
Kings of Portugal. The Fetiplace that married 
the Daughter of Portugal, was Thomas Fetiplace 
Esquire, of Childrey, in Bucks, the Sheriff, who 
was the Father of James [or William, as by the 
inquisition above quoted], the Father of Eichard, 
who &c. (Delafield's M8S.)." 

Beatrice, formerly wife of Thomas, Earl of 
Arundel, died sine herede Oct. 23, 1439 (Inq. 18 
Hen. VI. No. 28). JOHN A. C. VINCENT. 

S. ix. 87.) In a volume of newspaper cuttings in 
my possession is a tale called " The Thirteenth 
Chime : a Legend of Old London." It is unfor- 
tunately not dated, but was apparently issued 
about thirty years ago. The sentinel's name in it 
is Mark Huntly. T. W. C. 

JETTON (5 th S. ix. 87.) The piece of brass 
described as a jetton is a weight for a guinea. The 
old scale boxes were often fitted with a number of 
similar weights, with the name of the coin of which 
they were the weight. D. T. M. 

SOUSA OR SOUZA FAMILY (5 th S. viii. 48, 179, 
518.) As SIGMA has appealed to me, I am glad 
to be able to send the following information. 

The Sousas derived their origin from Martin 
Affonso Chichorro and Affonso Diniz, who were the 
natural sons of King Affonso III. by two sisters 
Sousa. The two families issuing from these royal 
bastards bore different arms. The descendants of 
Affonso Chichorro quartered Portugal and Leon ; 
those of Diniz quartered Portugal with the arms of 
Sousa. This and other information as to their arms 

5"> S. IX. FKB. 9, 78.] 



and crests is found in the following extract: 
" Sousas procedem de Martini Aftbnso Chichorro 
e de Affonso Diniz, filhos del Key D. Affonso III. 
que cazarao com duas netas de mem Garcia de 
Sousa, neto do Conde D. Mendo o Sousao, em 
quern veyo a ficar esta Familia. Os que procedem 
de Martini Affonso Chichorro, esquartelao as Quinas 
de Portugal com as armas de Leao : tymbre hum 
Leao das armas com huma grinal da sobre a cabe^a 
de prata, florida de verde. Os que vem de Affonso 
Diniz trazem as mesmas Quinas esquarteladas com 
quadernas de rneas Luas ; tymbre hum Castello de 
ouro lavrado de preto. As Luas dizem ser as armas 
antigas dos Souzas, ajuntarao he os Leoens pela 
descendencia, que traziao dos Keys de Leao, assim 
como as Quinas por virem dos de Portugal" 
(Nobiliar cliia, Portugueza, p. 333). 

The original Sousa arms were Gu., four 
crescents arg. (the meas Luas of the quotation 
above), arranged in cross, so that the points are all 
turned towards the centre of the shield ; at least 
they are so represented in a drawing of them which 
I copied some years ago. 

As the illegitimate Sousas were born before the 
House of Braganza came to the throne of Portu- 
gal, the arms of that kingdom quartered by them 
are the Quinas only, without the bordure which 
now encloses them. 

Kietstap, Armorial General, only gives the arms 
of one of the branches mentioned above, and 
blazons them Quarterly, 1 and 4, Arg., a lion 
passant (? rampant) gu., Leon ; 2 and 3, Portugal. 

There are no Soziers, or Sosiers, in Rietstap, or 
in Siebmacher's Wappenbuch. There are several 
French families of Sohier ; none have the slightest 
connexion with the Sousa family or with the 
Azores. J. WOODWARD. 


"STONE BUTTER" (5 th S. viii. 508.)Steinbutier, 
in French beurre de montagne, beurre de roche, is 
composed of clay, alum, iron, and rock oil. We 
call it rock butter. The following is Buchanan's 
definition : " Native alum mixed with clay and 
oxide of iron, usually in soft masses of a yellowish- 
white colour, occurring in cavities and fissures in 
argillaceous state." G. A. SCHRUMPF. 

Tettenhall College. 

The stone butter about which your correspondent 
inquires is the Bergmehl of German quarrymen. 
It is found in beds, sometimes thirty feet thick, 
and is entirely composed of the siliceous cases of 
microscopic animals. It contains nothing nutritious, 
being pure silica, but may be swallowed in small 
quantities without injury. J. C. M. 

"DAME" AND "LADY" (5 th S. viii. 451; ix. 
75.) The title Dame was of wider application 
than P. P. supposes. In a Bible I have, printed 
by Eouland Hall, Geneva, 1560, Genesis xvi. 8, 9, 
is thus rendered : 

" 8. And he sayde, Hagar Sarais maide, whence 
commest thou 1 and whither wilt thou go ] And she 
said, I flee fro my dame Sarai. 

" 9. And the Angel of the Lord said vnto her, return 
to thy dame, and humble thyselfe vnder her hands." 

J. R. DORE. 


"ESTRIDGES" (5 th S. vii. 326, 385, 458.) It 
seems to be pretty well agreed that the falcon is 
meant by Shakspere in the passage, 
" All plumed like estridges." 

There can, however, be little doubt that the word 
was also used with reference to the ostrich : 
" The peacock not at thy command assumes 

Her (sic) glorious train, nor estrich her rare plumes." 


Neither here nor in the passage from Drayton's 
Polyolbion, quoted by MR. PICKFORD, does the 
word seem from the context to refer to the falcon. 
A falcon's plumes could hardly be described as 
u rare," and as ostrich feathers were undoubtedly 
used as plumes for knights' helmets, it seems to me 
more probable that these are referred to in Dray- 
ton's line : 

" The Mountfords all in plumes, like estriges, were seen." 


Shawlands, Glasgow. 

MRS. JUDITH WELD (5 th S.viii. 507 ; ix. 94.) 
Mrs. Judith Weld, buried at Gateshead-on-Tyne 
in 1656, was the second wife of the Rev. Thomas 
Weld, a well-known Puritan minister in New 
England for many years. In 1624 he was Vicar of 
Terling, in Essex, but thought it prudent, to avoid 
persecution, to retire to America. From 1632 to 
1641 he was minister of Roxbury. In the latter 
year he returned to England, and never visited 
America again. For many years, until after the 
Restoration, he was minister of Gateshead, and is 
said to have died there on March 23, 1661/2. 
Several of his works, some of them very curious, 
are in the British Museum. Further particulars 
of his life will be found in William Allen's 
American Biog. Diet, (third edit., 1857), F. S. 
Drake's American Diet., and James Savage's 
Genealogical Diet, of First Settlers of New Eng- 
land. W. P. COURTNEY. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate. 

S. v. 28 ; ix. 56, 98.) The claimants, in England 
as well as in America, to bear the arms of the 
old Saxon family of Sewall appear, almost without 
exception, to be in error in respect of the coat. 
There is some reason for supposing that John 
de Sewell (the manorial orthography is Sewelle 
in Domesday Book), who accompanied Edward 
the Black Prince into Aquitaine, bore, Sable, a 
chevron between three butterflies argent, and that 
this was the heraldic cognizance of his family 
subsequently. PAPILIO. 



. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

DR. THOMAS COGAN (5 th S. vii. 288, 417, 458 ; 
-viii. 157, 255.) I believe that I have collected 
;and printed all that is now known about this 
remarkable man, except the knowledge lately come 
to me of a miniature portrait of him in* the 
Museum at Bristol. What I know is at the ser- 
vice of MR. P. J. COGAN, to whom I cannot write 
-directly for want of an address, but who, if one of 
the Oogan family, will feel interest in matter 
which would overload the pages of " N. & Q." 
The little book I printed for the amusement of a 
friendly circle was published by William Lewis, of 
Bath, at the price (I believe) of Is. 6d. 


10, Regent Terrace, Penzance. 

JOHN HOOK (5 th S. vi. 447 ; viii. 509 ; ix. 75.) 
He was the son of William Hook ; " born of 
genteel parents in Hampshire"; sent to Trin. Coll., 
'Oxford, 1616 ; Vicar of Axmouth, in Devon ; went 
to New England as a Nonconformist, and was col- 
league with Mr. Davenport in the church of New 
Haven, in New England. In the time of the 
Commonwealth he returned to England, and was 
made Master of the Savoy and chaplain to Oliver 
Cromwell. He died March 21, 1677, and was 
buried in the " New Artillery Garden." For an 
.account of him and his writings see Wood's Athence 
O.wnienses and the Nonconformists' Memorial (ed. 
1802, i. 184, and ii. 271). In Thurloe's State 
Papers, i. 564, there is a letter from him to 
Oliver Cromwell, dated from New Haven, Nov. 3, 
1653, in which he thanks the Lord General for his 
bounty and the favour which his son has found in 
his eyes. After the death of Mr. John Hook, in 
1710, his papers passed into the hands of his 
successor in the ministry at Basingstoke, Mr. 
Jefferson. It would be worth while to try and 
trace what became of them subsequently. 


SIR JULIUS (LESAR (1 st S. viii. 172 ; 2 nd S. v. 
394 ; xi. 139, 153 ; 4 th S. x. 412 ; 5 th S. viii. 427 
ix. 56.) The other day, in crossing Northumber- 
land Avenue, I encountered a country cart, on the 
side of which appeared the owner's name, " Jere- 
miah Caesar, Peckham, Surrey." And in the 
London Directory for 1878 I find eight persons <y 
the name of Caesar, of whom three are also named 
Julius. A. J. M. 

(5 th S. vi. 447 ; vii. 15, 390.) There seems to be 
no doubt that, at the burial of the last member o 
an historical family, some ceremony denoting th< 
fact of extinction was wont to be performed at th< 
side of the grave. In 1464 Otto, Duke of Stettin 
Pommern, died without heirs, it having been 
arranged that the Hohenzollerns were to succeed 
Carlyle, in his History of Frederick the Great 
bk. iii. c. iii., thus describes the scene at the grave 

At Duke Otto's burial, accordingly, in the High 
Church of Stettin, when the coffin was lowered into its 
>lace the Stettin Biirgermeister, Albrecht Glinde, took 
iword and helmet, and threw the same into the grave in 
oken that the line was extinct. But Franz von Eichsted 
apparently another burgher instructed for the nonce) 
umped into the grave and picked them out again, 
alleging, ( No, the dukes of Wolgast-Pommern were of 
cin ; these tokens we must send to his Grace at Wolgast, 
with offer of our homage.' " 

They were sent accordingly, and several centuries 
passed before Prussia could get Stettin-Pommern. 


MANDRIL (5 th S. viii. 186, 295, 477.) The 
word is used here of a plug inserted into a hollow 
piece of wood which has to be turned in a lathe, 
in order to connect it with the revolving part of 
the machine. It is pronounced maundril. 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Brigg. 

" MAULEVERER " (5 th S. vii. 344, 478 ; viii. 217, 
379, 517.) Whilst admitting your correspondents 
to be correct in assigning Arncliffe in Cleveland 
as the ancient abode of this family, yet the follow- 
ing quotation from the White Doe of Rylstone by 
Wordsworth would induce the supposition that it 
had in days of yore some connexion with Craven : 
" Pass, pass who will yon chantry door, 
And through the chink in the fractured floor 
Look down, and see a griesly sight : 
A Vault where the bodies are buried upright ! 
There face by face, and hand by hand, 
The Claphams and Maulererers stand ; 
And in his place, among son and sire, 
Is John de Clapham, that fierce Esquire 
A valiant man, and a name of dread 
In the ruthless wars of the White and Red 
Who dragged Earl Pembroke from Banbury Church, 
And smote off his head on the stones of the porch." 

Canto i. 

There is the following explanatory note upon this 
passage by the author : 

" At the east end of the north aisle of Bolton Priory 
Church is a chantry belonging to Bethmesly (qy. Beams- 
ley) Hall, and a vault where, according to tradition, the 
Claphams (who inherited this estate by the female line 
from the Mauleverers) were interred upright. John de 
Clapham, of whom this ferocious act is recorded, was a 
man of great note in his time : he was a vehement 
partisan of the House of Lancaster, in whom the spirit 
of his chieftains, the Cliffords, seemed to survive." 

Well do I remember on my first visit to Bolton 
Priory, in 1852, looking in vain for the " griesly 
sight" through the crevices in the "fractured 
floor" of the chantry, and coming to the con- 
clusion that the legend was traditional. On rny 
last visit, in 1869, the nave of the priory had under- 
gone an entire restoration, which had given a very 
cold appearance to it. The slabs in the chantry at 
the end of the north aisle, traditionally said to 
cover the sepulchre of the Claphams and Maule- 
verers, had been levelled with the floor, as far as 
I can remember. It may perhaps be worth while 

IX. FEB. 9, 78.] 



adding a query whether on the restoration any 
human remains were found buried in an upright 
position under these large slabs of stone. Words- 
worth mentions his having visited Bolton Priory 
for the first time in 1807, when he no doubt heard 
the tradition. The White Doe of Ryktone was 
composed in the same year. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

" SKAL " (5" 1 S. viii. 509.) This word is in Old 
'Norse skdl, pi. skdlir, skdlar, and means a drinking 
bowl. It is akin to the English word "scale," 
denoting the dish of a balance, also to "scale, 
shell, shale," German schale. The meaning "drink- 
ing bowl " occurs for the Old High German scala, 
the Middle High German schdle, schal, the Old 
Saxon scala, the Danish skaal, and the Swedish 
skdl. In the Swedish language " dricka en skal " 
means "to drink a bowl, a health," as "dricka 
ens skal." " to drink one's health." The following 
quotation from Paul Warnefrid's History of the 
Langobards gives an additional instance of scala 
= drinking bowl : " In eo proelio Albwini Cuni- 
mundum occidit caputque illius sublatum ad 
bibendum ex eo poculum fecit, quod genus poculi 
apud eos (i.e. the Langobards) scala dicitur, lingua 
vero latina patera vocitatur." 

Tettenhall College. 

The Swedish salutation, "Er skal!" "Your 
health!" (in Danish skoal) has its origin in 
pledging one another's health in the flowing bowl 
(Sw. skdl, Icel. skal, Dan. skaal). 



WYVILL BARONETCY (5 th S. viii. 88, 496.) My 
query as to the American branch of this family 
has elicited several replies from across the Atlantic. 
A descendant of the family informs me that the 
male line of Marmaduke Wyvill (who should have 
inherited as eighth baronet) is still in existence. 
The said Marmaduke died in 1809, leaving issue 
three sons Marmaduke, Darcy, and Walter. The 
eldest deceased leaving an only child, a daughter, 
who is still living, married, and has issue. The 
second and third sons both left male issue. I am 
further informed that the marriages, births, and 
deaths of this branch of the Wyvill family are very 
carefully kept. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

" TATTERING A KIP " (5 th S. viii. 508.) Hal- 
liwell gives, "To tatter, to make a fool of any 
one (Middlesex)"; while "kip" is said by the 
same authority to be " the skin of a small or 
young beast." "W. F. R. 

Worle Vicarage. 

A " kip " is a word used in Ireland for " bor- 
delle " or " brothel," and " to tatter a kip " meant 

to make a raid on an establishment of the kind 
and to break the windows, &c. W. H. R. 

[REV. P. J. F. GANTILLON refers our querist to 3 r ' 1 S. 
viii. 483,526; ix. 48.] 

SILPHIUM (5 th S. viii. 449.) H. C. C. will find 
an admirable and exhaustive article on silphium 
in the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie for 
Jan., 1877. It is written by M. The"rincq, 
Attache au Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 
and published in full in pamphlet form, La Viritl 
sur le pretendu Silphion de la, Cyrenaique, chez 
Lauwereyns, 2, rue Casimir Delavigne. 

In it he upsets the claim put forward by Dr. 
Laval to the rediscovery of the long-lost plant of 
the Cyrenaica, and proves to his own satisfaction 
that the so-called Thapsia silphion is no other 
than the well-known T. garganict. 


(5 th S. ix. 28.) So said Josiah Tucker, Dean of 
Gloucester, at a meeting of the Society for the 
Encouragement of Arts. See Northcote's Life of 
Reynolds, vol. ii. p. 78. R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

BIRDING-PIECE (5 th S. ix. 27.) I take it that 
the birding-piece was what we should now call a 
pea rifle, carrying a very small ball, and used, as 
was the stone bow or prod a cross-bow for the 
discharge of bullets or stones to kill small birds. 
The fowling-piece, on the other hand, was a large 
gun with smooth bore, often fired from a rest, and 
charged with slugs or " hail shot," employed for 
the destruction of wild ducks, wild geese, or to 
slaughter a covey of partridges sitting, as we see 
the fowler about to do in Rubens's great picture 
in the National Gallery. 



In an old inventory and valuation, dated 
Sept. 20, 1672, in my possession, I find the fol- 
lowing: "Five old Musketts and foure old 
Burden Peeces, at 5s. pr. peece, 21. 5s." Further 
on in the same is : "One Fowling Peece, ll. 15s." 


AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. viii. 470.) 

Almegro, a Poem, is by Emma Roberts. 

(5-S. viii. 469; ix. 53.) 

Thinks 1 to Myself was a very popular book in North- 
umberland in my young days. I have often heard my 
mother affirm that it was written by a Captain Beresford, 
whom she knew personally. He was, I believe, one of 
the Waterford family. E. LBATON BLENKIKSOPP. 

(5th s. ix. 88.) 

A Ira- Mule : a Tragedy [by Dr. Joseph Trapp], acted 
at the new theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields. A copy of 
the first edition in 4to., 1704, is in the Dyce collection at 



[5th s. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

South Kensington, and of the second, 4to., 1708, in the 
Bodleian. The plot of it may be more fully seen in a 
book called Alra-Mule ; or, the True History of the De- 
thronement of Mahomet IV., by M. Le Noble ; transl, by 
S. P. Cf. Baker's Biogr. Dram. W. H. ALLNUTT. 

This tragedy was first acted in 1704, and revived in 
1710, 1721, 1735, and 1744 (see Genest, Some Account of 
the English Stage, vol. ii. pp. 304-5, and also the Index). 


90, 119, 159, 179.) 

" And thou, Dalhoussy, the great god of war," &c. 
If A. 0. B. can point put where these lines are found in 
Blackmore, the question of authorship will be settled. 
Otherwise, and in absence of authority for his statement, 
they may be set down as Pope's own. They are marked 
"anonymous," and Dr. Warton informs us (see his edition 
of Pope's Works, 1822, vi. 207, 222) that most of the pas- 
sages so marked are quoted from the poet's own youthful 
poems, and several such passages are specified by him. 
Where, on the other hand, the quotations are from 
Blackmore and of these there are at least forty or fifty 
instead of being marked '* anon.," they have appended 
to them precise references in the notes. G. F. S. E. 

(5' S. viii. 229.) 

"Talis cum sis utinam noster esses." 
Said by Agesilaus, the Spartan king, to Pharnabazus, the 
Persian general. See Plutarch's Lives : Agesilaus. 

(5"> S. viii. 307.) 

" I do not love you, Dr. Fell," &c. 

The student who made this extempore translation of 
Martial's epigram was Tom Brown, not John Locke. 
See T. Brown's Works, vol. iv. p. 100. 

The Talmud. By Joseph Barclay, LL.D., Rector of 

Stapleford, Herts. With Illustrations and Plan of the 

Temple. (John Murray.) 

IT may truthfully, we think, be said of our country that 
everything relating to the Holy Land is sure of exciting 
interest among the reading public. The celebrated 
Quarterly article on the Talmud by the late lamented 
Emmanuel Deutsch is an instance in point. Yet our con- 
temporary literature, at least the periodical portion of 
it, does not seem to devote much space to this subject, 
apart, of course, from the publications of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund and the Transactions of the Society 
of Biblical Archaeology. Dr. Barclay, indeed, in his list 
of authorities chiefly followed by him in the preparation 
of his present work, only cites, besides the Quarterly 
article, one from the Edinburgh Review for July, 1873, 
and one from the Law Magazine and Review for August, 
1872, on the " Growth of Jewish Law." Dr. Barclay 
does not appear to have known either Weill's book on 
La Femme Juive : sa Condition Legale d'apres la Bible 
et le Talmud, or Prof. Thonissen's Etudes sur le Droit 
Criminel des Peuples Anciens de V Orient, a portion of 
which is dedicated to Jewish law. But what Dr. Barclay 
has studied he has carefully presented to his reader in 
clear language, and he possibly desired rather to set forth 
the Talmud as the " wise men " had handed it down, and 
the " master builders " had built it up, than as foreign 
scholars had conceived it. The result is an undoubtedly 
interesting volume, from which a very good idea may be 
obtained by the Gentile reader of that " extraordinary 

monument of human industry, human wisdom, and 
human folly," known by the name of the Talmud. What 
its fascination has been for both Jew and Gentile may 
be seen in our own day in the writings of Emmanuel 
Deutsch and George Eliot. Yet it is certainly a work of 
very varied merit. It has unquestionably been the 
parent of much Oriental heresy, and must take its share 
in the creation of Mohammedanism. But, nevertheless, 
there are deep and true sayings to be found in the 
Talmud, and Dr. Barclay's book is well worthy of the 
attention of the student of history, as an illustration of 
the influence of tradition in moulding religious thought 
among a people who with truth said : " The day is short, 
the labour vast ; but the labourers are slothful, though 
the reward is great, and the Master of the house presseth 
for despatch." 

The Bibliotheca Cornuliensis. By G. C. Boase and 

W. P. Courtney. Vol. II., P Z. (Longmans & Co.) 
THE publication of this volume marks an era in the 
literature of its class. It purports to give biographical 
details, with copious references to books alluding to 
authors who have had the luck to be born in Cornwall, 
or who have been in any way connected with or have 
written about that county. The biographical notes are 
followed by complete bibliographical (we use the word 
in its most scientific sense) lists of printed books or 
manuscripts. The work, however, contains such a mass 
of facts concisely and accurately stated, with regard to 
such a number of English authors, that ^students had 
better discard the notion of its being confined to Corn- 
wall, and treat it as if the title-page read, " A Dictionary 
of Some English Authors." If an author has made the 
land of mines his county by adoption, Messrs. Boase 
and Courtney have adopted him also, though he were 
born in Timbuctoo. Nobody, it is imagined, will com- 
plain of this ; on the contrary, most students will feel 
inclined to regret that the work is not universal, for here 
we have the exact model of what a true Dictionary of 
English Authors should be. There is no slipshod work- 
no hurrying over names none of that looseness of which 
so much complaint has been made with regard to similar 
works of reference. From the accurate and precise 
nature of the information given in its pages we should 
conclude that it had come from the persons themselves, 
even if we were not especially told so. It has been said 
that obtaining information from authors themselves is 
a disadvantage, and true as this may be of works of 
criticism, it cannot be doubted that it is a great gain in 
the present instance. Messrs. Boase and Courtney do 
not indulge in either criticism or comment, unless the 
latter takes the form of facts. Facts, facts, facts, say 
th e y not by insisting on this in words, but by example. 
Thus it is we are enabled to appreciate the full signifi- 
cance of the instances they give in their preface, to 
which we need not make further reference here than to 
say that not only in these cases but in every column we 
meet hard facts concisely stated. They have avoided 
criticism, the facility and pleasure of which have led more 
than one bibliographer into a labyrinth in which he haa 
lost himself. 

The sources from which information has been obtained 
comprise the whole range of English literature up to the 
very date of publication. Works of history, biography, 
travels, science, and fiction, all have been ransacked, and 
the slightest reference to the authors' subjects duly 
recorded. We observe that our columns have been freely 
used. In one of our early numbers there was an interesting- 
communication from our esteemed correspondent MR. 
JAMES CKOSSLEY as to the authorship of Peter WilTcins. 
Accordingly, under Robert Paltock's name, we find the 
bibliography of that delightful work of fiction. This- 

5t> g. IX. FIJB. 9, 78.] 



article well illustrates our observations upon the 
accuracy of the bibliography of this work. The authors 
have solved the Gordian knot of "full" or "abbre- 
viated" title-pages by giving titles in full, and that 
of the Life and Adventures of Peter Willcins, a Cor- 
nish Man, occupies twenty-six lines. The remark- 
able part of the article on Paltock, and that which 
unfortunately distinguishes it from the others in this 
work, is the absence of biography. Interesting as it 
would be to have some knowledge of Robert Paltock, his 
name seems likely to remain in the same category as 
that of the lamented Edward Cocker, of arithmetical 
celebrity. Directly after Paltock's name occurs that of 
the author of another popular and anonymous work, 
Philosophy in Snort made Science in Earnest, in which 
Dr. Paris had the invaluable aid of that great artistic 
genius whose death we are all now mourning. Those 
who make anonymous works their study will find an 
ample field, and tolerably easy work, for they are in- 
variably distinguished by the word " [anon.]." Finally, 
the printing and general get-up of the volume are all that 
could be desired ; and considering that we have upwards 
of five hundred closely printed pages of double columns, 
it will compare in cheapness with any continental 

L' Intermediate des Chercheurs et Curieux (Notes and 

Queries Francais). (Paris, Sandoz et Fischbacher.) 
WE are glad to see that our French contemporary and 
namesake continues to flourish. It contains much in- 
teresting and curious matter, as well as some valuable 
contributions to historical and philological science. 
Under this last head we would particularly note a care- 
fully written paper in the number for January 25, 1878, 
on the " Orthography of Geographical Names," the 
author of which analyzes the documentary history of 
some local names in Alsace. This is, of course, rather 
a delicate subject since 1871 ; but it is temperately 
handled by the writer, and there can be no question that 
the list analyzed by him is that of a group of names of 
Roman not Teutonic origin. Oddly enough the French 
printers have turned " JRuleus Mons " into "Rubens 
Mons," as though their heads had been full of the recent 
Antwerp centenary, which would have been more 
excusable in a Belgian than in a French Notes and 

Queries. The future biographer of Pius IX., who is 
mbtless on the look-out for materials, may be glad to 
make a note of the story (for the truth of which we of 
course cannot vouch) that the first pontiff who out- 
lived the years of Peter took snuflf, in full pontificals, 
at his coronation in 1847. 

WE can only hope that Professor Bryce will be in- 
duced to give us three such papers on Jerusalem, 
Athens, and Rome, as the one on Constantinople in this 
month's Mactnillan. 

IN Old and New London, Part LXII. (Cassell), so 
closely does Mr. Walford run with the present times that 
in his description of Blackheath and its former terrors 
he refers to the ludicrous attempt last year at the revival 
of the practice of highwaymen. This number has a 
peculiar interest for the inhabitants of S.E. London. 

WE have received the first number of a new monthly 
issue of the Irish Church Society's Journal (Dublin, E. 
Ponsonby), which, by its combination of matters of 
general and special interest, and its appreciative notices 
of the Literature of the day, gives promise of a useful 
career, both as a Theological and Literary organ, refined 
in its tone, while firm in its expression of opinion. 

MESSRS. DEAN & SON announce for immediate publica- 
tion the one hundred and sixty-fifth annual edition of 
Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage, amplified, 
improved, and remodelled by Robert H. Mair, LL,D. 

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK. " N. & Q." will scarcely allow 
so great a genius and so good a man as George Cruik- 
shank to pass from among us without a word of tribute 
to his memory. Although to the rising generation he 
appears as a figure of the past, his work has, in truth, 
but just ended, and the time for estimating the exact 
value and extent of his genius has not yet arrived. 
Whether his pedestal shall be as high as that of Row- 
landson, Gillray, or of Hogarth, or whether it shall rise 
far above theirs, must be left to another generation to 
decide. I do not propose to attempt the most condensed 
sketch of that active, varied, laborious life, but shall 
confine myself almost exclusively to a few personal 

The clever portrait of Cruikshank by Maclise, in 
Fraser's Magazine, will at once present itself to the 
mind of each one of your readers. The great artist is 
there portrayed, with pencil and paper in hand, seated 
on a beer barrel, with a tobacco pipe, &c., at his side, with 
his eagle eye (that did not lose its brightness to the day of 
his death) fixed eagerly on some object which he is 
sketching. In that portrait of Cruikshank at forty years 
of age the Cruikshank of 1878 was immediately recog- 
nizable. But the surroundings were, since many years, 
entirely changed. The frequenter of public-houses, 
where only could be met those types of character which 
he has immortalized, had quitted his old haunts had 
once and for ever, in The Bottle, The Drunkard's Chil- 
dren, and numerous other similar productions, stamped 
with eternal ignominy the great vice of the age had 
become a teetotaler, and nobly set the example of prac- 
tisingrigidly practising what he himself believed to 
be right, and what he never failed to inculcate. Cruik- 
shank was happy in the possession, to the very last, of 
both mental and physical activity. He was a man of 
progress; he went with the times, and had sympathy 
with the young generation springing up around him. He 
eagerly joined the Volunteers, and became a leading 
figure in the movement. In early life he had been 
destined for the sea, and only escaped being sent on 
board a man-of-war (those were the times of the press- 
gang) by hiding away. When mentioning to me once 
that episode in his life, which must have changed his 
whole career, and deprived the world (as I then sug- 
gested to him) of such a fund of amusement and in- 
struction " Well," answered Cruikshank, with a simpli- 
city that was one of the great charms of his conversation, 
"well, I should have done my duty and become an 

It was not my good fortune to know Cruikshank in 
early life ; but for several years I was proud to count 
him among my most honoured friends. What pleasant 
evenings were those when, with the works of bygone days 
before us those of his father (Isaac Cruikshanks), of 
his brother (Robert), and his own I sat by his side 
as, with the little magnifying glass whith he always 
used, he examined the etchings, the very existence of 
many of which he had forgotten, and passed his remarks 
upon them as the circumstances connected with them 
were brought to his memory. "Ah ! that was my work 
when a very little fellow ; let me sign it." ". In that 
etching I helped my father; he did this part, and I did 
that." " This is the joint production of my poor brother 
and myself." " Capt. Marryat designed this, and I only 
etched it," &c. Never was a man more ready to impart 
information, or more desirous to accord to every one his 

It has been said by a leading contemporary that 
Cruikshank was too jealous of his reputation. I never 
found him so. Jealous he undoubtedly was and, per- 
haps, rightly so of his share of the conception of one 
or two of the great works of fiction which he had illus- 



[5"i S. IX. FEB. 9, 78. 

trated, and which, as he maintained, had been written 
after his drawings had been made. This is not alto- 
gether exceptional. It is well known that * Dr. Syntax ' 
was written up to the illustrations, and that W. Combe 
was inspired by, and adapted his verses to, the designs 
of Rowlandson. But Cruikshank always appeared to me 
free from jealousy as far as his particular branch of art 
was concerned, and was ever ready to award his meed of 
praise to those who were striving after their laurels in 
his profession. I may mention two incidents in proof 
of this assertion. 

Not very long ago I had received some etchings by a 
German artist simple subjects, representing children 
in their various occupations. 1 laid them before Cruik- 
shank, who, after examining them very attentively, 
exclaimed, " They are beautiful ; I should like to have 
been the artist who did them ! " One evening a rising 
young English artist met Cruikshank at my house, and 
submitted to him some specimens of dry point which he 
had just done. The old man, in the fulness of his enthu- 
siasm and the generosity of his nature, said to him, 
" They are very clever ; I was never able to do such 

The complete list of George Cruikshank's almost num- 
berless productions has yet to be made, for Mr. Reid's 
admirable catalogue unfortunately too expensive for 
the million, whose artist George Cruikshank un- 
doubtedly was is not perfect. The moment is surely 
propitious for a reprint of that work at a price which 
would ensure its more general circulation. Perhaps 
some of the contributors to " N. & Q." will undertake 
the interesting task of supplying the omissions referred 
to through your columns. For some time before his 
death George Cruikshank was engaged in writing his 
memoirs, and it is to be hoped that he has left in a for- 
ward state the MS. of a work which cannot fail to have 
an interest not only for the world of art, but for the 
public in general. ' H. S. ASHBEE, F.S.A. 

46, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

CHURCH AND DISSENT IN 1676. A very scarce and in- 
teresting record is preserved in the William Salt Library 
at Stafford. It is a religious census of the province of 
Canterbury for the year 1676, and its origin is thus set 
forth in a certificate which two of the bishops have 
attached to the returns for their respective dioceses : 
"In pursuance of a letter to me directed from the Right 
Reverend Father in God, Henery, Lord Bishop of Lon- 
don, to give an account of the number of Inhabitants, 
Papists, and other Dissenters within my Diocess, these 
are to certify that, according to the retorns to me made 
by the Ministers and Churchwardens of ye several 
parishes in the places abovesaid according to the most 
exact computation, this is a true retorne." The volume 
is manuscript, beautifully written, and was formerly in 
the library of the Duke of Sussex. Certain errors of 
spelling lead"to the supposition that the copy was made 
from another manuscript, and not from a printed report; 
thus we have Ultoxeter for Uttoxeter, Itam for 11am, 
and Alurton for Alveton or Alton. The object of the 
census has not yet been discovered, or the authority by 
which the Bishop of London issued the " letters " re- 
ferred to. Perhaps some of our readers can throw light 
on the subject. The information contained in the 
volume is tabulated in four columns the names of 
parishes, the number of Conformists, the number of 
Papists, and the number of Nonconformists. 

Clark, Esq., in the chair Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie 
read a paper on " Ancient Roads." Mr. Soden Smith 
exhibited and described a pectoral cross of the sixteenth 
century, covered with emblems and inscriptions, and 

containing within an enamelled crucifix upon a ruby- 
enamel ground. Mr. E. Wilmott sent an iron key-like 
implement of unknown use, which had been lately found; 
near Ramsgate. 


ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

" A CURIOUS CUSTOMER." The subject of thia sup- 
posed haunted house has been mooted already in 
" N. & Q." without eliciting any further information 
than you possess. The late Lord Lyttelton wrote iu 
these columns : " It is quite true that there is a house in 
Berkeley Square (No. 50) said to be haunted, and long 
unoccupied on that account. There are strange stories 
about it, into which this deponent cannot enter." See- 
" N. & Q.," 4' S. x. 372, 399, 490, 506 ; xi. 84, 187, 273. 

A RESIDENT IN WEST KENT (" Kentish Men " and 
"Men of Kent.") See " N. & Q.," 3 rd S. vii. 324, 423; 
viii. 92, 131. The West Kent men are styled " Kentish 
men," and those of East Kent " men of Kent." 

E. N. HENNING. You will find that much informa- 
tion has already been given, ante, p. 53. Is it possible to 
supplement if? 

L. N. T. Marchand de bric-d-brac is a dealer in old 
iron, copper, brass, pictures, &c. 

H. R. D. No man can have a right to style himself 
such unless he has taken a degree at some recognized 

H. J. WAITE (Darlington.) For "Cock and Bull 
Story," see our 1 st S. iv. 312; v. 414, 447; vi. 146; ix. 
209; 2 n(1 S. iv. 79; viii. 215; and 3 rrl S. iii. 169. 

SHELDON HALL. A proof will be sent. We shall 
always be glad to receive your communications. 

H. G. A. should address his query to Science Gossip- 
(Hardvvicke, 192, Piccadilly). 

D. T. M. Please accept the initial letters assigned in 
this number. The single one is already appropriated. 

R. F. PITT wants to know which is the best work on 
the Protestant religion. [Has he tried Chillingworth?] 

W. P. H. We shall be glad to have the inscription if 
not already printed. 

C. PETTET. It is not an English word, and therefore 
not subject to the rules of English grammar. 

TIBIA AMNE (sic) and GUY PAGANUS have sent no name 
and address. 

C. ST. S. Apply to any large general bookseller. 

F. L. S. H. It is impossible to answer such a question.. 

E. R. See Monk (M. G.) Lewis's Tales of Wonder. 

G. C. B. Many thanks. 

L. BARBE. Proofs shall be sent. 

Iv. N. and W. H. Letters forwarded. 

W. H. Portland, Maine, U.S.A. 

F. G. H. P.-No. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5<h S. IX. FEB. 16, 78.] 





NOTES : Katharine de Valois, 121 " Gareth and Lynette," 
122 -Spiritualism, Ancient and Modern, 123 Elizabethan 
Map of Exeter, 124 Sir Thomas Adarns, Bart., Lord Mayor 
tif London, and President of St. Thomas's Hospital Dante 
and Milton, 125 Another Foreign Critic on Shakspeare 
Black Barley : the Feast of the Birds, 126. 

QUERIES : Hogarth Caricatured, l?G-Monboucher Family 
" In Ranconten " " First an Englishman," &c. The 
"Cow and Snuffers," 127 Pope and the "Rehearsal" 
Keatsiana The Whitehall Chalice " St. Augustine's Con- 
fessions 'An Inedited(?) Criticism of Charles Lamb's 
Coleridge or Walpole Morton, in Dumfries Badges 
Mistress (or Lady) Ferrars Reginald Heber, 128 German 
Measles " Liberty and Property " Authors Wanted, 129. 

REPLIES : The Nan fan Family, 129 -Death of Edward, Duke 
of York, 17G7, 131 Sheldon Hall, Warwickshire A Passage 
in "Lycidas," 132 Ear-rings Mac Mahon Families Vere 
Essex Cromwell, 133 London Fogs Heraldic " Read " 
"Threestones" A Servian Document India-rubber Shoes 
The Isle of Man "Neither hawk nor buzzard," 134 Pel- 
ham Family Early Britain, 135 Flemish Brisbane of 
Brisbane" Go to " Raffaelle less useful than a Pin-maker 
"fcile" The Fieldfare, }36-Drayton Akaris Family- 
Office of the Strachy "Tra. sa "An Old Work on Geometry 
Fans, 137 Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon The Windsor 
Sentinel Felice Ballarin, of Chioggia Solomon Grildrig : 
"The Miniature" Bread and Salt French Proverb, 138 
Anti-Popery Hymns and Songs Authors Wanted, 139. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


The following, we have reason to know, is a 
fuller and more accurate summary than has hitherto 
appeared of the paper read by the Dean of West- 
minster, on the 31st ultimo, at a meeting of the 
Society of Antiquaries, held at Burlington House, 
at which the Earl of Carnarvon presided. 

The paper read was upon the depositions of 
Katharine de Valois, the Queen of Henry V., the 
remains of the Queen having on that very day 
been placed in the chantry of Henry V., after 
many remarkable removals and vicissitudes. The 
Dean exhibited upon a screen the drawings made 
of the contents of a box in which, in 1778, the 
remains of Queen Katharine de Valois were laid, 
when placed in St. Nicholas's Chapel, in the vault 
of the Villiers, beyond that of the Percies. This 
latter vault having been opened in December last, 
upon the occasion of the burial in the Abbey of 
the late Lord Henry Percy, the opportunity was 
taken, by the sanction of Her Majesty the Queen, 
to remove the royal remains to the chantry of 
Henry V., which stands on the site of the original 
" Reliquary " of the Abbey. Katharine de Valois, 
the Dean remarked" the Kate of the never-to-be- 
forgotten scene in Shakspeare's Henry V" was 
on the day of her funeral conveyed by water to 
St. Katharine's Church, of which, as Queen Consort, 
she was the patron ; thence to St. Paul's, where 

another service was held ; and thence to the 
Abbey, and interred meanly in the Lady Chapel. 
In the time of her son Henry VI. it was proposed 
to move the body further down, and to erect a 
tomb more "honourably apparelled"; but it re- 
mained undisturbed until Henry VII.'s Chapel was 
erected, when the old Lady Chapel was destroyed, 
and with it her tomb, and the bones were removed 
to the vacant place on the south side of her hus- 
band's sepulchre. Various writers, the Dean 
showed Pepys and Fuller among them testified 
to the fact that the bones were, from time to 
time, exhibited. Till the eighteenth century they 
were thus exposed, and the Westminster scholars 
of those days were stated to have misused the re- 
mains. Finally, to avoid this scandal, they were 
enclosed in a wooden chest and were placed under- 
neath the tomb of Sir George Villiers, beyond the 
Percies' vault. There they rested until, as stated, 
the funeral of Lord Henry Percy, in December last, 
rendered it possible to obtain the restoration of 
the remains to a fitting depository. Upon the box 
was a leaden plate with this inscription : 

Katharine de Valoi?, 

Queen to Henry V., 


deposited in this Chapel of 
St. Nicholas 

by Benjamin Fidoe, 

Clerk of the Works 

at Westminster Abbey, 


The box was only nailed together in a rough way, 
and, having fallen away, the bones were visible 
in a rude sheet of lead. The upper part of the 
body had been, previous to its last burial in 1778, 
much disturbed, and several portions of it were 
missing. In conclusion, the Dean described the 
spot in Henry V.'s chantry where the remains of the 
French princess and English queen, fittingly placed 
in a proper covering, are now re-entombed between 
the Plantagenets and the Tudors, and near to the 
memorials of her husband's victories, by which he 
won her to be his bride, in the chapel which had 
been built under her own auspices. The new 
coffin bore, besides the old plate, a new plate, with 
the following inscription : 

The former Chest, 

which for 99 years had decayed 

in the Villiers' Vault in the Chapel of "St. Nicholas, 

was Kemoved thence, 
and this new Chest including 

the Royal Remains 
was, with the sanction of Queen Victoria, 

Placed here 
in this Chauntry of King Henry V. 

by Thomas Wright, 
Clerk of the Works at West Abbey, 

in the Presence of 

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., 

Dean of Westminster, 

A.D. 1878. 

The coffin is placed, with the fragments of the 



s. IX. FFB. 16, 78. 

earlier chest, under the old altar slab of the 
chantry, with the following inscription : 

Sub hue Tabula 

(Altari olim hujusce Sacelli) 

Diu prostrata, Jgne confractd, 

Requiescunt tandem, 

Varias post vices, 
Hie demum jussu Victorias Regina? deposita, 

Ossa Catharine de Valois, 

Filise Caroli Sexti, Franciau Regis, 

Uxoris Henrici Quinti, 

Matris Henrici Sexti, 

Aviae Henrici Septimi. 

]Vata MCCCC, 

Coronata MCCCCXXI, 


In the course of the discussion the Dean repeatedly 
expressed his obligations to Mr. George Scharf, 
Mr. Doyne C. Bell, and also to Mr. Poole, the 
Master Mason, and Mr. Wright, the Clerk of the 
Works at Westminster Abbey ; and Mr. Doyne 
Bell added his testimony to that of the Dean in 
speaking of the reverential care which, on the 
occasions of such investigations, characterized all 
those concerned, down to the humblest workman. 
[See p. 140.] 


(Continued from p. 42.) 

The History of Prince Arthur makes the order 
of the four combats to be, first, that with the Black 
Knight of the Black Lands (night), then that with 
the "Green Knight (dawn), then with the Eed 
Knight (noon), and then with the Blue Knight 
(evening) ; but Tennyson, evidently misled by 
the modern custom of beginning day with the 
morning and ending it at night, has not only de- 
ranged this natural order, but has been led into 
the anomalies of a blue morning and a green even- 
ing. There cannot be a doubt that green is more 
naturally associated with youth, strength, and 
hardihood than with old age and decay. It is 
very true we speak sometimes of a " green old 
age"; but the phrase is meant for a paradox, other- 
wise it would have no force at all. So again the 
same misapprehension has driven the poet to make 
the blue star (or Blue Knight) the representative 
of morn's young beam, whereas " the blue star of 
evening "is a household phrase. Instead, there- 
fore, of following the natural order of the old 
story, the black night, the green dayspring, the 
red noon, and the blue twilight, the poet begins 
with the Blue Knight, which he calls morning ; 
then takes the Red Knight, or noon ; thirdly, the 
Green Knight, which he makes " the green " 
evening star ; and, lastly, the Black Knight. Still 
stranger will this perversion appear when it is 
remembered that the story calls the Blue Knight 
an Indian or Eastern king, and not a Western 
knight, like the Green and Red. It is the Eastern 

sunrise, not the Western sunset. It may naturally 
be asked why the poet, having begun his day with 
morning instead of night, was obliged to reverse 
the green and the blue. As he took the liberty 
of changing the historic order, he might, if he 
chose, have made the Green Knight morning, and 
the Blue Knight evening. It was quite optional 
with him, and he made the change because he 
chose to do so. Plausible as this seems at first 
sight, it manifestly is not the case. Having made 
the first blunder, the poet was driven of necessity 
into the second. Green may glow into red or 
languish into blue, and blue may lead up to black ; 
but Tennyson felt it would be an outrage against 
common propriety to separate the blue from the 
black and the green from the red. It was abso- 
lutely indispensable to make black lighten into 
blue, and to bring the red and the green together. 
The history makes the blue evening darken into 
night, and the green morning glow into red noon. 
The poet makes blue the luminous abatement of 
black, and green the languishing of red, and thus 
far preserves a just propriety ; but, by the fatal 
error of beginning his day at the wrong end, he 
makes the blue morning dawn from the dark night 
of the past day, and was then compelled to make 
green the languishing and fading shade of red, 
instead of the living vigorous dawn which grew 
brighter and redder to the perfect day. 

Of course, as Tennyson has changed the Green 
Knight into the Blue and the Blue Knight into 
the Green, we must not compare the combat of 
Tennyson's Blue Knight with the Blue Knight of 
the old story, but with the Green, and the Green 
Knight of the prose romance with the Blue Knight 
of the idyll. These combats I shall therefore omit, 
as the change of colour would involve considerable 
confusion, and the error which lies at the base of 
the two combats is fatal to their working out. 

Account}. When Sir Gareth overtook the damsel, 
she turned on him in scorn. " What dost thou 
here, dish-washer? Thou savourest of kitchen 
grease and tallow. Return to thy clouts and 
dishes ; thou art an offence to me." "Damsel," 
said Gareth, " say what ye list ; I J ll not leave thee 
till I have achieved this task, and I will achieve 
it or die in the attempt." " Thou ! thou, a washer 
of dishes, achieve my adventure ! You will find the 
broth too hot, I warrant, for such as thou." So 
saying, she rode on, and Gareth followed. 

At nightfall they came to the Black Lands of 
the Black Knight, whose name was Peread, and 
saw in a hawthorn bush a black banner and a 
black shield, and beside them stood a black spear 
and horse, and on a black stone sat a knight in 
black harness. When the damsel saw him, she 
cried aloud, " Flee, scullion, flee for thy life !." 
"Nay, fair damsel, it is for cowards to flee." Then 
came forth the Black Knight, and said, " Damsel, 

. IX. FEB. 16, 78.] 



whom have we here ? Is this thy champion from 
King Arthur's court 1" " No champion of mine, sir 
knight, but a kitchen drab who forces himself on 
me." "So, so!" said the Black Knight; "I'll 
soon put him on his feet, and strip him of his 
conceit, though to fight with such a one will surely 
shame me." On hearing these words of scorn, Sir 
Gareth answered, " Sir Knight, thy words are big 
and swelling, but words I heed not. This land I 
mean to pass, maugre thy threats and lets." " Say 
you so ? Come on, then !" and he drove his horse 
till the two combatants came together like thunder, 
and the spear of the Black Knight brake, and Sir 
Gareth thrust him through both his sides, and he 
swooned, and forthwith died. 

Then Gareth armed him with the Black Knight's 
armour, and took his horse, and rode after the 
damsel ; but she still cried, " Off, off, I say ! Out 
of the wind, thou kitchen knave ! Thou art an 
offence to me. Alas that such a caitiff should 
slay so good a knight ! " And Gareth answered, 
" Damsel, ride on ; I follow." 

This allegory is full of beauty, and will bear the 
closest examination. It describes the destruction 
of night by the rising day, but, inasmuch as the 
dawn is still partial darkness, the dayspring rides 
on the Black Knight's horse and in the Black 
Knight's armour. It will be observed that Gareth 
(the god of nature) kills the Black Knight, but 
not the others. The Green Knight is spared, and 
entertains Gareth ; for the rising sun is not slain, 
but cherished, by the hot noon. So the life of the 
Red Knight is spared, for eve is a part of the same 
day. And the Blue Knight is not only suffered 
to live, but in his castle Gareth and the damsel 
take their evening meal and pass the night. The 
day is over, and our hero sleeps till he rises the 
next morning to another day of toil. 

Tennyson, with less consistency, makes the horse 
of the Red Knight slip in a river stream as the 
knight was about to give Gareth a fifth stroke, 
and the noonday sun " was washed away " by the 
running water. This will bear no criticism. There 
are not five strokes, or hours, between noon and 
eve, and to make the " sun washed away " before 
twilight is strange, if not more than strange. So 
again the poet makes Gareth hurl the Green 
Knight over the bridge, and say to him, " There 
sink or swim." If the Green Knight is morning, 
as in the history, the allegory is destroyed by this 
"dramatic stroke"; if evening, as the poet sup- 
poses, how much more beautiful is the original 
story. But we must return to the Black Knight, 
which, as I have said already, is the first of the 
four combats in the history and the last in the 

Tennyson's Version. Then came they in sight 
of Castle Perilous, and beside it was a huge black 
tent with black banner, and a long black horn 
hung beside the banner, which Gareth blew till 

the walls echoed. Thrice blew he the horn, when 
from the tent came forth a knight in night-black 
armour, riding a night-black steed, but spake no 
word. " Fool !" said Gareth, " men say thou hast 
the strength of ten ; can ye not trust then to your 
thews, but must think to scare us by your de- 
vices?" Still the Black Knight answered not a 
word, but, putting spurs to his horse, rushed on 
his opponent. Gareth was ready for the knight, 
and with one stroke split his skull in twain, one 
half of which fell to the right and the other half 
to the left. 

In this version the poet must be credited with 
two good points one, the silence of the Black 
Knight, which is a decided improvement on the 
older story ; and, secondly, the splitting of the 
head in twain, in my opinion the best and most 
original thought of the whole poem, although it 
would not have suited the prose narrative. Night, 
as the close of day, belongs to two days one half 
of the head falls to the day which is ended and 
one half to the day which begins on the morrow ; 
so, as the poet puts it, " one half falls to the right 
and one half to the left." Beautiful and apt as 
this idea undoubtedly is, it would not suit the 
prose romance, which begins day from the pre- 
ceding eve, so that the head is not split in twain, 
but when night dies " its ebon spear is snapped, 
and the knight, being thrust through both his 
sides, swoons and dies." The thrust "through 
both his sides," and the " swooning of night " be- 
fore daybreak, are equally graphic and pertinent. 
But as the poet, either by mistake or otherwise, 
has reversed the original order of the combats, he 
has, in a measure, compensated for the fault by a 
fine thought, both original and true. 


Lavant, Chichester. 

(To le continued.) 


"The prophet is a fool, the spiritual man is mad." 
Hosea ix. 7. 

Against Praxeas, Tertullian says he got his 
notions of the Trinity from the revelations of the 
Paraclete. In the De Anima, ii., he says : " The 
true system of prophecy has arisen in the present 
age." Chap. ix. he says : " The soul's corporeity 
was a mystery revealed by the Paraclete to a Mon- 
tanist sister." He gives particulars of the alleged 
communication which exactly agree with those of 
the spiritualists of the present day. Montanus 
was the Paraclete ; Prisca and Maximilla were his 
associates, mediums, sisters, or prophetesses. How- 
ever, as Tertullian does not give a name to her, 
the sister in question may have been another than 
those mentioned one possessed with whom he 
was acquainted : 

" We have now amongst us a sister whose lot it has 
been to be favoured with sundry gifts of revelation, 



IX. FKB. 1G, 78. 

which she experiences in* the spirit by ecstatic visio 
amidst the sitcred rites of the Lord's day in the church 
She converses with angels, and sometimes even with th 
Lord; she both sees and hears mysterious communica 
tions ; some men's hearts she understands, and to tlier 
who are in need she distributes remedies. Whether it b 
in the reading of the Scriptures, or in the chanting o 
psalms, or in the preaching of sermons, or in the offerin 
up of prayers -in all these religious services matter am 
opportunity are afforded to her of seeing visions. It ma 
possibly have happened to us, whilst this sister of out 
was rapt in the spirit, that we had discoursed in som 
ineffable way about the soul. After the people are dis 
missed at the conclusion of the sacred services, she is i 
the regular habit of reporting to us whatever things sh 
may have seen in visions (for all her communications a'r 
examined with the most scrupulous care, in order tha 
their truth may be probed). Amongst other things sh 
says, ' There has been shown to me a soul in bodily shape 
and a spirit has been in the habit of appearing to me 
not, however, a void and empty illusion, but such a 
would offer itself to be even grasped by the hand, sof 
and transparent, and of an ethereal colour, and in form 
resembling that of a human being in every respect.' Thi 
was her vision, and for her witness there was God, am 
the apostle most assuredly foretold that there were to b 
spiritual gifts in the Church (1 Cor. xii. 1-11 ; als 
Romans i. 11). Now, can you refuse to believe this 
even if indubitable evidence on every point is forth 
coming for your conviction 1 Since, then, the soul is a 
corporeal substance, no doubt it possesses qualities sucl 
as those which we have just mentioned ; amongst them 
the property of colour, which is inherent in every bodily 

The evidence which is not to be resisted is pro- 
claimed every day by our modern spiritualists 
I have heard it and seen it in print, where it is a 
sister that is the medium, and communicates to 
the writer* when a vision or inspiration does not 
occur to himself. Here we have the soft substance 
which is so often mentioned by the spiritualists, 
either in a hand or being handled, the whole body 

sometimes appeann 
he sometimes caught 
rhapsodizing in the 

Terfcullian, too, allows that 
the infection and went on 
manner we have in his 

works, which is treated as sane theology, 
theory of colours might recommend it to Mr. 

Here, however, it may be said, is admission of 
collusion between Tertullian and the sister. She 
may have only interpreted his thoughts, or become 
acquainted with them and delivered them in cor- 
respondence with those he imagined. 

Colours entered into all systems of sacred and 
profane theology. The Bible, Philo, and Josephus 
treat of them. In all mythologies they are, down 
to the Chinese and Japanese. Colours were sym- 
bols. Those who are interested in colours, as 
many are in Chinese or Japanese, or have theories 
of colours, as Mr. Gladstone, might find a fertile 
field of research in these theological speculations 

upon the properties of colours. 
Oxford and Cambridge Club. 


Mr. Maitland in The cm, and How it found Me. 

that some of your readers, collectors of ancient 
maps, may be able to solve a question of more than 
local antiquarian interest. Mr. W. Brodie of 
Exeter possesses a coloured engraved map, 19| in. 
by 13| in., in which the city and its suburbs are 
delineated in that curious combination of plan 
and elevation which distinguishes the maps of the 
Tudor period. It is nearly certain that this map 
formed part of the Oxenden and Warley or Lee- 
Warley collection, sold at Church House, High 
Street, Canterbury, on January 4, 1870, and it is 
obviously the parent of the reduced and more or 
less complete copies engraved by Francis and 
Abraham Hogenberg for Braun (or Bruin) and 
Hoefnagle's Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 1572-1618 ; 
for Speed's Theatre of Great Britain, edit. 1611 ; 
for Izacke's Memorials of Exeter, edit. 1677 ; and, 
with more perfection of detail, for Lysons's Mag. 
Brit., Devon, 1822. Mr. Brodie's map has the 
following title on the upper edge : 

l{ Isca Damnoniorum, britanice Kaier penhuelgorte : 
Saxonice Monketon : Latine Exonia : AngliceExeancestre 
vel Excestre et nunc Vulgo Exeter : vrbs pera[n]tiqua et 
Emporium celeberrimum." 

In an oblong compartment near the right-hand 
lower corner is the inscription : " Opera et im- 
pensis Joannis Hokeri generosi ac huius Civitatis 
qurestoris, hauc tabella sculpsit Remigius Hogen- 
bergius. Anno Dili 1587." In the top left-hand 
corner are the royal arms, with the letters " E. R." 
over the crown. In the top right-hand corner are 
:he arms of Exeter, with the augmentations of 
lelm, crest, and supporters granted in 1567, but 
without the motto " Semper Fidelis," bestowed by 
Queen Elizabeth. In the lower left-hand corner 
are the arms, with six quarterings, of John Hoker, 
the learned Chamberlain of Exeter (for whom the 
engraving ^ was made), with the motto " Post 
VIortem Vita," and near the lower right corner are 
a pair of compasses extended on a scale, and thus 
brming a triangle (Hoker was a Freemason). Two 
mpressions, evidently from the same plate, but 
uncoloured, are known to exist in Exeter, one of 
hem being in my own possession. These two im- 
pressions have been divided or folded down the 
niddle, as if for insertion in a book, the right- 
mnd portion differing from Mr. Brodie's in the 
mission of one of the trees close to Exe Bridge, 
nd in the incomplete obliteration of the compasses 
nd scale, which are replaced by some lines of 
hading less carefully executed than those of the 
riginal. These discrepancies have given rise to 
he suggestion that the right-hand half of the 
riginal plate had been damaged and re-engraved ; 
mt this is disproved by a careful comparison with 
magnifying glass, which shows that the minutest 
;rokes and even the accidental defects of Mr. 
Brodie's copy are reproduced in the two others. 
I The former is believed to be a unique impression 

5'h S. IX. FEB. 16, 78.] 



made for John Hoker himself from a plate which 
was soon afterwards slightly altered for publication, 
as above described. The evidence afforded by the 
plate itself of its having been engraved from a 
drawing by John Hoker is amply confirmed by 
documents in the Record Room of Exeter Guild- 
hall. Bound up with his MS. account of the city, 
of which he was the first chamberlain and the 
first and best historian, are three or four rude 
coloured sketch plans, on which his own hand- 
writing is to be easily recognized, and which were 
obviously essays for the drawing (if not the identi- 
cal drawings) on which the engraving is founded. 
No one of these forms by itself a representation of 
the entire city, as shown in the engraving, and yet 
a comparison of their details conclusively proves 
that Hoker, the artist, and Hogenbergius, the 
engraver, were working in concert. If any of your 
numerous readers are acquainted with other im- 
pressions of this interesting map, they may possibly 
be in a position to decide whether the belief in the 
uniqueness of Mr. Brodie's copy is well founded or 
otherwise. R. DYMOND. 

Exeter. :, 

HOSPITAL. On the south side of the chancel of 
the church of St. Mary and St. Margaret, Sprow- 
ston, co. Norfolk, is a large and costly marble 
monument to the memory of Sir Thomas Adams, 
Bart., who was formerly Lord Mayor of London, 
on which are life-size recumbent figures of himself, 
with his chain and robes of office, and his wife 
weeping above him, while on either side are two 
smaller figures, also weeping. There is a long 
Latin inscription. Sir Thomas was born at Wem, 
in Shropshire, in the year 1586. He was educated 
at the University of Cambridge, and afterwards 
commenced business as a draper in London. He 
rose to be sheriff in 1639, and was made Lord 
Mayor in 1645. At various times he represented 
the City in Parliament, and was chosen President 
of St. Thomas's Hospital, which institution he 
saved from ruin by discovering the frauds of a 
dishonest officer of the institution. He was sub- 
sequently dignified with the title of the " Father 
of the City," and became an intimate friend of 
King Charles II., to whom he remitted in various 
sums aT)out 10,OOOZ. when that monarch was in 
-exile. When the restoration of that king was 
agreed upon, Mr. Adams (he being at that time 
seventy-four years of age) was. deputed by the city 
of London to accompany General Monk to Breda, 
in Holland, to congratulate his Majesty, and escort 
him to this country ; for which service the king, 
after the restoration, knighted him in the month 
of December, 1663, and some time afterwards ad- 
vanced him to the dignity of a baronet. As a 
public benefactor Sir Thomas's character stands 

highly conspicuous. He gave the house of his 
birth at Wem as a free school to the town, and 
liberally endowed it. He also founded the reader- 
ship of Arabic at Cambridge, both of which events 
took place before his death. He was also at the 
expense of printing the Gospels in Persian and 
sending them to the East, that he might (as he 
quaintly expressed it) " throw a stone at the fore- 
head of Mahomet." He died at the age of eighty- 
one on February 24, 1667, his death having been 
hastened by his falling to the ground while stepping 
out of a coach. His body lay in state for several 
days at his residence in Ironmongers' Hall, Lon- 
don, and on March 10 his remains were solemnly 
conveyed to St. Catherine Cree Church, London, 
attended by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, the 
members of the Drapers' Company, the governors 
of St. Thomas's Hospital, and Heralds-at-Arms, 
where a funeral sermon was preached by Dr. 
Hardy (at that time Dean of Rochester). The 
body was placed in the vestry of that church, and 
on the 12th of that month removed in a hearse and 
buried in the chancel of Sprowston Church. In 
the welfare of St. Thomas's Hospital Sir Thomas 
exhibited great interest. He purchased Sprowston 
Hall of Sir Thomas Corbet (who was the last 
baronet of his family) in 1645. The arms of the 
family were Ermine, three cats passant azure. 


DANTE AND MILTON. In your " Notices to 
Correspondents" (5 th S. viii. 480) you quote a 
passage from Paradise Regained, canto iv., in 
which the poet says that a tempest is to the whole 
frame of heaven and earth as inconsiderable and 
harmless " as a sneeze to man's less universe." 
This you justly characterize as bathos. It is re- 
markable that Dante, in his Paradiso, has been 
guilty of a comparison which is equally bathos. 
In the thirty- second canto St. Bernard says to the 
poet : 

" Ma perche il tempo fugge che t' assonna, 
Qui farem punto ; come buon sartore 
Che, com' egli ha del panno, fa la gonna." 
It must be remembered that at' this moment St. 
Bernard and Dante are supposed to be in "the 
heaven which is pure light," the poet being rapt 
in admiration of the White Rose of the Blessed ; 
it is accordingly rather startling to hear the 
saint talking of cutting his coat according 
to his cloth. Considering the time and place 
it is, I suppose, the most extraordinary simile 
in all literature. Let any one read the mar- 
vellously ethereal description of the White Rose, 
with the angels flying about amongst the ranks 
of the Blessed, and plunging into the river of 
light, and then, in the midst of all this light and 
angelic music and motion, think of a tailor cutting 
cloth: the shock is like that of a cold douche! 
Milton and Dante are, after Shakespeare, the two 



t" S. IX. FEB. 16, 78. 

greatest poets of modern times, and almost as great 
artists as poets, yet we find both of them on occa- 
sion using a very inartistic comparison. A friend 
suggests that a tailor in the Middle Ages dicf not 
call up the same ideas as a tailor in our days, as 
mediaeval dresses were so much more magnificent 
and costly than our own. This may be so ; but I 
am nevertheless of opinion that for the poet to in- 
troduce the idea of a tailor or, as Gary translates 
it, "workman" cutting cloth, however rich, in 
Paradise (and such a Paradise!) was "the most 
unkindest cut of all." 

In the fifteenth canto of the Inferno there is 
also a simile of a tailor, which, although quaint, is 
picturesque, and much more appropriate than the 
other. A band of spirits in the seventh circle 
meeting Dante and Virgil : 

" Si ver noi aguzzavan le ciglia, 
Come vecchio sartor fa nella cruna." 

As I am on the subject of tailors, will some one 
tell me why the old lady in the Midsummer 
Night's Dream, when the victim of Puck's mis- 
chievous trick, cries " tailor " 1 Why tailor any 
more than cobbler, hosier, or barber ? 


Bexley Heath, Kent. 

The estimate of Shakspeare by the Abate Andres, 
quoted 5 th S. iii. 223, led me to refer to the 
opinion of another clerical foreign critic, the Abate 
Antonio Kiccardi, whose Manual of Universal 
Literature, was published at Milan in 1831. I 
find him scarcely more complimentary to our great 
dramatist than his predecessor. After having 
given him credit for the sublimity of his thoughts 
and the energy of his characters, he continues : 

" Con tutto cio non abbiamo di lut un dramma solo, 
nel quale le poche bellezze original! non sieno oscurate da 
molti e piu grandi difetti. Le sue terribili pitture pro- 
vano piuttosto la forza del genio, die la cognizione del 
cuore umano ; e il filosofo amico dell' uomo si consola, 
non trovando che produzioni esagerate e colossnli, che 
non hanno il loro modello nella natura. I suoi drammi 
sono mostruosi : senza unita nel disegno, senza morale 
nell' azione, senza decoro nell' espressione, accozzano 
insieme di tutto, stravaganze, orridezze, oscenita, incoe- 
renze, bassezze le piu biasimevoli. Si trova spesso nella 
medesima opera il comico piu basso col tragico piu sub- 
lime," &c. 

And the worst part of all is that 
" intanto il generale entusiasmo per questo autore ha 
perpetuate i suoi difetti sul teatro Inglese, e ne ha 
sbandito ilbuon gusto sino a questi tempi." Pp. 393, 394. 
0. W. BlNGHAM. 

About thirty years ago, being at the Gogerdden 
Arms, Aberystwith, Mr. Powell Davis the land- 
lord, who also farmed some land in the vicinity, 
informed me that he had grown some extraordinary 
black barley, said to be famous for its malting 
property, that had a history attached to it which I 

now forget, but unfortunately his turkeys were so 
fond of this grain that they flew over a high hedge 
to get at it, and ate it as soon as it ripened upon 
the stalk, so that he could not keep any of it to 
cut. I felt interested at his account, and he kindly 
gave me the address of the person who had supplied 
him, by whom it was publicly advertised. I wrote 
to the advertiser to send a small quantity to a 
friend of mine, an agriculturist in the southern 
division of Northumberland, who got sufficient to 
sow a rood of land. The barley grew up and 
promised an abundant crop; but so soon as it 
ripened it attracted all the birds of the district, 
who appeared to have some mode of communicat- 
ing the news, as they came in flocks and took the 
grain in the ear as it ripened. A boy was employed 
with a gun to fire powder charges, but in despite 
of the gun the birds prevailed, so that in the end 
the product was less than the quantity of grain 
sown. The circumstance of this grain collecting so 
many birds excited considerable curiosity, and 
several farmers and others came from a distance to 
see the crop and the birds which it collected. If I 
recollect rightly, my friend would not again try 
the experiment the following year, as the birds in- 
terfered with his other grain crops, as well as 
with those of his neighbours (who did not like it), 
when they could not obtain the coveted barley. 

About the same period some new wheat was in- 
troduced, said to have been obtained from the case 
of an Egyptian mummy, and went by the name 
of " mummy wheat," which produced several heads 
from one stalk. I have seen it figured in some 
popular periodical. From some cause neither the 
black barley nor the " mummy wheat " was culti- 
vated. The reason why the former could not pro- 
fitably be grown has been explained. J. B. P. 

Barbourrie, Worcester. 

[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

HOGARTH CARICATURED. Can any reader in- 
form me who is the "A C " whose initials are 
on the etching I am about to describe? It is 
x 65 in., drawn with considerable freedom and 
spirit, and a good deal of coarse humour. A figure 
resembling Hogarth, but with dog's legs, is seated 
at work before an easel, palette and rnahlstick in 
hand; a curly tail peeps from his long-skirted 
coat ; an enormously fat nude female figure, one 
of ordinary proportions, and another of lean and 
hag-like form, are posed in quaint attitudes ; 
and a stumpy black-clad man* (the "dunce Con- 

* Probably Dr. John Hoadly, who assisted Hogarth in 
writing the Analysis of Beauty. 

IX. FEB. 16, 78.] 



noisseur") is evidently vastly pleased with the 
painter's work. A satyr grins from above, holding 
a mirror in which are reflected a fool's cap, bells 
and bauble. A middle-aged cherub, with the 
well-known Line of Beauty in his mouth, floats 
overhead, and several minor figures complete the 
designs, which contains half a score of satirical 
allusions to the Analysis of Beauty. 

Under the print occur the words : " Puggs 
GRACES Etched from his ORIGINAL Daubing 
A C Inv* et Sculp Publish'd According to Act 
of Parliame't 1753-4"; and the lines : 
" Behold a Wretch who Nature form'd in spight, 
Scorn'd by the Wise ; he gave the Fools Delight. 
Yet not contented in his Sphere to move 
Beyond mere Instinct, and his Senses drove 
From false Examples hop'd to pilfer Fame 
And scribl'd Nonsense in his daubing Name 
Deformity her Self his Figures place "j 

She spreads an Uglines on every Face 
He then admires their Ellegance and Grace J 
Dunce Connoisseurs extol the Author Pugg, 
The sensles, tasteless, impudent Hum Bugg." 

Was the artist's needle inspired by personal 
hatred, or was it only a weapon hired by Wilkes 
or Churchill 1 J. ELIOT HODGKIN. 

[This is Satirical Print, Brit. Mus., No. 3242, and as 
auch described in the published catalogue of those works. 
It is by Paul Sandby one of a numerous category 
produced by that worthy and others, foes to Hogarth. 
"A. C." doubtless, as Mr. Scott of the Print Room 
suggests, stands for Annibale Carracci, i.e. according 
to Sandby's whim, "Scratchy"; he not unfrequently 
indulged himself in this fashion. If we are to be- 
lieve Wilkes and Churchill, they were on intimate 
terms with Hogarth at the period indicated by the date, 
1753-4, and therefore neither of them is likely to have 
had to do with this satire. It was prompted by the " per- 
sonal hatred" of P. Sandby, one of the supposed causes 
of which was Hogarth's resolute opposition to the insti- 
tution of an " Academy " for artists under dilettante, 
royal, noble, or rich patronage, which Sandby and his 
party desired. This prompted Hogarth's and B. Thorn- 
ton's attacks, e.g. the Sign Board Exhibition, on the 
fussy " patronage " of the Society of Arts of that day 
and some other big-wiggeries, much abhorred by the 
Englishman, who wished painters to help themselves. 
The print refers to this opposition in the inscriptions, 
" No Salary Reasons against a Publick Academy, 1753," 
and " Reasons to prove erecting a Publick Academy 
without a wicked Design to introduce Popery & Slavery 
in to this Kingdom." These passages are ironical, of 
course. The fat nude woman is probably Mrs. Hogarth. 
"Pugg " refers to the nose of Hogarth, his small stature, 
and dogmatic air. There are at least two states of this 
etching ; on the back of one of them is an address " To 
the Publick " in mockery of the Analysis of Beaut)/, and 
proposing the publication of "An Analysis of the Sun."] 

whom I am very much indebted for his interesting 
addition to the Halsham family (5 th S. ix. 76), 
give me any information concerning the above 
family? I came across it in tracing the Skipwith 
pedigree, for I find that Sir William Skipwith, 
eldest son of Sir William Skipwith, Chief Justice 
of England, married Katherine de Aswarby, and 

had an only daughter Elizabeth, who married 
" Georgio domino Moni Bourchier," and died 
without issue (Vis. of Yorkshire, 1584-5 and 1612, 
edited by Joseph Foster, 1875, p. 634). On tracing 
this gentleman it appears, from an Inq. p. m., 
10 Hen. IV., No. 33, that he died without issue, 
leaving his wife Elizabeth living, and that his 
brother Ralph, iged twenty-six and upwards, was 
his heir, not only to his paternal properties, but to 
some of those that he obtained through his mar- 
riage. As this latter property, not very long after, 
appears in the possession of the Tirwhite family, 
I wish to know how it passed from Ralph Mon- 
boucher's hands. Did Elizabeth Skipwith marry 
for a second time a Tirwhite ? The property I am 
anxious more particularly to trace is the manor of 
Bigby, in ancient times spelt Bekeby, and with it 
Kettleby, both in co. Lincoln. Can MR. VINCENT 
or some other of your correspondents inform me 
anything as to Ralph Monboucher's end, by in- 
quisition or otherwise ? SYWL. 

" IN RANCONTEN." I shall be glad if any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." can offer me any suggestions 
as to the significance of this term. It is a business 
expression, and has, I believe, some connexion 
with the goldsmith's or banker's trade. I have 
met with it in several accounts in the ledgers of 
Alderman Edward Backwell (who was a great 
banker) of 1663, but in every instance the account 
in which the term was met with was that of a 
goldsmith and banker, as, for instance, cf. Vyner, 
Colvill, Snow, or others. In the account of 
Hinton & Co., who were goldsmiths at the Flower- 
de-Luce, in Lombard Street, in 1663, I find they 
were credited " by money in Ranconten," and 
debited " to them in Rauconten " ; again, Sir Wm. 
Ryder pays Alderman Meynell " in Ranconten " 
so much. In a ledger of 1668 the term was not 
used. F. G. HILTON PRICE. 

Temple Bar. 

What is the old Venetian proverb which Macaulay 
parodied in this sentence (speech delivered Jan. 29, 
1840) ] P. C. 

THE " Cow AND SNUFFERS." Near Llandaff, in 
Glamorganshire, there is an old roadside inn 
rejoicing in the name of the " Cow and Snuffers." 
I have frequently wearied myself in endeavouring 
to trace the possible origin of the name. How- 
ever, a short time since I read, in the Cardiff 
Times : 

" The ' Cow and Snuffers ' was so named by the late 
Sir Robert Blosse, of Gabalva, father of the present Dean 
of Llandaff, and its odd nomenclature has often exer- 
cised the ingenuity of antiquarians, but no satisfactory 
solution of the problem of its origin has as yet been 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." throw any light 
on the subject ? I may add that the old sign- 



board is quite a curiosity. On it a cow is depicted 
carefully inspecting a pair of snuffers lying on the 
ground before her. H. N. 

POPE AND " THE REHEARSAL." In the current 
number of the Cornhill, p. 193, it is stated that 
Colley Gibber drove Pope nearly frantic by the 
emphasis he laid on the words "crocodile and 
mummy " when playing the part of Bayes in the 
Rehearsal. I have searched my copy, dated 1796, 
in vain for any such expression. H. CROMIE. 

KEATSIANA. How much older than John Keats 
was his friend and patron Charles Armitage 
Brown, the retired Eussia merchant 1 What was 
Miss Fanny Brawne's subsequent married name ? 
What was the exact height of John Keats ? 
Byron somewhere calls him a manikin; and the 
poet himself, in one of his letters to his relatives 
in America, is angry because a lady has said of 
him, " Oh, he is quite the little poet." ZERO. 

THE WHITEHALL CHALICE. I have a chalice 
bought some years ago from Lambert & Eawlings, 
which they called the Whitehall Chalice, from some 
legend that it was used, in the Roman service at 
the Chapel Eoyal there. It is silver gilt, and screws 
off into three pieces, so as to be comparatively easy 
to pack into a small space. I remember being told 
it had been exhibited some twenty years ago at 
some great exhibition in the City, perhaps at the 
Guildhall. The catalogue gave the history of this 
chalice, according to my informant, but I foolishly 
delayed to follow up the clue. Does any one 
know when such an exhibition of artistic treasures 
took place, or where a catalogue is to be obtained? 

K. H. B. 

fore me the following book : 

" S. Augustine's CONFESSIONS : With the Continuation 
of his Life to the End thereof, Extracted out of Possi- 
dius, arid the father's own unquestioned WORKS. Trans- 
lated into Enylish. S. Aug. De Bono Persever. c. 20 
[quoted]. Printed in the year 1679." 

There is no publisher's name, and the preface of 
two pages is neither headed nor signed. Who was 
the translator ? A. J. M. 

In the last edition of Chambcrs's Cyclopaedia of 
English Literature, 1876, ii. 97, it is stated : 

" Charles Lamb, in a communication to the London 
Magazine, says of Lord Thurlow : ' A profusion of verbal 
dainties, with a disproportionate lack of matter and cir- 
cumstance, is, I think, one reason of the coldness with 
which the public has received the poetry of a nobleman 
now living; which, upon the score of exquisite diction 
alone, is entitled to something better than neglect. I 
will venture to copy one of his sonnets in this place, 
which, for quiet sweetness and unaffected morality, has 
scarcely its parallel in our language.' " 

Then follows the well-known sonnet, " melan- 

choly bird." Lord Thurlow died in 1829. Will- 
any of the readers of " N. & Q." kindly give the 
precise reference of this communication in the 
London Magazine, and say if it has ever been col- 
lected'? I can find it in none of the editions of 
Lamb in my possession ; namely, those edited by 
Talfourd, 4 vols., 1849-1850, Mr. Shepherd, 1 vol., 
1875, and Mr. Kent, 1 vol. (1877) ; nor in Mr. 
Babson's Eliana, 1864. WM. BUCHANAN. 

87, Union Street, Glasgow. 

COLERIDGE on WALPOLE. The late Mortimer 
Collins commenced an article with the remark, 
" ' Summer has set in with its usual severity,' as 
Coleridge said." An eminent publisher in whose 
hands the paper was placed inserted Walpole for 
Coleridge. Can any of your readers tell me where 
this remark of Walpole's is to be found, and 
whether Coleridge ever wrote anything of the 
kind likely to mislead Mortimer Collins, who was 
usually so accurate in his quotations? 


5, New Burlington Street, W. 

Feb. 16 (1348), there is a grant from Edward III. 
of the manor of Morton, in the co. of Dumfries, in 
Scotland, which had belonged to William Fitz- 
Heriz, to Stephen de Swynnerton, for his good 
services in war, &c., to hold to the said Stephen 
and his heirs for ever (Rot. Scot., vol. i. p. 710, in 
the Stafford Library). Can any of your readers 
refer me to any subsequent account of the manor 
and of the family of the grantee ? If Stephen re- 
mained in possession it is probable he changed his 
name to " de Morton." MAUD. 

BADGES. I shall be glad to be allowed to- 
supersede my former query (ante, p. 107) by the 
following: 1. Gu., planta-genista ppr. ; 2. Gu., a 
portcullis or ; 3. Az., a fleur-de-lis or; 4. Az., a 
rose arg. and gu. ; 5. Gu., on a tower or an owl 
arg. ; 6. Gu., a tree eradicated, leaves ppr., trunk 
and branches arg., roots or. In my former com- 
munication I used ar. as the abbreviation of 
argen*. This your printer mistook for az., and, as 
a consequence, the beauty of the badges has not 
been fairly set forth. ST. SWITHIN. 

[Az. was plainly written in each, case.] 

find some account of Mistress Ferrars (or Lady 
Ferrars, as she is sometimes called), who belonged 
to a gang of highway robbers that infested Hert- 
fordshire in the last century, and who is said to have 
been put to death in front of her own house at 
Market Cell, near Market Street, in that county ? 

C. L. W. 

EEGINALD HEBER. About the middle of the 
last century there lived in Chancery Lane a person 
having prenomen and family name similar to those 

5 lh S. IX. FEB. 16,78.] 



of the estimable Bishop of Calcutta, but whose 
pursuits seem to have been ,sorne\vhat different 
from those of the pious prelate. The works of the 
one are too well known to require recapitulation ; 
those of the other seem to have been limited to 
An Historical List of PI orse- Matches run 1753, 
and in subsequent years. 

"Reginald" not being a very common first 
name, and being conjoined in both instances with 
" Heber," also not a very frequent designation, I 
am led to ask if there might have been any family 
connexion between the two. The bishop could 
not have been the son of the other person referred 
to ; his father was a divine of some repute, who 
succeeded to a brother's estate in- Shropshire in 
1766, and subsequently, aft the demise of his 
brother's widow, in 1803, to the family estate in 
Yorkshire. It would be then only in that county 
that we might trace the connexion, if any, between 
the two men similar in name but so different in 
their pursuits ; though, if I may be pardoned the 
remark, I would say that each was an ardent 
lover of his race. PHILIP ABRAHAM. 

147, Govver Street. 

GERMAN MEASLES. Why is this malady so 
named ? If the term were popular but it is hardly 
that yet one might suppose German to imply 
that the malady was spurious; that it simulated 
the genuine malady, as " German " silver does the 
pure metal. Is not German here germanus, akin 
to, as in cousin-german ? Or is this type of 
measles so common in Germany that it has become 
thus designated 1 Perhaps some medical reader of 
" N. & Q." will throw light upon the origin of the 


" LIBERTY AND PROPERTY ! " Voltaire fre- 
quently alludes to this as the recognized national 
watchword of Englishmen. Fielding makes the 
electioneerers in Pasquin agree that 

" We '11 fill the air with our repeated cries 
Of ' Liberty and Property ! ' and ' No Excise ! ' " 

To how late a date did the words continue in use 
as a familiar phrase ? CYRIL. 


Autobiography of a Country Curate; or, Passages of 
a Life without a Living. 2 vols. in 1. London, Smith, 
Elder & Co., Cornhil'l, Booksellers to their Majesties, 
n.d., post 8vo., pp. 276 and 257. 


Law Quibbles: \ or, A \ Treatise \ of the Evasions, 
Tricks, Turns, and Quibbles, \ commonly used in the Pro* 
fession of the Law, \ to the Prejudice 'of Clients, and \ 
others; Necessary to be perus'd by all | Attornies, and 
those who are or may be | concern'*! in Law Suits, Trials, 
&c. to avoid | the many Abuses, | Delays, and Expences, 
I introduc'd into Practice. ( With | An Essay on the 
Amendment and Reduction | of the Laws of England. | 
The Third Edition, Corrected. | To which is added, | A 
New propos'd Act of Parliament, for a | thorough Regu- 

lation of the Practice of the Law. I And also 1 The Con- 
tents of Divers late Statutes, relating to I Vexatious 
Arrests, Attornies and Solicitors, | Bribery, Forgery and 
Perjury, &c. | In the Savoy | printed by E. & R. Nutt, 
and R. Gosling | (Assigns of Edw. Sayer, Esq), for L. 
Corbett, at ] Addison's Head without Temple Bar. 1729. 


Wanted reference to a "piece" called New Potatoes. 


" Instead of useful works, like Nature's grand, 
Enormous cruel wonders crush the land." 

R. C. A. P. 

" Plus negabit in una hora unua asinus quam centum 
doctores in centum annis probaverint." 


" How can we admire, when we are all starving ? 

So less of your gilding, and more of your carving." 
Can any of your readers complete this epigram, of which 
I remember only the last two lines, and say the occasion 
of its composition 1 Martial has a similar one, on some 
ostentatious but stingy Roman (book iv. 78, In Varum). 


(2 nd S. viii. 228, 294, 357 ; 5 th S. viii. 472.) 

The following stray notes, collected for another 
purpose, though by no means exhaustive, will tend 
to throw some light upon the history of the family 
of Nanfan, and the question of there being still 
existing any legitimate descendants of that family. 
There can be no doubt, I think, that the family 
was Cornish, though they possessed property in 
Worcestershire. Of their connexion with the 
latter county I am unable to say anything. It is 
situate beyond the range of my researches. 

The first of the name of whom I have any know- 
ledge is Henry Nanfan, who was Keeper of the 
Fees of the Duchy of Cornwall in 1374 (Ministers' 
Accounts, Duchy of Cornwall, 48 Edw. III.). In 
1386 Henry Nanfan held, as one of the trustees, 
certain manors belonging to the family of Bo- 
drigan (Fed. Fin., 10 Kich. III., Michs.). In 
14 Kich. II. Thomas Nanfan was one of the jurors 
upon an inquisition concerning the franchises of 
the priory of Plympton, in the manor of Lanow, 
and the advowson of the church of the same manor, 
in Cornwall. The same Thomas and Johanna his 
wife, in 1397, were parties to a fine for the settle- 
ment upon them and their heirs of the manor of Pen- 
fons and other lands in the same county (Fed. Fin., 
20 Bich. II., Easter;. John Nanfan was Sheriff 
of Cornwall in the 7th and 18th of Henry VI., 
and, according to tradition, was a servant to one 
of the Erysy family, temp. Henry V. In 1431 
Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, John Nan- 
fan, Esq., and others, levied a fine of David Halep 
and Margaret his wife of the manor of TretheweU, 
in the parish of St. Eval, Cornwall, and divers 
other manors and lands, and the advowson of the 



. IX. FEB. 16, 78. 

church of St. Tudy, all in the same county, whereby 
the said David and Margaret quit-claimed for 
themselves and the heirs of the said Margaret all 
the said manors, &c., to the said earl, John Nan- 
fan, and the others, and the heirs of the said John 
for ever. (All these manors and lands had been 
parcel of the possessions of John Billon, of Trethe- 
well, who was living in 1396, and would seem to 
have been carried in marriage to David Halep by 
Margaret his wife, for she was clearly the inhere- 
trix. Was she the daughter and heir of John 
Billon, or of Walter his brother ? For information 
upon this point I should be grateful.) John Nan- 
fan presented to the church of St. Tudy, 1444. 
He is believed to be the son of the last mentioned, 
was Sheriff of Cornwall in the 29th and 35th 
Henry VI., and is the first of the county sheriffs 
on the Pipe Rolls styled " Esquire," that title not 
being usually given to the sheriffs until about the 
middle of the reign of Henry VIII. In 1453 he 
was made Governor of the Islands of Guernsey 
and Jersey (Pat. Eoll, 31 Hen. VI., m. 25), and 
three years later collector of all the customs, &c., 
there (Pat. Eoll, 31 Hen. VI:, m. 5). To him 
succeeded Richard Nanfan, whom we find in the 
Commission of the Peace for Cornwall in 1st 
Henry VII. (Pat. Roll, 1 Hen. VIL, part i. m. 33). 
In the same year he is styled "Esquire of the 
King's Body," and two years afterwards he re- 
ceived a grant from the king of the manors of 
Bliston, Camanton, and Helston Tony, in Corn- 
wall, in tail male, to hold by the service of one 
knight's fee (Pat. Roll, 3 Hen. VIL, part ii. m. 15). 
In this grant he is also styled ' ; Esquire of the 
King's Body." He was dubbed a knight by the 
king before Christmas, 1488 (anno 4), on the way 
towards Kingston, when the king sent him ambas- 
sador into Spain (Cott. MSS., Claud. III.). He 
was Sheriff of Cornwall in 1489. Sir Richard 
Nanfant died Jan. 1, 1506-7, and it appears from 
the inquisition taken thereupon that he was seised, 
inter alia, of the manor of Trethewel, &c., and 
the advowson of the church of St. Tudy, and that 
he enfeoffed Richard, Bishop of Exeter, and others, 
to hold to them and their heirs in fee to the use 
of the said Richard Nanfant and his heirs, and to 
the performance of his last will ; and that after- 
wards the said bishop and the others suffered a 
recovery in the said manors, &c., to Thomas Brad- 
bury, James Erysy, and Robert Tredonek, to hold 
to them and their heirs, by virtue of which the 
said parties were seised in fee to the same uses ; 
and that afterwards the said Richard, by his last 
will, dated Nov. 10, 1506, and proved in the court 
of the Archbp. of Cant., April 16, 1507, devised 
all the said manors, &c., to the said James Erysy 
to hold to him and his heirs for ever, and directed 
the above-mentioned Thomas Bradbury and Robert 
Tredonek to make a sufficient estate in law to the 
said James. The jury find that John Bollys is 

kinsman and nearest heir to the said Richard, and 
is aged twenty-six years and more (Inq. p. m., 
23 Hen. VII., No. 9). The charter of enfeoffment 
to Richard, Bishop of Exeter, and others, dated 
Dec. 16, 4 Hen. VII., is now in the muniment 
room of Sir John Salusbury-Trelawny at Trelawne, 
Cornwall, Baronet. 

The will of Sir Richard Nanfan, dated as above 
stated, is, I think, of sufficient interest to be given 
with some fulness, especially as it would seem to 
dispose of the claims of the Nanfans of Worcester- 
shire to be legitimate descendants of the family. 
He gives his body to be buried in the place on 
the north side of the " south yle of the Church of 
Seint Bart'hus spitell in West Smythfeld, London, 
where I use to sett in my pewe there. It. I will 
myn Executor shall purvey and ordeyne a con- 
venyent tombe according to my degre, to be made 
and set o'er my body w th a scripture to be graven 
in latten of all suche offices as I have had and 
occupied in this world, to be fixed vnto the same 
tombe." Bequeaths for the good of his soul various 
legacies. Gives to Dame Margaret, his wife, as 
much plate of silver and silver gilt as shall amount 
to the value of 100 marks, 20Z. in money, &c. ; 
gives to John Nanfan his great red horse that came 
from Calais ; gives a ship of silver,* price vjs. viijd., 
to be offered to St. George in South wark, and 
another like ship of silver, of a like price, to Seynt 
George in Cornwall. Devises all his manors, &c., 
in Cornwall, as stated above, to James Erysy and 
his heirs and assigns for ever ; gives to Elizabeth 
Welles an annuity of 101. as long as she shall be 
of good lyvyng, guyding, and governance ; gives to 
John Nanfan, his bastard son, all the residue of 
his lands and manors in the county of Worcester, and 
to his heirs for the term of thirty years, remainder 
to him and the heirs male of his body ; in default, 
remainder to the right heirs of testator. Appoints 
Thomas Wulcy, clerk, and the said James Erysy, 
Esq., executors (Prob. April 16, 1507; Adeane, 21 
P.C.C.). Soon afterwards a pardon and release 
under the Great Seal was granted to Thomas 
Wulcy, clerk, and James Erysy, executors of the 
will of Richard Nanfan, Knt., late the Icing's deputy 
of Calais, and sheriff of the counties of Worcester 
and Cornwall, for all offences committed by the 
said Richard (Pat. Roll, 22 Henry VIL, part iii. 
m. 3). 

It remains to say a few words of Dame Margaret, 
the relict of Sir Richard Nanfant. She died in 
1510. In the inquisition taken thereupon the jury 
say that John Arundell, clerk, and John Benson 
were seised of four messuages in South Beaucombe, 
Devon, and, being so seised, gave the same to 
Richard Nanfant, Esq., and the said Margaret 
Nanfant, then his wife, and the heirs of their 
bodies ; in default of such issue, remainder to 

* A standing vessel in which to burn incense. 

gft a IX. FEB. 16, 78 J 



Robert Holbeine and Johanna his wife, and the 
heirs of the body of the said Johanna ; in default, 
remainder to the right heirs of the said Margaret. 
The jury say that the said Margaret died without 
heirs of her body, and that the messuages descended 
to a certain Philip Holbeine, as son and heir of 
the aforesaid Robert and Johanna, And they say 
the said Margaret died April 6, 1510. By her 
will, without date, she directs her body to be 
buried in the church of the Exaltation of the Cross, 
within the Hospital of Seynt Bartholomew in 
Westsmythfeld, London, with her husband ; gives 
to James Erysy her great bed, &c. ; the residue to 
Thomas Crewker, master of the said hospital, and 
the brethren and sistren of the same, which 
Thomas she appoints her executor, to the intent, 
inter alia, that the said master, brethren, and 
sistren shall specially pray for the souls of Richard 
Nanfan, Knt., and Margaret his wife, brother and 
sister of the chapter of the said hospital, and for 
the soul of Thomas Clemens and all Christian souls 
(Probate April 8, 1510; Benett, 27). 

I must apologize for the length of these notes, 
and will retrain from offering any comments upon 
them. The facts will speak for themselves. 


Bicknor Court, Coleford, Glouc. 

Claiming descent from this family, I feel an 
interest in all connected with it, and should be 
glad to know if any of its descendants in the male 
line are living. I have searched for persons of 
this name in various directories, both London and 
county, but hitherto in vain. The following note 
is copied from Old Worcestershire Houses (p. 36), 
which contains engravings of Birtsniorton Court : 

" Mr. William Nanfan died in Newport Street (Wor- 
cester) in 1869. He claimed to be the lineal descendant 
of Sir Richard Nanfan, Knt., who, in the reign of 
Henry VII., was Captain and Treasurer of Calais, Keeper 
of Elmley Castle, and Hereditary Sheriff of Worcester- 
shire ; and to be entitled to Birts Morton Court, and the 
broad lands attached to it." From Berrow's Worcester 
Journal, Jan., 1870. 

An officer of this name served, on the British 
side, in the American War of Independence. 
Authors of this name, whose works are in the 
British Museum Library, are : 

Nanfan, Bridges Essays Divine and Moral, 1681. 
Sermons and Essays on Eccles. xii. 1. 

Nanfan, John Answer to a Passage in Mr. Baxter's 
Book, intituled, A Key to Catholics (1660?). 

I have not met with the title of any work by 
Oervaise Nanfan. H. BOWER. 

(5 th S. vii. 228, 274, 294; viii. 192, 215, 238, 397 ; 

ix. 95.) 

It is much to be regretted that G. D. P. does 
not give us the authentic information of what 

really occurred at Monaco, which he says is in his 
possession (viii. 192). If the papers to which he 
refers really contain authentic information, or even 
only information which may possibly be proved by 
other facts, and so rendered authentic, their pro- 
duction would be of great use. In place, however, 
of giving us any one fact, G. D. P. contents him- 
self with a few problematical suggestions of what 
might have been the case, and then treats these 
suggestions as established facts. Thus he tells us 
that " the duke had sufficient cause for acting in 
the way he did." What evidence is there that the 
duke acted at all ? Again, he asserts that " the 
duke in his anger, and for other reasons, deter- 
mined to give up his position and large income, 
preferring rather to retire into obscurity than be 
burdened with the many annoyances of his life." 
Now what evidence is there that he made any such 
determination, or that his life was full of annoy- 
ances 1 He was then a handsome, popular young 
prince of the blood royal, of the age of twenty- 
eight, with an income of 20,000?. a year, and free 
to enjoy life in any way he chose with one excep- 
tion he was not free to interfere in the govern- 
ment of his brother's kingdom, or to speak and 
vote in Parliament against his brother's ministry ; 
and this both the king and his ministers pointed 
out to him. Travelling through Europe under 
the convenient title of the Earl of Ulster, feted 
and caressed in each court that he chose to visit, 
accompanied by faithful and attached attendants, 
we are asked to believe that he formed the ghastly 
and absurd scheme of acting his own death, giving 
up everything, and retiring from the world to live 
and die in poverty, obscure and nameless. 

It is suggested that the duke was likely to do 
such a thing because more than once the King of 
England, being also Sovereign Prince of Hanover, 
has, when much troubled with the vexations of his 
English government, been reported to have said, 
" I would rather resign the English crown, and 
retire to my Hanoverian dominions." It is easy 
to believe that a king governing two distinct 
countries, and who had endless anxiety and 
trouble from the one, and nothing but pleasure 
and gratification from the other, might talk of 
resigning the troublesome charge. This, however, 
supplies no argument to render it at all probable 
that a prince, enjoying all the pleasures and none 
of the heavy responsibilities of government, would 
not talk of resigning part of his occupation, but 
voluntarily give up everything but his bare life. 

It would be hardly too strong an expression to 
say that the duke could not have carried out the 
farce of his supposed death alone, and without 
very clever assistants. Three or four of his per- 
sonal attendants, Colonel St. John, Colonel Morri- 
son, Capt. Wrottesley, and Mr. Edward Murray, 
were in constant attendance, and must either have 
been parties to the alleged fraud or would have 



IX. FEB. 16, '78. 

found it out. Is it to be believed that, if there 
was any foundation for the story, it would not 
have come out long before this time through the 
agency of one or other of the prince's attendants 2 
All the most authentic accounts state that imme- 
diately after the duke's death the body was opened 
and embalmed, and there is a reasonable certainty 
that some at least of his attendants must have 
seen and identified the body as that of their much 
loved master. We are at present a very long way 
off from any necessity for opening the coffin which 
was so solemnly deposited in Westminster Abbey 
on Nov. 3, 1767. All known evidence leads to 
the conclusion that it really did contain the body 
of the duke. An assertion has been made that it 
did not, and it is the evidence on which this asser- 
tion is made that is now asked for. If it was to 
be stated that Queen Anne did not, as commonly 
believed, die on Aug. 1, 1714, but that to escape 
the constant worry of her ministers (and it was 
commonly said that she was worried to death 
when the Privy Council quarrelled before her till 
two in the morning on July 27, 1714) she had it 
given out that the queen was dead, but that in 
fact she quietly escaped to France or elsewhere, 
every one would say, " Have you one fact of evi- 
dence to support this fiction 1 " In the same way 
I would now ask with regard to the Duke of York, 
who is commonly believed to have died at Monaco 
on Sept. 17, 1767, Is there any one fact known to 
make it appear probable that he was alive later 
than that day? Are there any facts connected 
with his pecuniary accounts, or the administration 
of his property, or letters to or from his friends or 
attendants, which warrant the assertion now made? 


285.) As the descendant of a former owner of Shel- 
don Hall, I shall be happy to give you any help. 
In the Inq. p.m. of Humphrey Stafford, Duke of 
Bucks, 38 Hen. VI., the manor of Sheldon i.e. 
East Hall and West Hall formed part of the 
possessions of that nobleman. In the Inq. p.m. 
of Sir^Edward Devereux, Knight and Bart., 
1622, Sheldon was left to his son Sir George, 
Knight (Dugd., Baron.}. It descended to Pryce 
Devereux, tenth Viscount Hereford, at whose 
death, in 1748, I believe it to have been sold. 
Lord Digby in 1622 was Lord of the Manor. Sir 
Edward Devereux built Castle Bromwich, which, 
according to Dugdale, was sold in 1657 to Sir J. 
Bridgeman, whose descendant still holds it. 

Tregoyd, Hay, R.S.O. 

P.S. Since writing the above I find Sir G-eorge 
Devereux's mother. Lady Devereux of Castle 
Bromwich, was an Arden of Park Hall, and Mrs. 
Arden's (her mother) sister (they were Throck- 

mortons) was Mrs. Sheldon. So I conclude Sheldon 
Hall was part of the possessions of the Sheldons. 
Dugdale's Warwickshire tells all albout the old 

A PASSAGE IN "LYCIDAS" (5 th S. ix. 67.) In 
my note on Lycidas, 1. 46, I did not mean posi- 
tively to adopt the explanation of " worm " as 
" spider," but merely to suggest the possibility of 
Milton's having availed himself of a poetical 
licence of this kind. In that case my citation 
from Sir T. Browne's Vulgar Errors would be to 
the point. But from what I have learned since the 
publication of my book, I am inclined to think 
that Milton meant nothing of the kind, and that 
he alludes to certain maggots (commonly known as 
"flukes") which infest the livers of sheep, and are 
the effect of cold and damp. This was first pointed 
out to me in a notice that appeared in the West- 
minster Review, Oct., 1874. If a new edition is 
wanted, I shall omit the reference to the "spider," 
and substitute what I now believe to be the true 
explanation. C. S. JERRAM. 

Windlesham, Surrey. 

I presume the word ought to be written "tainct- 
worm." Take the following passage : 

" There is found in the summer akinde of spider called 
a tainct, of a red colour, and so little of body that ten of 
the largest will hardly out-weigh a grain. This by 
country people is accounted a deadly poison unto cows 
and horses, who, if they suddenly die and swell thereon, 
ascribe their death thereto, and will commonly say they 
have licked a tainct." Sir T. Brown's Pseudodoxia 
Epidemica, ed. 1050, p. 179. 

The worthy author goes on to state that he has 
administered the tainct to calves, horses, dogs, and 
chickens without their suffering any inconvenience. 
Perhaps, he suggests, another insect is to be 
blamed, the buprestis, or " burst cow," the cruca 
(canker-worm), or the like ; which buprestis (in 
Greek the sweller up of oxen) seems to be of very 
similar habits to the tainct, to wit, " a poisonous- 
beetle which, being eaten by cattle in the grass, 
causes them to swell up and die." 

Such dictionaries as I have at hand seem to have 
based their definitions of the tainct on Sir T. 
Brown's account, viz. : 

" Tainct, a small red spider, infesting cattle in 
summer." Cole's Diet., edit. 1701. 

" Tainct, a little red coloured insect, being a kind of 
spider that anaoys cattle in the summertime.'' Phillips, 
New World of Words, edit. 1720. 

" Tainct, a small red spider, troublesome to cattle in 
summer time." Bailey's Diet., fifth edit., 1731. 

" Tainct, a kind of red coloured spider, very common 
in the summer time." Hallivvell, Arch, and Prov. Diet.. 

Tainct seems curiously enough connected with a 
set of words in several European languages giving 
a parallel double meaning of scabbiness or scurf, 
and of a moth or rodent worm. For instance, 
take Fr. teigne, scurf or a hot scabbiness on the- 

5th S. ix. 

1.0, 78. J 



head ; also a moth (Cotgrave). It. tiyno, a mite, 
a wezell, a meal-worm, a corn-worm, a nut-worm, 
a grub, a cheese-grub, a moth that devoureth 
clothes ; tignoso, that hath a scald head ; tarma, 
a moth or worm breeding in woollen clothes ; 
tecjna, the head-scurf, the dead scald (Torriano). 
Span, tin", a moth ; tinade la cabeca (of the head), 
the scurfte or white scaule (Minshew, Span. Diet., 
1623). I have heard it said in Cheshire of a very 
bald man, " He has the moth." Apparently in 
Latin the double meaning holds, but the worm or 
vermin meaning is more large and general. Lat. 
tinea, a gnawing worm, a moth, wood, beehive, or 
figtree worm, one in the human body, used also of 
lice (Andrews's Diet.). Tinea, a gnawing ulcer in 
the head (Phillips). HORATIO.' 

EAR-RINGS: GEN. xxiv. 22 (5 th S. viii. 361, 
453.) The word "ear-ring" here is probably due to 
the inaurcs of the Vulgate, which in like manner 
may be derived from the evwTia of the Septuagint. 
The use of the word is treated of in -the article in 
Smith's Diet. But to the occurrence of it, as there 
noticed, it may be added that St. Jerome explains, 
in his Commentary on Ezekiel, xvi. 12, how the 
special word inaures came to have a general use, 
which may also apply to our " ear-ring " : " Et 
dedi inaurem super os, sive, nares tuas. Verbum 
Hebraicum Nezem (DO) excepto Symmacho, qui 
interpretatus est eTrippmoj/, omnes inaurem trans- 
tulerunt: non quo inaures ponantur in naribus, 
quse ex eo quod de auribus pendeant inaures 
vocantur : sed quo circulus in similitudinem factus 
inaurium, eodem vocabulo nuncupetur : et usque 
hodie inter castera ornamenta mulierum, solent 
aurei circuli in os ex fronte pendere, et imminere 
naribus." Opp., torn. v. col. 134, ed. Migne, Par., 

The passages in which the word occurs some- 
times have no specification of the use, as Gen. 
xxiv. 22, Judg. viii. 24 ; sometimes state for the 
nose or forehead, as Gen. xxiv. 47, Ezek. xvi. 12 ; 
sometimes for the ears, as Gen. xxxv. 4. A com- 
parison of the renderings in our version, and of 
the marginal readings, with the Hebrew, leads to 
the supposition that our translators felt uncertain 
about the meaning of it in different passages. The 
article u.s. observes " that it originally referred to 
the nose-ring, as its root indicates, and was trans- 
ferred to the ear-ring"; and that "in the majority 
of cases the kind is not specified, and the only 
clue to its meaning is the context." 


Sandford St. Martin. 

Rebecca's jewel was a Nezem (nose-ring) pfj, as 
proved by Proverbs : " A Nezem of gold in the 
nose of a swine : woman fair, of averted taste " ; 
D^iO /DD perhaps contradicting, illogical, but 
not indiscreet or imprudent (JTttflJl N^). Ear- 

ring is more connected with "t^? the listening 
organ, and is possibly the HTD3 (ear-drops) of 
Isaiah iii. 19, as Mr. Sharpe translates. .1 hold 
that whereas Palestine was the archaic crossing 
country of mercantile caravans (like modern 
Belgium), the indigenous language incorporated 
foreign words of products of nature and art. Thus 
why do the Germans say, "Das Thermometer 
(Wdrmemesser) zeigte 17 Grad (Stufen, Tritte) 
Kalte," and let the Greek and Latin displace the 
indigenous 'words ? S. M. DRACH. 

MAC MAHON FAMILIES (5 th S. ix. 7, 59, 97.) 
I see that in my note on this subject the date of 
the death of Ross Mac Mahon has been inadver- 
tently wrongly printed; it was 1748, not 1740, 
Ross having succeeded his brother as Roman 
Catholic Primate for one year. As several of 
your readers appear to take an interest in these 
brothers, I will here give an exact copy of their 
tombstone, copied by myself on August 18, 1852,. 
from the original in the old graveyard of Ematris 
or Edergole, in the barony of Dartrey, and county 
of Monaghan. On a fiat stone in Edergole Church- 
yard : 

MAI I, 1747, ^TAT 67, ROCHCS DIE 

29 OCT., 1748, J3TAT 49. 






Ettington Park, Stratford-on-Avon. 

VEIIE ESSEX CROMWELL (5 th S. ix. 28.) There 
was no relationship between the Welsh family from 
which the Protector was descended and that of 
Thomas Cromwell, who was created Earl of Essex 
in 1539. About that time Morgan, the son of 
William ap Yevan, had taken the more permanent 
family name of Williams, and married the sister of 
Thomas Cromwell. The family then assumed the 
designation of Cromwell als Williams. The first 
who bore this double name was Sir Richard 
Cromwell als Williams of Hinchinbrooke, the 
great-grandfather of the Protector. His son, Sir 
Henry, also adopted it, but his grandson, the 
father of the Protector, was styled only Robert 
Cromwell, and after this time the old Welsh name 
of Williams was wholly lost in this branch of the 
family in that of Cromwell. 

Hence the Protector could not trace any blood 



[5th S . IX. FEB. 16, 78. 

descent from the Earl of Essex, though he might 
do so from his father, from whom Vere Essex, 
fourth and last Earl of Ardglass and seventh 
Baron Cromwell, was sixth in descent, whilst 
Oliver Cromwell, through the female line,' was 
fifth in descent. Vere Essex Cromwell was not 
created Earl of Ardglass, but succeeded to the title 
in 1682, on the death of his nephew the third earl, 
and died in 1687, when the title became extinct. 


E. Q. will find, upon referring to the pages of 
Burke, that this nobleman was not created Earl of 
Ardglass, but succeeded to that dignity as fourth 
earl upon the decease of his nephew in 1682. The 
Earls of Ardglass were the descendants of Gregory 
Cromwell, the son and heir of Cromwell, Earl of 
Essex. The Protector derived his Cromwell de- 
scent and name through the marriage of his great- 
grandfather, Sir Kichard Williams, with the sister 
of the vicar-general. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

LONDON FOGS (5 th S. ix. 28.) Is it not the case 
that fogs in the London valley are caused by 
the great rarefaction of the air, owing to the 
quantity of gas that is burned during the night ? 
Fogs begin about the time that the gas is extin- 
guished, about 8 A.M., and become most intense 
at 10 or 11 A.M. W. S. L. 

HERALDIC (5 th S. ix. 28.) The arms and crest 
are those of a branch of the family of Hartopp ; 
but the beasts are otters, not beavers. 


See Harleian Society's Publications, vol. ii. p. 196. 

G. J. A. 
Clifton Woodhead, Brighouse. 

THE WORD " BEAD " (5 th S. ix. 28.)" fted " 
would certainly be a better way of writing the 
past tense of the verb "read." It is not impro- 
bable that a corrupt pronunciation may result 
from the present mode of spelling the word. The 
verbs eat and beat have to some extent undergone 
this change for the worse, which they might have 
escaped had their past forms been written, accord- 
ing to their better pronunciation, et and bet. 



' THREESTONES " (5 th S. ix. 28.)-The Auld 
Wives' Lifts, Stirlingshire, are of this class. It is 
customary to creep on hands and knees between 
the upper and two lower stories. They are said 
to be Druidical. JOHN BULLOCH. 

A SERVIAN DOCUMENT (5 th S. ix. 46.) The 
document cited by MR. LEVESON GOWER is clearly 
the confirmation of a gift of land to a certain 
Zhupan (a title, not a proper name) Vlesimir by 
Stephan Dabisha, the Ban of Bosnia, who also 

took the title of King of Servia. He was the 
natural son of Miroslav, brother of Tvardko, and 
ruled till 1396. The document is no doubt a 
curious one, and I can only hope that this and 
others of the kind, which form such interesting 
monuments of the old Servian civilization, will. 
not be utterly destroyed in this grievous war. It 
is well known to scholars what a number of valu- 
able MSS. (far more important than this) have 
been lost while these unfortunate countries have 
been under Turkish rule. 

The Logothet was the title of the chief secretary 
of the Bosnian and Servian princes. As far as I 
can form an opinion without seeing the original 
document, there would appear to be a few inaccu- 
racies in the translation ; but your readers must 
not be wearied with these minutiae. ' 


INDIA-RUBBER SHOES (5 th S. ix. 29.) I remem- 
ber these well some forty or forty-five years ago. 
They are not to be met with now. They were 
made of the genuine article, not of compo, as are 
the goloshes of the present day, and they were in 
every way more substantial. G. H. A. 


THE ISLE or MAN A BAD PLACE (5 th S. ix. 45.) 
I have often heard the epigram MR. LEES refers 
to, but could never gain any particulars about it. 
One conjecture which seemed to me plausible was 
that the last line (which, by-the-bye, should read 
"choicest," not " chosen ") refers to that period, 
about the end of the last century, when the Isle 
of Man, affording an immunity from arrest, was 
the favourite haunt of broken-down gamblers, 
worn-out roues, and generally of those who had 
lived " not wisely, but too well." H. CROMIE. 

" NEITHER HAWK NOR BUZZARD" (5 th S. ix. 46.) 
" Too high for the hawk, and too low for the 
buzzard," were the words in which a Lincolnshire 
friend of mine delivered judgment on the matri- 
monial prospects of a well-educated girl who was 
the daughter of a tradesman in a country town. 


Gai'/zara /xwpoi? (5 th S. ix. 68.) Essays and 
Reviews, " On the Study of the Evidences of Chris- 
tianity," by Baden Powell, p. 115 : "Some have 
gone further, and have considered the application 
of miracles as little more than is expressed in the 
ancient proverb, Oav/mara. //copois, which is sup- 
posed to be nearly equivalent to the rebuke, ' An 
evil generation seeketh a sign,' &c., Matt. xii. 38. 
From a foot-note, Letter and Spirit, by Eev. J. 
Wilson, 1852." The Greek words and comment 
on them may have only been taken by Baden 
Powell from Mr. Wilson, and by Mr. Wilson from 
the Diegesis of Taylor. None of them give their 
authorities, and it is well known the Rev. Mr. 

5th g. IX. FEB. 16, 78.] 



Taylor scarcely ever did, and therefore he is not 
depended upon. W. J. BIRCH. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club. 

co. SUSSEX (5 th S. ix. 47.) In the lute Mr. Mark 
Antony Lower's Historical and Genealogies 
Notices of the Pelham Family, printed for private 
circulation some five years ago, he records at p. 29 
how, in the 28th of Henry VI., Sir John Pelham 
and Alice his wife had a grant from his father ol 
the manor of Treve with the knight's fee, advowson 
of the free chapel there, and all reversions belong- 
ing to it. Mr. Lower further states that this 
manor of Treve is a place unknown, but that on 
the death of Sir John it devolved on an only 
daughter, Isabella, married to John Covert, second 
son of William Covert, of Sullington, co. Sussex. 
We can now, I venture to think, identify this 
manor of Treve, and that from the circumstance of 
its appearing in the De Banco Rolls, as recorded 
by your correspondent, under the title of Treve als 
Eyver. The manor of Eever is mentioned in a 
Subsidy Roll, Henry IV., 1411-12, relating to the 
county of Sussex, as follows. John Pelham holds 
the manors of Pelham, Ryvere, and Nutbourne, 
which are worth yearly, beyond reprises, 661., viz. : 

Manor of Pelham 10 

Manor of Kyvere 40 

Manor of Nutbourne t . 16 

Rever or River was at Tollyngton, in Domesday 
Tolintune a parish in the hundred of Rother- 
bridge, situate a mile from Petworth. There is 
known to have been a chapel there, and in local 
nomenclature we still find enclosures called Chapel 
Field, Lady Field, Chantry Field, &c. Lotgar- 
shall, anciently Lodekersale, Lotegershale, and now 
Lurgashall, is likewise in the hundred of Rother- 
bridge, five miles from Petworth, and in the rape 
of Arundel. This clearly is the locality allotted to 
Emma Pelham. The other places referred to are 
close at hand : Upmerden, in the rape of Chichester ; 
also Merston, or Mersitone ; likewise Lynche, or 
(as in Domesday) Lince ; Rumboldswyke, one 
mile from Chichester ; and Stopham, or Stopeham, 
in the same hundred as Lotgarshall and Tol- 

There is yet another place which may have 
some connexion with these possessions. I mention 
it merely from a certain significance in the name. 
Treyford is also in the rape of Chichester. In 
Domesday it occurs as Treverde. Before the Con- 
quest it was held by Alard of Earl Godwin, but 
there is a break in its history from this period to 
the sixteenth century, when Sussex antiquaries 
associate it with the Aylwins, an ancient county 

60, Albion Road, Stoke Newington. 

There is a manor called River in the parish of 
Lurgashall. This parish is situate in the rape of 

Arundel, and is distant about five miles south-west 
from Petworth. D. M. STEVENS. 


Lotgarshall and Ludgarsale are doubtless the 
present parish of Lurgashall, near Petworth, and 
Tolyngton would probably be Tillington parish, 
close to Petworth. The river Rother runs through 
part of the latter parish, and that portion of the 
village is known as River and River Common. 
There are three farms also in the parish named,, 
respectively, River Farm, Little River Farm, and 
River Park Farm. Tillington and Lurgashall 
parishes join. I hope this may prove of use to 
MR. ELWES ; but if he wishes for further informa- 
tion, and will communicate with me, I will try to 
obtain it for him. E. E. STREET. 

Grayling Well, Chichester. 

The following note under "Tillington," in 
Hussey's Churches of Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, 
p. 296, affords a clue to the identification of 
Tolyngton and the manor of Rever : 

" At River, in the northern part of Tillington [near 
Petworth], was once most probably a chapel, the names 
Chapel Field, Lady Field, Soul Field, and Chantry Field 
being still known there ; and a stone coffin was dug up 
on the premises of River Farm." 

To this Hussey adds his authority Horsfield's 
Sussex, vol. ii. p. 181. E. H. W. DUNKIN. 

EARLY BRITAIN (5 th S. ix. 8.)" Conderco, Con 
derch, high point. Peak (of Derbyshire, or any 
other)." The Derbyshire "Peak" is, pace 
Ordnance map and other authorities, not a hill, but 
a large tract of the country, so that places many 
miles apart, e.g. Hathersage, Castleton, Bake well, 
Buxton, &c., are said to be in it as a district, not 
on it as a mountain. Kinder-scout, often mis- 
called the Peak, is not even a high point, but 
a lofty plateau two miles or more long, E. to W., 
about half as wide, N. to S., and 2,088 ft. high, at 
the new Ordnance datum, on the S.W. corner. In 
wet weather its surface drainage falls down the 
western cliffs in a grand shoot, which after heavy 
rain has been seen from Manchester glittering in 
:he setting sun, but at other times steals away 
down crannies in the millstone grit of the upland,, 
;o leak out among the debris, hundreds of feet 
3elow, as the Kinder brook en route Hayfield, &c. 
Kinder-scout is at any rate good early British, 
Kin(cin)-dwr-scwd meaning in Cymraeg "high 
water cataract," a name sufficiently appropriate, as 
;he source must be 1,800 ft. above sea level. Not 
? ar off are the Cluther rocks Cymraeg again, 
binder (pronounced didder} meaning a confused 
leap or litter. Near Snowdon are Y Glyderfawr 
md Y Glyderfach, Great and Little Cluder, and 
hose who have ascended them, as all Snowdon 
;ourists ought to do, will see how true the title is. 

Sale, Manchester. 



[5' h S. IX. FEB. 16, 78. 

FLEMISH (5 th S. viii. 475; ix. 37.) I must 
make a few remarks on W. M. M.'s rejoinder. 
He asks me to specify the limits of Flemish. Un- 
fortunately I have no linguistic map at hand ; but 
let him open Baedeker's Guide, or even ask of any 
casual traveller who has visited Liege, and he will 
.assuredly find that it is the chief town of the 
Walloon-speaking district. On my own shelves I 
have only the Poesies en Patois de Liege of Si- 
monon (1845). W. K. MORFILL. 

BRISBANE OF BRISBANE (5 th S. viii. 208, 293, 
397, 516.) In the year 1840 there were issued the 
family pedigrees of Brisbane of Bishoptoun, Bris- 
bane Macdougall of Mackerstoun, and Hay of 
Alderstoun, framed from authentic documents by 
William Fraser, printed upon two large sheets of 
drawing paper. T. G. S. 


<; Go TO " (5 th S. viii. 28, 94, 138.) No one has 
pointed out, I think, that in French familiar con- 
versation one is always hearing " Allez ! " used 
interjectionally in the sense of defiant raillery ; 
indeed, a vulgar Frenchman's argument, like Dog- 
berry's, is interlarded with it at every point. 


Windham Club. 

(5 th S. ix. 28, 117.) R. R. points out that this 
expression was used by Tucker, Dean of Gloucester, 
at a meeting of the Society for the Encouragement 
of Arts. A very similar comparison is put by 
Voltaire into the mouth of the blase Venetian 
nobleman Pococurante, in the novel Candida : 

u ' Ah, voila quatre-vingts volumes de recueils d'une 
academic des sciences,' s'ecria Martin ; ' il se peut qu'il 
y ait la du bon.' ' II y en aurait,' dit Pococurante, 'si 
un seul des auteurs de ces fatras avait invente seulement 
1'art de faire des epingles; mais il n'y a dans tous ces 
livres que de vains systemes, et pas une seule chose 
utile.' " 

I fancy the above quotation was written before 
Tucker made the depreciatory remark concerning 
Kaffaelle. The story of those philosophical but 
not exemplary young people, Candide and Cune- 
gonde, is known to have been much read in 
England at the close of the last century. 


20, Lower Seymour Street, Portman Square. 
[Voltaire died in 1778 and Tucker in 1799.] 

_(5^ S. viii. 26, 138, 318.)-This appears 
to be an interesting word. In the sense of to 
strain it can have nothing to do with A.-S. syl= 
filth, soil, a word with cognate forms in most 
European languages. Its root must rather be 
sought in the first two letters si, and the I be 
regarded as a secondary element, probably in- 
dicating a diminutive form. Such a root is widely 
extended with the signification of sifting or strain- 

ing ; Eng. sieve is an example. Although in 
German there is an exact equivalent in siebe, yet 
we have also seihe, a strainer, and seihen, to strain. 
In Icelandic sia is a strainer, used especially for 
a milk-strainer (Cleasby). Even in Greek we 
find 0-7? $o), to sift. The interesting part of the 
matter is that the root with an I is not found 
in the dictionaries, and only appears to be 
preserved in the common speech of the north 
of England. French seau, of which the Norman 
form is seille, only means a bucket ; Lat. sitella. 

C. 0. B. 

This word is common all over the north of Scot- 
land, where it signifies the passing of milk through 
a fine wire sieve. The vessel in which the sieve is 
inserted is termed a milsie or milsey. Can this 
word be merely a corruption or abbreviation, which 
might naturally arise from hasty pronunciation, of 
milksieve ? And may not sile be a similar corrup- 
tion or diminutive of settle ? for settling and sileing, 
which are the removing of foreign or polluting 
ingredients or substances, have the same end in 
view. This seems to have as much probability as 
going back to Saxon roots to find the genealogy 
of the word. G. S., who thinks the Scottish form 
of the word is sine, appears to be confusing two 
entirely different words. Sine, or, more correctly, 
syne, means since or ago, e.g. " Auld lang syne," 
Anqlicl (paraphrase), " Long, long ago." But 
G. S. seems to have been thinking of our Scotch 
word synd, which I have sometimes heard pro- 
nounced syne, which signifies to rinse or slightly 
wash. C. G. 


The Scottish form of this word, as given in 
Jamieson's Dictionary, is certainly sile, and not 
sine, as supposed by G. S. It is a transitive verb, 
signifying to strain, and derived from the Sueo- 
Gothic word sil-a, colare, whence also sil, a strainer. 
It is also to be found in Dr. Webster (edit. 1864, 
by Goodrich and Porter), where the etymons are 
sila, Swedish and Armorican ; siehn, Low German ; 
siolaidh, Gaelic ; and siol, Irish ; all having the 
same meaning to strain or filter. The word is 
rather uncommon, but still used in some districts 
of Scotland and perhaps in the northern parts of 
England, and almost invariably with reference to 
the straining a liquid through a sieve or colander. 

A. S. A. 


The same word is preserved in silt, a term 
familiar enough in Lincolnshire as describing the 
fine deposit left by the tide on "warp" lands. 
Silt is a valuable word, as we have no other which 
describes the dregs left by water- straining. 

E. H. J. 

THE FIELDFARE (5 th S. viii. 286, 354, 376, 478.) 
The belief that the fieldfare is a migrant seems to 

5'hS. IX. FEB. 16,78.] 



have been accepted in Chaucer's time from the 
proverbial phrase, " Farewell, feldefare ! " in Rom 
of Hose, 5513, and Troil and Cres., iii. 861 
which Tyrwhitt could not understand. 

Windham Club. 

DRAYTON (5 th S. ix. 87.) The name Drayton 
is one of those curious evidences of the succession 
of races which abound in our land. The first 
.syllable is British, signifying " town." Tre (pro- 
nounced dra), or, as it often for the sake of euphony 
becomes, dre, enters into the formation of the 
names of many places in the Principality. Every 
Drayton, therefore, may be looked upon as an 
ancient British town which was in existence when 
the Saxons came, who, not perhaps exactly under- 
standing the meaning of the term dre, called the 
place Dra-ton. There is a similar curious instance 
in the name of a parish in Cumberland Torpen- 
how where there is a hill called Torpenhow Hill, 
concerning which Hutchinson, in his History of 
Cumberland, ii. 353, says : " Every syllable of 
which word, in the several languages of the people 
which successively did inhabit the place, doth signify 
After a sort the same thing." " The Britons call 
a hill pen. The Saxons succeeding them called 
the place Tor-pen, i.e. pinnacle pen. They who 
came next Torpen-how, that is the * how or hill 
Torpen.' " Hutchinson also gives two other pro- 
bable derivations, which I will only refer your 
readers to. W. F. MARSH JACKSON. 

-am sorry that I am quite unable to answer IDONEA'S 
queries except as regards one item. The supreme 
authority for grants of manors at any period is the 
Patent Eoll, and that is to be seen at the Public 
Jlecord Office. HERMENTRUDE. 

OFFICE OF THE STRACHY (5 th S. ix. 68.) I 
presume 12. refers to the well-known passage in 
Twelfth Night, Act ii. sc. 5. I believe the word is 
now generally received as meaning the general, or 
military governor of the place, from crrpar^yo?, 
strategy, stratgy, stratchy, strachy. 

If your correspondent will turn to Charles 
Knight's Pictorial Edition of ShaJcspeare, he will 
find in a note on the place nearly as much informa- 
tion as it is possible to collect on the point. Halli- 
well notices the word, but imperfectly. 

W. T. M. 

Nearly all to be said on this noted and almost 
desperate Shakspearian crux may be found in voce 
"Strachy" in the Glossary (vol. ix. p. 419) of Dyce's 
Shakespeare, second edition, 1867. HORATIO. 

" TRA. SA. " (5 th S. ix. 68) is an abbreviation for 
: ' traxit sanguinem." In the Court Rolls of the 
Manor of Titsey such entries as the following occur 
frequently, although not in an abbreviated form. 

In 4 Hen. IV. : " Juratorespresentant quod Jolies 
Helyar injuste 'traxit sanguinem' de Valentino 
Mory''; and again, in 7 Hen. IV.: "Presentant 
quod Rob tus Stonhurst injuste et contra pacem 
' traxit sanguinem ' cum una Rakestel de Simone 
Coflfyn." " Item quod Joh na uxor Johis Larnbe 
contra pacem * traxit sanguinem ' de Alicia uxore 
Thome Cheseman cum pugillo suo ad insultuni 
ipsius Johannis." G. L. G. 

Titsey Place. 

The third passage surely should read, " Et quod 
Felicia Mule ward levavit hutesium -irrjuste super 
Aliciam Foreward, ideo in misericordia." A proper 
raising of a hue and cry could hardly be finable. 
Probably the transcriber has read " hutesium " for 
" hutesiu [with an abbreviation mark over the final 
u] in." WALTER EYE. 

In the court rolls which I have examined " ex- 
traxit sanguinem" is commonly used, and the 
contraction takes the form of " extra, sa." or " ex. 
sa." K. P. D. E. 

AN OLD WORK ON GEOMETRY (5 th S. ix. 67.) 
The work inquired for by B. H. J. is 

" Practical Geometry ; Or a New and Easy Method of 
Treating that Art, whereby the Practice of it is render'd 
plain and familiar, and the Student is directed in the 
most easy manner thro* the several Parts and Progres- 
sions of it. Translated from the French of Monsieur 
S. Le Clerc. The Fourth Edition. Illustrated with 
Eighty Copper-Plates. Wherein, besides the several 
Geometrical Figures, are contained many Examples of 
Landskips, Pieces of Architecture, Perspective, Draughts 
of Figures, Ruins, &c. London, Printed for T. Bowles, 
Print and Map-seller in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and J. 
Bowles, Print and Map-seller, at the Black Horse, Corn- 

"lill. MDCCXLII." 

This title-page is taken from the copy in the Edu- 
cational Library at the South Kensington Museum. 

K. 0. Y. 

FANS (5 th S. ix. 88.) The Liverpool Art Club 
leld a special exhibition of 176 fans in the club- 
louse in the late autumn of last year (1877). An 
nteresting and instructive introduction to the 
catalogue was contributed by Mr. G. A. Audsley, 
of Liverpool. The Wyatt collection of 148 fans, 
*iven to the nation by the late Sir M. Digby 
Wyatt and Lady Wyatt, a short time prior to the 
death of the former, is exhibited at the South 
Kensington Museum. Each fan is separately 
described by a label mounted with it. The collec- 
tion consists of English, French, Italian, Flemish, 
Dutch, German, Chinese, and Japanese fans. 


South Kensington Museum. 

[It is announced tbat an exhibition of fans and a com- 
petition in the art of fan-making are about to be held 
n the City, under the auspices of the Fan-Makers' Com- 
iany a guild founded in 1709, under a charter granted 
y Queen Anne, and which it is understood a vigorous 
ttempt is now being made to resuscitate.] 



[5 th S. IX. FEE. 16, 78. 

OF DINTON (5 th S. viii. 409 ; ix. 16, 99.) Edward 
Hyde, Earl of Clarendon (vide Banks's Dormant 
and Extinct Baronage,, vol. iii. pp. 193 and 6^8, 
edit, of 1809), was son of Henry Hyde, of Pyrton 
and Dinton, co. Wilts, who married Mary, dau. 
and heiress of Edw. Langford, of Trowbridge (vide 
Hutchins's Dorset, vol. ii. p. 494, 2nd ed., 1803). 
He was third son of Lawrence Hyde, of West 
Hatche (vide Sir K. C. Hoare's Wilts, and also E. 
Kite's Brasses of Wilts, Tisbury Church), who was 
third son of Kobert Hyde, of Norbury and Hyde, 
Cheshire (Inq. p. m., 22 Hen. VIII.), for whose 
pedigree to time of King Henry III. vide Orme- 
rod's Cheshire, vol. iii. p. 394. 

Besides the family located at Dinton, as men- 
tioned above, there were also Hydes of Denton, 
Lancashire (vide Baines's Hist, of Lancashire, 
vol. iii. p. 167). H. BARRY HYDE. 

Univ. Coll., Durham. 

S. ix. 87, 114.) The story mentioned by T. W. C., 
called " The Thirteenth Chime : a Legend of Old 
London," originally appeared in the Illuminated 
Magazine, about the year 1843 or 1844 I think in 
either the third or fourth volume of that periodical, 
which was issued in quarto form, and was edited 
by Douglas Jerrold. It was illustrated by John 
Leech and Kenny Meadows, and, though well 
got up and conducted, its career was a very short 
one to the best of my recollection, only running 
over two years. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I spent a long summer day at Chioggia (pro- 
nounced Chioza] in 1875, exploring the place, and 
observing the folk and their ways ; and I saw and 
heard nothing of Felice Ballarin or any other 
rhapsodist. True, I did not ask about Felice, for 
I had forgotten Mr. Goodall's graceful picture ; 
but a brilliant Sunday afternoon was just the time 
when he might have been expected to appear. As 
to Tasso, Byron says somewhere that in his time 
there were only three gondoliers who could recite 
him. I heard of one gondolier who could do so in 
1875, and only one. MR. BOUCHIER asks whether 
English fishermen and costermongers would care 
to hear Milton or Spenser recited. Certainly they 
would not ; for, if they are " worldlings," they 
prefer beer ; and, if they are devout, they probably 
go to some philistine preacher who knows no more 
of Milton and Spenser than they do. But I can 
testify that in Yorkshire, at least, the fisher folk 
will listen to verse with interest, and even enthu- 
siasm, if it be written in their own dialect. 

Let me add that Chioggia is a pleasant and 
primitive place ; rude, indeed, but not unworthy 
of its renown as the scene of the famous war of 
Chioggia. The old white zendale of Venice is still 

worn there by the women ; and, on Sundays at 
east, there are two sights to see the christening 
of the babies, who are all brought to church in 
glass cases like so many wax dolls, and the toilet 
of the maidens, which is innocently performed in 
public. In all the side streets are long rows of girls, 
tying prone on their backs at every doorstep, their 
bare brown feet extending over the stones, their 
heads on their mothers' laps ; the mother, mean- 
while, combing out her daughter's thick black 
tresses, and well, giving them that minute inspec- 
tion which there is not time for during the week. 

A. J. M. 

S. ix. 87.) A short account of the Miniature is 
printed in Mr. Maxwell Lyte's History of Eton 
College, pp. 350-51, 384, where it is stated that 
" Stratford Canning (now Lord Stratford de Red- 
cliffe) was the working editor." The magazine 
was pecuniarily a failure, but its owners were 
relieved from all anxiety on this point through the 
purchase of the unsold copies by Mr. John Murray. 
This circumstance is said by Mr. Maxwell Lyte to 
have introduced that publisher to George Canning, 
the cousin of the principal editor of the magazine. 
With Canning's assistance Murray took a fresh 
start in business, and by the aid of Canning's 
friends, many of whom were writers in the 
Miniature, he was enabled to set on foot the 
Quarterly Review. W. P. COURTNEY. 

15, Queen Anne's Gate. 

The word Grildrig is taken from Gulliver's 
Voyage to Brobdingnag. Gulliver says : 

'' She gave me the name Grildrig, which the family 
took up, and afterwards the whole kingdom. The word 
imports what the Latins call nan^(,nc^<,lus, the Italian 
komunceleiion, and the English mannikin," 

It was a happy name for the editor of a paper 
written for boys by boys. A. H. CHRISTIE. 

BREAD AND SALT (5 th S. ix. 48.) In the North 
Riding, twenty or thirty years ago, a roll of new 
bread, a pinch of table salt, and a new silver groat 
or fourpenny piece were offered to every baby on 
its first visit to a friend's house. This gift was 
certainly made more than once to me, and I 
recollect seeing it made to other babies. The groat 
was reserved for its proper owner, but the nurse 
who carried that owner appropriated the bread and 
salt, and was also gratified with a half-crown or so, 
the tribute of those to whom she unveiled for the 
first time that miracle of nature, the British infant. 
The same custom, I believe, prevailed among the 
poor, except that the groat was omitted. Does it 
prevail still, in any rank of life ? A. J. M. 

FRENCH PROVERB (5 th S. viii. 406, 516.) Cot- 
grave, edit. 1611, renders this proverb somewhat 
differently, " ' Nulle maison sans passion ' : Pro. 
* No house without some humour,' " meaning., 

tb S.' IX. FEB. 16, '78.] 



apparently, without some ailment, mental or bodily, 
inside it. HORATIO. 

Flacius Illyricus, ob. 1575, published Varia 
Dodorum Piorumque Virorum de Corrupto 
Ecclesie Statu Poemata. Bapt. Mantuanus, ob. 
c. 1577, wrote a poem, De Calamitatibus Temporis. 
In the former of these ACTON WEST will find 
various pieces on the subject of his query. The 
latter is a poem in several books relating to the 
same subject. E. M. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. ix. 108.) 
The Tutor of Truth, 3 vols., 12mo., 1779. The author 
was Samuel Jackson Pratt. An obituary notice in the 
Gentleman's Magazine for Oct., 1814, gives a full account 
of his life and literary career, which closed at Birming- 
ham on Oct. 4 of that year. As a poet, novelist, and 
dramatic author he was one of the most prolific writers 
of his day. In his early works he assumed the name of 
Courtney Melmoth. It is said that " no man who ever 
attained public distinction was more exempt from envy." 
However this may be, it is certain that Mr. Pratt met 
with a most unfriendly critic in the compiler of Literary 
Memoirs of Living Authors, 1798, who, after three pages 
of sarcasm, finishes by saying that " if he ever wrote for 
fame, he seems mightily to have mistaken the means of 
obtaining his object." W. H. ALLNUTT. 


" In the glow of thy splendour." 

The above is a very poor translation of some extremely 
beautiful lines in one of Metastasio's minor poems, An 
Epithalamium on the Marriage of "II Principe delly, 
Rocca." The original begins thus : 

Scendi propizia 
Col tuo splendore, 

O bella Venere, 
Madre d* amore." 

s. L. 


Non-Christian Religious Systems. Islam. By J. W. H. 
Stobart, B.A., Principal, La Martiniere College, 
Lucknow. Buddhism. By T. W. Rhys Davids, 
Earrister-at-Law, late of the Ceylon Civil Service. 
(S.P.C.K. Depositories.) 

WE have here two more instalments of the useful series 
in course of publication by the venerable society. Mr. 
Stobart's volume on Islam does not profess to be anything 
more than a compilation from the best known authorities. 
The subject chosen by Mr. Stobart is a most interesting 
one at the present crisis, whether we turn our eyes to 
Turkey, Persia, or British India, and we should have 
been glad to have had some touches of personal ex- 
perience of Mahometanism in our Indian Empire from 
one who must have a certain familiarity with it. From 
a philosophical point of view the Shia sect is the most 
interesting division of Islam, and it is also the only one 
in which there has been a development in the direction 
of asceticism a point not noticed by Mr. Stobart, though 
it was very ably treated in the Home and Foreign Review 
during its short but brilliant career. The Wahabee 
reform, to which the Principal of La Martiniere Hoes 
draw the attention of his readers, is one of no little im- 
portance as a source of occasional outbursts of fanaticism 

in British India. Mr. Stobart's judgment of the founder 
of Islam seems to strike the balance fairly between 
exaggerations on either side. 

Mr. Rhys Davids is one of a small band of Buddhist 
scholars in this country, which has lost a mighty athlete 
by the lamented death of Prof. Childers. The manual 
produced by so competent a specialist is therefore a com- 
pilation of a far higher than the average calibre. The 
subject is a most perplexing one, from its superficial like- 
nesses to Christianity. Buddhist monasteries, Buddhist 
rosaries, even a Buddhist Pope, so to speak, all combine 
to puzzle the Christian student of a religious system 
which "ignores the existence of God." The English 
Roman Catholic Bishop of Clifton, who is stated to have 
been leading the recitation of the rosary at the Vatican 
when Pius IX. was in articulo mortis, was doubtless far 
from thinking how a similar function might be at that 
moment in progress among the snows of Ladakh or on 
the shores of the Yellow Sea. Yet it is not necessary to 
suppose that either was derived from the other, for 
Prof. Monier Williams points out in a recently pub- 
lished letter that in each case similar causes probably 
produced like effects. It is calculated that there are at 
least 200,000 Buddhists in European Russia, so that, in- 
dependently of its importance as a factor in the politics 
of the Far East, the subject is well worthy of study by 
Europeans. Those who have not leisure for 'the larger 
works of Spence Hardy, Alabaster, &c., may with con- 
fidence take Mr. Rhys Davids for their guide to the 
general features of this remarkable religious system. 
But we should like to understand how Mr. Rhys Davids 
reconciles in his mind the apparent antinomy, which 
we feel unable to reconcile, in his account of Nirvana, 
as being a moral condition and yet implying, he admits, 
the cessation of individual existence. Both works are 
provided with suitable maps, which cannot fail to add to 
their utility, but why is the map illustrating Buddhism 
bound into its volume upside down] Can this be a 
feature of hitherto unknown Buddhist ritual? 

The Reform of Convocation (Rivingtons) is the title of 
a speech delivered at the Lichfield Diocesan Conference 
of 1877 by one who, whether as Dean of the diocese or as 
having been elected Prolocutor of Canterbury in four 
successive Convocations, is entitled to a respectful hear- 
ing. Dean Bickersteth's views embody perhaps the 
minimum of reform which is likely to be acceptable to 
those who think that Convocation exists for other than 
merely ornamental purposes. Prototypograpky (Toronto. 
Copp, Clark & Co.) is the somewhat startling heading of 
an historical sketch of early Continental and English 
printing, contributed to the Canadian Institute Caxton 
Celebration by Dr. Scadding, Canon of the Cathedral 
Church of St. James, Toronto. The works of the Aldine, 
Elzevir, Plantin, and other great presses are briefly 
passed in review, but the author takes no note either of 
the Veronese press, which certainly had native printers 
as early as 1472, or of the Italian claim for the invention 
of the art by Panfilo Castaldi of Feltre. Mr. Alfred 
Dawson, F.R.A.S., in a Theory of Gravity and of the 
Solar Process (Pickering), is not satisfied apparently with 
the fact that gravitation has been "invented," and that 
the "verbal statement of the law is left, a grand 
mysterious postulate," but wishes to probe the mystery, 
and solve the difficulties which surround it. We are 
willing to grant the "materiality of matter," and to 
admit a doubt as to the materiality of the "magnetic 
fluid," but after having made these allowances we still 
find ourselves enveloped in a certain nebula of doubt as 
to what we have learned from Mr. Dawson's laboriously 
constructed hypotheses. Dr. Spencer T. Hall, M.A., 
sends us a handy guide to Pendle Hill and its 
Surroundings (Simpkin, Marshall & Co.), in which he 



[6th g. ix. FEB. 16, 78. 

tells the story of that "fery great high hill," which 
George Fox climbed in 1652, being " moved of the Lord 
to go up to the top of it," and thereafter to declare 
Truth in a paper to the priests and professors." Mr. 
John S. StoiT,in a pamphlet on Russia as It Is (Triibtoer 
& Co.), asks the pertinent questions, " Why go to Russia? 
Why write anything about it?" He himself furnishes 
us with the answer that, in his case at least, " both of 
these desires were irresistible." As he confesses to 
thinking Mr. Gladstone "restless and emotional," and 
Lord Beaconsfield a " special-pleading novelist, devoid of 
statesmanship," we are hardly surprised that he should 
sum up the situation in the words, " Everywhere is dark- 
ness, distrust, falsehood leading to chaos." 

the drawings on the screen referred to ante, p. 121, which 
were made by him from the remains when the box was 
first opened. He described the bones as much destroyed 
on the upper surfaces by the action of quicklime. The 
front of the skull was entirely wanting. No vestige of 
the body remained. All the ribs and vertebrae had been 
removed, and the collar-bones and those of the neck 
rested immediately on the hips. The arms were com- 
plete, although the bones of the fore arms were turned 
round the reverse way. The feet were perfect, and the 
muscles of the legs remained undisturbed and were re- 
markably well preserved. A large quantity of cere cloth 
had been gathered together round the lower extremities. 
The bed of the lead on which the remains lay was corn- 
posed of debris of the coffin, fragments of bone, and the 
cere cloth more or less acted upon by the lime. One 
rib alone the uppermost was found, and all the teeth 
had disappeared. Although dried and mummified at 
the period when seen by Fuller, Pepys, and Dart, the 
appearance of the remains was now entirely altered by 
exposure to damp during ninety-nine years in the deposi- 
tory adjoining the Percy Vault in St. Nicholas's Chapel. 
Judging from the measurement of the bones, Queen 
Katharine of Yalois must have been remarkably tall. 

[The above would have been appended to our first Note 
had it not reached us at too late an hour.] 

I cut the following from the Daily News: " On the last 
"lay of the year, old style, which falls on January 12, the 
>'j\tival of ' The Clavie ' takes place at Burghead, a fish- 
ing near Forres. On a headland in that village 
stiii stands an old Roman altar, locally called the ' Douro.' 
On the evening of January 12 a large tar-barrel is set on 
fire and carried by one of the fishermen round the town, 
while the assembled folks shout and halloa. If the man 
who carries the barrel falls it is an evil omen. The man 
with the lighted barrel having gone with it round the 
town carries it up to the top of the hill, and places it on 
the ' Douro.' More fuel is immediately added. The 
sparks as they fly upwards are supposed to be witches 
and evil spirits leaving the town. The people therefore 
shout at and curse them as they disappear in vacancy. 
When the burning tar-barrel falls in pieces the fisher- 
wives rush in arid endeavour to get a lighted bit of wood 
from its remains. With this light the fire on the cottage 
hearth is at once kindled, and it is considered lucky to 
keep in this flame all the rest of the year. The charcoal 
of the Clavie is collected and put in bits up the chimney, 
to prevent the witches and evil spirits coming into the 
house. The ' Douro ' (i.e. the Roman altar) is covered 
with a thick layer of tar from the fires that are annually 
lighted upon it. Close to the ' Douro ' is a very ancient 
Roman well, and, close to the well, several rude but 
curious Roman sculptures can be seen let into a garden 
Avail." II. A. W. 

WORDSWORTH'S PORTMANTEAU. I transcribe the fol- 
lowing item word for word from a catalogue of book& 
and curiosities just received. It is difficult to realize the 
kind of collector whose 18s. 6d. will be forthcoming : 
" 7. An old Portmanteau (shabby) formerly the Pot t 
Wordsworth's, with name inside and date 1820. Small 
size, 18s. 6d." HORATIO. 

ACCORDING to the Report just issued the English Dialect 
Society have made arrangements for work with reference 
to Cheshire, Cumberland, and Somersetshire. 


ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

CORRESPONDENTS generally are requested to send their 
communications as letters not by book post 

SETII WAIT ("Douglas Queries.") Have you not been 
anticipated by our correspondents (5 th S. viii. 471) T 
Possibly you might be able to supplement by a short note 
the information there given. 

F. ROSKNTIIAL (Hanover.) Many thanks. Please send 
another copy, and run your pen through the notes, 
making other necessary corrections in the margin. 

UNEDA will, on consideration, see that his query con- 
cerning a ''great mathematician " may possibly refer to- 
ft gentleman still living. The portrait was that of Eliza- 
beth, Duchess of Devonshire. 

L. H. The chronogram on Queen Elizabeth, indica- 
ting the year of her death, MDCIII., is 

"My Day Is Closed In Immortality." 

W. F. 11. Dunnaye loose substances laid on the- 
bottom of a ship as a bed for heavy goods (Stormorith's 
Eng. Diet.}, 

J. M. 

" Arma amens capio, nee sat rationis in armis." 

JSneid, ii. 314. 

D. F. (Hammersmith.) The usage referred to is 
directed by the Rubric in the Marriage Service. 

J. M. (Perth.) Please let your notes be as brief as 

H. R. M. Ye Gentlemen of England is altered from 
an old ballad by Martin Parker in 'the Pepys collection. 

SENEX (" Heraldry," ante, p. 108.) We have a letter 
for you. 

HORATIO. "Lycidas " too late. 

W. F. Constrained to decline with thanks. 

S. A. PHILLIPS. Baron Stourton and Mowbray. 

A. F. G. LEVESON GOWER. A proof shall be sent. 

W. B. NEGLEY (Pittsburg, U.S.A.) Letter forwarded. 

A. J. (Brechin.) Please repeat. 

R. S. KILGOUR. Answer not enclosed. 

ERRATA. P. Ill, col. 2, 1. 16 from top, read Arwystl 
Oloff ab Seit/ienyn. P. 114, col. 2, 1. 29 from top, 'for 
" Bucks," read Berks. P. 115, col. 1, 1. 14 from bottom, 
for " argillaceous state," read argillaceous slate. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertisements and 
Business Letters to "The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5th s. IX. FEB. 23, 78.] 





NOTES : The True Story of the Cenci Family, 141 St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Truro, 142 Chauceriana, 144 The Morays of 
Bothwell, "Panetarii Scotite," and the Douglases Moses 
with Horns, 145 "The Squirrel," Alveley " English 
Tapestry at Windsor" Platform" The Brill," at Somers 
Town The Ear-lobe-Cherub, 146. 

QUERIES: "Heads of the People ""Grouse" The Mar- 
quis Esternulie Junius : Dr. Francis and " The Con-Test," 
147 Gentlemen Binding of E.D.S. Publications '' Give 
peace in our time "Miss L. S. Costello Goldsmiths keep- 
ing Running Cashes-John Phillips : " The Splendid 
Shilling "Coat of Arms A Print, 148-Hugh le Pauper, 
Earl of Bedford Gipsies in England Shandygaff Sepul- 
chral Mound "Die Bibel, der Talmud, und das Evan- 
gelium "Wrestling in France -Thomas de Cheddar Mon- 
day "Next" and "First" Fire-ships "Le D61uge " 
Chandos, 149. 

REPLIES : The Published Writings of Gilbert White 
The "Bore" on the Severn, the Hooghly, &c., 150 " Hot 
Cocquaille," 151" Scottish Scenery," <fec Francis Cotes, 
152 "Inkle-weaver" Keatsiana, 153 Sikes and Sykes 
Old Stories, 154-M. W., a Dublin Silversmith The First 
Local Newspaper A "Tucking" Mill, 155 " Pomps" 
Irish Ceramics Ear-rings Sunday Schools The Windsor 
Sentinel and St. Paul's Heraldry, 1 56 " Uxoricide " 
Bacon's Essay " Of a King ''Sweetheart Modern Greek 
Bible-Sheep led by the Shepherd" Ralph Wallis " 
Antlers of the Red Deer, 157 Carols A Botanical Puzzle 
Authors Wanted, 158. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


(Concluded from p. 64.) 


Bernardo Cenci, though spared from death, was 
destined to drag out long years of suffering and 
poverty. The most contradictory accounts have 
been given of his fate. According to some he was 
released within a few days on payment of a fine ; 
.according to the MSS. cited by Hillard, Tour in 
Italy, Oriental precautions were taken lest any 
.'heirs of his should disturb those who had taken 
possession of the family property. For the true 
story we are indebted again to Cav. Bertolotti, 
though Venosta, in his notes to Beatrice Cenci 
(Milano, Barbini, 1873), which are often correct, has 
a glimmering of the truth. He has found entries 
in the archives of the Company of the Stigmata 
which show that in the following March some of 
the members visited Bernardo at Tordinona, and 
presented him with a candle weighing one pound 
as a token of sympathy and gratitude for the in- 
terest he had shown in their society. He was sent 
later to the galleys at Civita Vecchia. In a peti- 
tion to the Pope that he may be transferred to the 
fortress (St. Angelo 1) he says he has been dan 
gerously ill, as the air and water are so unhealthy 
that even the fish die. 

Another memorial was favoured by the French 
.ambassador, praying that the galleys might be com- 

muted for banishment. The prayer was granted ; 
and on March 21, 1606, he reports himself to the 
Governor of Rome as having been released, but 
prays that he may be allowed to return to his home, 
where he is greatly wanted. But his troubles did not 
end with his release. Fromhis banishment at Naples 
he sends continual petitions for restoration to his 
honours and rights, and complains of the enmity 
of his sister-in-law, who is averse to his being put 
in possession of his houses, &c., and who is trying 
to raise a fresh trial against him at Naples. His 
poverty was extreme. He does not say whether 
the allowance made him by the Pope in prison had 
been stopped, but he tells Cardinal Borghese that 
he owes fifty ducats, and will have to go into a 
hospital, and that while his sister-in-law is enjoying 
farms and palaces, which bring her in at least 
8,000 scudi yearly, he is dying of hunger. More- 
over, she uses her money to obtain his impri- 
sonment in the Vicaria, from which poor people 
like himself can never get out. About the same 
date Lodovica Cenci addresses a letter to the 
Pope : 

"Most holy Father, Lodovica Velli humbly sets 

before your Holiness the fact, that as long as there was 

an idea of releasing Bernardo from the galleys she 

\vas silent, not wishing to appear to thirst for the blood 
of her relations. But now that great interest is being 
used, not only to bring him back to the very house where 
your petitioner lives with her children, but also to put him 
in possession of the property of which he was justly 

deprived, she prays that orders may be given to the 

Governor of Rome that Bernardo shall not be allowed to 
live in the house with your petitioner and her children, 
else with the continual eight of him the remembrance of 
the old wounds of this unhappy family would be brought 
up again. Who can be secure of a youth who did not 
even spare his own father 1 ?" 

In fact, though suffering at first from great poverty, 
Lodovica and her children had in 1600 been put 
in possession of the whole Cenci property, on pay- 
ment of 80,000 sc., with the exception of Torre 
Nuova, which had been sold to the Borghese 
family by the Fisco to satisfy Count Cenci's cre- 
ditors, who were said to press for payment of the 
loans, as I suppose, that he had contracted in 
1594. To keep the property in her children's 
hands was now the object of Lodovica's life, and 
she did not hesitate to repeat the charge of par- 
ricide, of which her own husband had declared 
Bernardo innocent. Unhappy family, indeed, 
always fated to be divided against itself ! 

These wretched dissensions continued, with what 
result is not evident. In the course of them a 
memorial occurs from. Lodovica, asking that her 
advocate may consult the processo, which is not 
accessible to the public. This is confirmed by a 
document reprinted by D'Albono, the existence of 
which, I believe, has often been denied, namely, 
the entire prohibition under penalties of any pub- 
lication relating to the Cenci tragedy. It runs 
thus : 



[5th S. IX. FEB. 23, '78. 

"Clemens P. P. VIIL, Pastoralibus Romani, &c. 

Multa scripta currunt, sic venit ad aures nostras, super 
domestica facta Cineium, et scriptores, jam in odium 
Sanctae Ecclesiae, non solum adversary et vituperare 
praesumunt Pontifices Romanes, sed etiam Sacrse Ro- 

manae Rotre Decisiones in hac alma urbe incriminare 

volunt, et despicere. Et sicut nobis nuper exponi fece- 
runt dilecti filii Praesidens et Officiales ex libello prse- 
dicto, et impio labore quaerunt lucrum, et secreto curant 

imprimi et libellum impressum vendere in dicta 

nostra alma urbe...inhibemus et prohibemus universis 
Christi fidelibus praesertim librorum Impressoribua et 

Bibliopolis maturaque deliberatione declaramus (ut 

non dare materia funestam historian! repetendi), libellum 

praedictum tarn in magno quam in parvo folio in 

odium auctoris etper praesentes injungimusut poenas 

praedictas in contravenientes irremisibiliter exequantur. 

" Datum Romse sub annulo Piscatoris Sep. 11, 1600, 
Pontificatus nostri anno decimo." 

It would be curious to find this printed book, and 
it must be remembered that no authentic copy of 
the process is accessible, except the portion pos- 
sessed by D'Albono, the so-called MS. copies 
being merely relations of the affair with a few 
quotations from the evidence. 

Bernardo returned to Eome on a free pardon, 
granted him by Paul V., and on August 3, 1614, 
married his relation Clizia Cenci, and died in 1626, 
leaving several children. His widow, by an ar- 
rangement with the family, obtained 20,000 sc. for 
her children. The family of Giacomo sold many 
of the Cenci estates Testa di Lepre to Card. 
Borghese in 1612, and Falcognano to Card. Bar- 
berini, with Bernardo's consent, in 1622 for 
53,000 sc. It is strange, if the family lived at the 
Palazzo Cenci, that no trace of the names of the 
children of Giacomo or Bernardo appears in the 
Vittle chapel. A Ludovico Cenci and Laura Lante, 
,661, lie in Our Lady's Chapel, which is painted 
tfith cherubs sporting among flowers and grace- 
ful arabesques, the gift of Valerio Cenci. The 
arms of the Cenci are on the walls, but not a name 
recalls the children or grandchildren of Count 

The absurd story is often repeated in Rome 
that the Villa Borghese was the property of the 
Cenci, and was alienated by Paul V. There is no 
foundation for this statement. We have seen that 
the Borghese twice bought estates from the Cenci, 
but the first time when an Aldobrandini was Pope, 
which family was not yet allied to the Borghese. It 
does not appear that any relation of Clement VIIL 
reaped any benefit by the condemnation of the 
Cenci, and according to the system of fines then 
prevalent, 80,000 sc. does not seem much for the 
family to pay to enter on a confiscated estate. 

As for the legal questions that divided the 
family I must leave them to lawyers, as they are 
wrapped in hopeless mystery for ordinary readers. 
There were several claimants the children of 
Giacomo, Bernardo, and the three other branches 
of the Cenci family. As far as I can gather, the 
claims of Bernardo were opposed on the ground 

that his condemnation to the galleys implied his 
guilt, and consequently confiscation, which the 
fact of release later could not alter ; while the 
claims of the children of Giacomo were opposed 
on the ground that G-iacomo, by his father's will, 
was only entitled to his leggitima, and that, failing 
any other heirs in the immediate family of Count 
Cenci, the property was to go to the other branches. 
How it was decided I cannot discover. The fact 
remains that, of the two Cenci palaces at Eome, 
one bears the name of Bolognetti, the other of 
Maccarani, both branches of the Cenci family ; but 
whether they have come into possession by "a legal 
decision, or by the failure of direct heirs to Count 
Cenci, has not yet been made public. 

Mario Guerra was tracked by an anonymous 
letter, and brought to Rome in 1602, and was- 
banished to Malta, whence he returned later, and 
was even employed about the Papal Court. He 
was alive in 1633. Bertolotti has found some of 
his depositions, but they do not throw any light 
on his implication in the guilt of the Cenci. 

Our task ends here with the survivors of those 
concerned in the tragedy. Till the Vatican MSS. 
are accessible we shall probably know little more, 
though we are nearer to the truth than those wha 
wrote but a year ago. The secret, however, of the 
provocation which made Beatrice stain her hands 
with her father's blood is buried with her. We 
can only hazard surmises, and make every allow- 
ance for weak fellow-creatures, whose surroundings 
and influences were so different from our own. 

It was in the little church of S. Tommaso ai 
Cenci, built by Count Cenci, and at whose font 
Beatrice was baptized, that the writer first thought 
of reopening this dark page of history. The gloom 
of a November morning shrouded the chapel of 
S. Francesco, where Giacomo and Bernardo lie in 
a nameless grave, and dimly burning tapers cast' a 
fitful light over the members of a confraternity 
who were chanting the psalms for the dead. The 
setting of the scene was in harmony with the 
thoughts it called forth of the family whose 
sufferings and crimes we have retraced. How can 
we better turn and close the last sad page of their 
tory than with the words then echoing through 
the vaulted roof 

" Requiem seternam dona eis, Domine." 

K. H. B. 



The Right Rev. Edward White Bens.on, formerly 

Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral, but since Jan. 16^ 

1877, first bishop of the newly formed diocese of 

Truro, has since his appointment been gradually 

regulating the affairs of the Cornish church, and 

getting the cathedral establishment into order:. 

Under the sixth section of the Bishopric of Truro 

Act, 39 and 40 Viet,, c. 54 (Aug. 11, 1876), the- 

5th s. IX. FEB. 23, 78.] 



Ecclesiastical Commissioners were authorized to 
submit to Her Majesty in Council a scheme for 
founding honorary canonries in the cathedral 
church of Truro and for allowing the non- 
residentiary canons of Exeter holding benefices in 
the new diocese of Truro, and consenting to the 
transfer, to become honorary canons in the cathedral 
church of Truro. The necessary scheme of the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners was duly laid before 
the Council on April 30, 1877. and published in 
the London Gazette of the 4th of the following 
month. Twenty-four honorary canons in all can 
be created under the scheme, of which number 
the bishop was allowed to appoint eight during 
the first year of his episcopacy, exclusive of 
any who might be transferred from the cathedral 
church of Exeter. To the present time only one 
of the old non-residentia.ry canons of Exeter, viz. 
the Rev. Arthur Christopher Thynne, Rector of 
Kilkhampton, has consented to become an honorary 
canon of Truro. 

The bishop has exercised the power conferred on 
him, and on Jan. 17, 1878, installed the first eight 
canons in St. Mary's Cathedral. On the back of 
each stall is painted the name of the saint after 
whom it is named, and below this appear in the 
Latin tongue the commencing words of some 
appropriate psalm. The stalls have been named 
by the bishop, with the assistance of the Rev. 
C. W. Boase, of Exeter College, Oxford, and it may 
be of interest at this time to give some short 
account of the holy men after whom these seats 
are called. Further particulars of some of them, 
which space will not permit of being inserted here, 
will be found in the two volumes of the Bibliotheca 

Stall 1. St. Neot was born of noble parentage 
in the former part of the ninth century, and is 
generally stated to have been related to King 
Alfred the Great. In his youth he took the 
monastic habit at Glastonbury, and pursued his 
studies with such application that he became one 
of the best scholars of the age. After being 
ordained, he retired to a manor in Cornwall, where 
he led an ascetic life, and died at Ham Stoke, 
July 31, 877, being buried in a church which he 
had founded, and which was called after him Neot- 
stoke or St. Neot. 

Stall 2. St. Aldhelm was the first Bishop of 
Sherborne, and was ordained there in 705 by 
Brithwald, Archbishop of Canterbury. He died 
May 25 in the year 709. 

Stall 3. St. Corentin was born in Brittany, where 
he became a preacher, and after visiting Ireland 
came into Cornwall. He was consecrated Bishop 
of Cornwall by St. Martin, Bishop of Tours. The 
cathedral of Quimper, in Brittany, and the church 
of Cury, in Cornwall, are dedicated to his memory. 
From the Exeter Martyrology it appears that his 
day was kept on May 1. 

Stall 4. St. Conan was the first Bishop of Corn- 
wall, 925-40, in the reign of King JEthelstan. 
A charter still extant, and dated 930, bears a sig- 
nature which is thought to be that of the bishop. 

Stall 5. St. Piran was born at Ossory or Cape 
31ear Island, and came from Ireland to Cornwall 
:o preach Christianity to the natives of that county, 
where he died about the year 540, and was buried 
at Perranzabuloe. The Cornish tinners took him 
for their patron saint, and kept his feast on 
March 5. The three churches of Perran-ar-worthal, 
Perranuthnoe, and Perranzabuloe are dedicated 
to this saint. The history of the lost church of 
Perranzabuloe has been written by the Rev. C. 
Trelawny Collins Trelawny and the Rev. William 
Haslam, and much discussion has been caused by 
these books, the former of which ran to seven 

Stall 6. St. Buriena was another Irish saint, 
who came into Cornwall and settled in a wild dis- 
trict near the Land's End, where King ^Ethelstan 
was founding a church. Her day is June 4. The 
church is that of St. Buryan, now a rectory, but 
formerly famous as a rich sinecure deanery. 

Stall 7. St. Carantoc, or St. Cairnech, was 
a disciple of St. Columb, and flourished in Corn- 
wall about 433. He was one of the original 
compilers of the early Brehon law of Ireland, and 
was buried at Dulane, in Meath. His feast is 
kept on May 14. Crantock is now a vicarage ; it 
was formerly a collegiate church. 

Stall 8. St. Cubi, Cebi, or Kebi, was a cousin 
and contemporary of St. David of Wales. After 
being in Ireland for some time he returned tc 
Anglesey whilst Maelgwn was reigning in North 
Wales about 550. He was present at the Synod 
of Brevi in 569, and died about 570. The parish 
church of St. Cuby is dedicated to this saint, and 
his feast is kept on November 8. 

Stall 9. St. German, a native of Gaul, was born 
about 380 of Christian parents. He was famous 
for his piety and virtue, and having entered the 
priesthood was advanced to the dignity of Bishop 
of Auxerre anno Domini 425. He travelled through 
England, Wales, and Scotland, preaching against 
Pelagianism, and attended the General Council of 
the Clergy at St. Albans, where he argued on the 
same heresy. The church of St. Germans is 
dedicated to this holy man. This place was at one 
time the seat of the early Cornish bishopric, the 
town of Bodmin, the original bishopric, having 
been burned by the Danes. Here it continued 
until the reign of Canute, when it was united with 
that of Crediton, and Cornwall and Devonshire were 
placed under the jurisdiction of one bishop, whose 
see was fixed at Exeter. From that period Corn- 
wall had no bishop of its own until the appointment 
of Dr. Benson on Jan. 16, 1877, as before stated. 



[5"> s. IX. FEB. 23, 78. 


"JAKK OF DOVER" (5 th S. ix. 23.) Mr. 
Wedgwood (Dictionary of English Etymology, 
1862, vol. ii.) explains this quite differently : 

" ' Jack of Dover ' [the context given]. In accordance 
with the English use of Jack, to signify anything used as 
a substitute or put to homely service, Fr. jaques is a 
name given by pastrycooks, implying that a piece of 
meat and pastry is old and hard (Roquefort in v. ' Jaquet ') 
The remaining part of the expression is probably a 
punning repetition of the same idea. I am informed 
that a heated-up dish is still among waiters called a dover 
or doover, doubtless do over." 

This is very ingenious, and conveys the views of 
a great authority on this vexed passage. In 1843 
the Percy Society, in their "Early English Poetry, 
Ballads, &c.," vol. vii., reprinted 

" Jack of Dover, his Quest of Inquirie, or his Privy 
Search for the Veriest Foole in England. London, 
Printed for William Ferbrand, and are to be sold in 
Pope's Head Alley, over against the Taverne Doore, 
near the Exchange, 1604. 4to."* 

This tract was also reprinted in Shakespeare Jest- 
Books, edited by W. C. Hazlitt (London, Willis 
& Sotheran, 1864). The note at p. 366, alluded to 
by DR. CHARNOCK, is as follows : 

"A. 'Jack of Dover' in the vocabulary of the fisher- 
men is, I believe, a term for a sole, the soles of Dover 
being celebrated. Whether Chaucer, in the Prologue to 
the Coke's Tale, intends a sole when he speaks of a ' Jack 
of Dover ' is, however, a question which I am content 
to leave to the new editor of Chaucer.f But I may 
mention that it has been pointed out to me by Mr. F. S. 
Ellis, of King Street, Covent Garden, the well-known 
bookseller, that a dover is still the cant word among inn- 
keepers for a disk of any kind which has been warmed 
up a second time (Fr. rechavffe), and it appears to me 
likely enough that the original phrase was ' Jack of 
Dover,' the two former words, with the liability to 
abbreviation common to all proverbial phrases, falling 
gradually into disuse." 

" Jack of Dover " appears merely to have been 
used as a catchpenny title to this skit, and neither 
the import nor the application of the name seems 
any the clearer from its perusal. Mr. Wedg- 
wood's reference to Eoquefort is so all-important 
in the discussion of the present crux that I shall 
give the passage just as it stands in Glossaire de 
la Langue liomanc* : 

" Jaquet, jaket : impudent, rnenteur. C'est sansdoute 
de ce mot que les patissiers ont pris leur mot d'argot 
jaques, pour signifier qu'une piece de volaille, de viande, 
ou de patisserie cuite au four, est vielle ou dure." 

* A later edition, The Merry Tales of Jade of Dover, 
or his Quest, &c. (as in former edition), Lond., 1615, 
4to. Both in the Bodleian Library. I copy these de- 
scriptions from Shakespeare Jest- Books. 

f In a prefatory note, however, Mr. W. C. Hazlitt 
says : " It is evident that the term 'Jack of Dover ' is 
used here (as the book title and in the book) in quite 
a different sense from the one in which it is found in 
Chaucer (Prologue to the Cook's Tale)." 

I Glossaire de la Langue Romane,r>&T J. B. B. Roque- 
fort, Paris, 1808. 

From which text it appears that we may find our 
jade in the category of stale poultry as well as 
among butcher's meats or pastry. As regards 
Mr. Wedgwood's derivation of dover, a rechavffe, 
from do over, I should suggest liors d'ceuvre, an 
extra side dish, in a docked, and corrupted form, 
as quite as likely an etymology. A modern 
English waiter would pronounce the last clement 
doover exactly. But somehow I do not think the 
dover of innkeepers is the dover of Chaucer. 

On a passage so obscure as the present it may 
perhaps be permitted to venture a third sugges- 
tion. Might not the " Jack of Dover " be 
a corruption or a parallel form of the hake or haaJc\\ 
of Dover? For, on turning to Bosworth's Dic- 
tionary, we find Anglo-Sax, hacod, Plat. Du. helcet, 
Germ. hecht,^ Monsee Gloss, hcecid, Mid. Lat. 
hacedus; a pike, mullet, hakot; halceds, a large 
sort of pike; "lucius piscis, mugil," Elfric's Gtoss. 
We find in Bailey " halceds, a sort of large pike 
fish taken in Eamsay Moor." In Halliwell (Arch, 
and Prov. Diet.} " haJced, a large pike, Cambridge." 
Now it seems highly probable that our wide-spread 
word jacJc= pike is rather connected with hacod, 
haked, hake, than with any of the numerous jacks 
which spring from the root jacobus. Moreover, 
in Cotgrave, first edit. 1611, occurs "brochet de 
mer, the sea-pike, the cod-fish " ; and again, " lus, a 
pike ; lus marin, a cod-fish." Indeed, merlucius, 
the vague post-classical term for the cod-fish and 
its congeners, is only the lucius** or pike of the sea. 
Poor-John,^ which is haJce salted and dried, twice 
mentioned in Shakspeare, and occurring in other 
dramatists of his time, bears in all likelihood a 
merely accidental connexion with jacfc,f in the 

A stubble goose is mentioned four lines after " Jack 
of Dover." 

|| Merluccius vulgaris, the hake, a scaled fish 
quite distinct from Morrhua vulgaris, the cod- 
fish, but much jumbled therewith both in old days 
and now in popular parlance, especially when each fish 
is salted as in stock fish, ling, haberdine. So haaf-fish- 
ing is the fishery for cod, ling, tusk, &c. Off Orkney 
and the Shetlands ling means cured hake, but the liny 
is also a distinct fish, allied to the cod, Lota molva. 

[ So far Bosworth goes with Rider (New Univ. Engl. 
Diet., 1759), who says : " JIakod (A.-S. hacod, Bel. hefat, 
Teut. hecht). a fish of the non-spinous kind, &c., called 
by some a pike." 

** Cf. lach?, the Hhine salmon ; lax, a salmon (Halli- 

ft "A haak or poor John, a fish, merlucius." Little- 
ton's Lat. Diet., ed. 1724. The Nomenclator, 1585, ex- 
plains the then acceptation of two rather indefinite 
terms, viz., Asellus salitus, labordean, moluc, a habber- 
dine ; Asellus arefactus, a stockfish. Another instance 
f a nickname given to fare of this kind is buckhorn, i.e. 
dried whiting, " for its hardne?s," Cotgrave. 

JJ Richardson gives a quotation from King, in which 
)oorjack seems at first sight used as poor-jofm. This 
s very tempting, but I do not feel at all sure that poor 
iack means here more than thin or inferior pike. Poor- 
iohn is derived by Mr. Wedgwood from the last two 
ivllablea of Fr. habordean, haberdine ; Du. lalberdaan or 

5'h s. IX. FEB. 23, 78.] 



sense in which I propose to take it of an equivalent 
to hake,* At any rate, there seems to be a curious 
parallelism of nomenclature between the cod-fish 
in its wider sense and the pike or jack. 


May I be allowed to submit to your readers a 
solution of the JalcJc of Chaucer in the liaak or 
hake of the present day 1 C. PETTET. 


Lately reading Father Theiner's Monumenta 
Vetera, I noticed a document which interested 
me. It is usually said by the authorities that 
Archibald Douglas, Lord of Galloway, after- 
wards third Earl of Douglas, married Johanna, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Moray, the last 
" Panetarius " and Lord of Bothwell, who died in 
England of the plague while a hostage for the 
ransom of David II. in 1361. Indeed the learned 
John Kiddell, in his Stewartiana, p. 97, while dis- 
cussing the various branches of the " De Moravii," 
says, on the authority of Gray's MS. Obituary and 
Chronicle (Adv. Library), written early in the six- 
teenth century, that Thomas Moray died at New- 
castle in 1366, and Archibald Douglas married 
Johanna, his heiress, and brought her from England, 
after offering to do battle for her with five English- 
men a highly romantic story. But the compiler of 
this obituary, writing about 150 years after these 
events, could have no special means of acquiring 
the above information. And if the following 
quotation from Theiner is correctly taken from the 
Vatican archives it is clear he was wrong on more 
points than one. On p. 318 a dispensation by 
Pope Clement VI. occurs, dated x Kal. Aug. 
(July 23), 1361, whereby his Holiness permits the 
marriage of Archibald of Douglas, Knight, of the 
diocese of Lothian, and Johanna de Moravia, relict 
of Sir Thomas de Moravia, widow, of the diocese 
of Glasgow. This beyond doubt identifies the 
Lord of Galloway and the Lady of Bothwell. 
That the latter, however, was the widow, not the 
daughter, of Thomas Moray is quite new. For 
these papal dispensations, though they often make 
sad work of Scottish surnames and names of places, 
never misstate the character in which the parties 
seek authority to marry, and hence we may take it 
that Johanna was the widow, not the daughter, of 
Thomas Moray. This view is fortified by the fact 
that he must have been a young man. His mother, 

abberdean. I suspect halerdine and hake are radically 

* Connected perhaps in another direction with Du. 
haak, hoek, a hook, and our obsolete hale, with the same 
signification. Hake means also provincially to gape, 
perhaps as a pike does. But compare also to hawk, 
heck, keck, &c., all connected with the ide v a of spitting, 
coughing, &c. 

Christian Bruce, sister of King Robert, and the 
widow successively of Gratney, Earl of Mar, and Sir 
Christopher Seton, married Sir Andrew Moray in 
1326. Thomas, her second son, could not have 
been born before 1328 ; hence at his death he was 
not more than thirty-three, and was more likely to 
have left a buxom young widow than a marriage- 
able daughter. If this view is correct, it explains 
an armorial shield still visible in the Kirk of BotK 
well, founded by Archibald Douglas c. 1400, which 
puzzled me when writing a paper on the church 
some years ago for the Scottish Antiquaries. At 
the north spring of the interior arch of the east 
window is a shield, impaling, on the dexter side, 
three stars (2 and 1) within the royal tressure, and 
in chief three stars ; on the sinister side, three stars 
(2 and 1), but no tressure. Exactly opposite, on 
the outside wall, is the shield of Archibald Douglas, 
the bloody heart on an ermine field, and three stars 
in chief. The former coat is doubtless that of 
Thomas Moray and Johanna. He, as the son of 
Christian Bruce, bore the royal tressure ; she, as 
of another branch of the Morays, did not ; and as 
wives and widows then usually kept their maiden 
surnames in deeds, she must have been a Moray. 
The point is decidedly interesting. For if, as it 
has been remarked, the appropriation of the Both- 
well estates by the Douglases through the marriage 
of the heiress, while there were, it is highly pro- 
bable, near male relatives to whom these should have 
gone, was a proof of their overwhelming power, 
much more was this the case if they acquired them 
by marriage of the widow merely of the last 
Moravia of the chief line. 

There are in Theiner's great work some other 
curious documents illustrative of eminent Scottish 
families, to which attention may be called again. 


MOSES WITH HORNS. In a work on art,f by an 
American artist, recently published, the following 
passage occurs : 

" What a time (sic) has been made over Michael Angelo's 
' Moses ' with horns ! Michael Angelo felt that Moses 
must have horns! To represent him he must have some- 
thing more than a man with a full beard ; and you must 
accept these horns just as you would a word some poet 
had felt the need of and had coined." P. 48. 

I question very much if Michael Angelo felt 
anything of the kind. In the seventeenth century 
this was a subject of frequent discussion, the ques- 
tion being put in this form, "What's the reason 
that Moses is generally painted with horns?" "VVe 
find it thus propounded in an early volume of the 
old Athenian Mercury, 1691; and what ^ appears 
to be a plausible explanation is given in these 
terms : 

" The Reason is plain ; from a mistake of the Vulgar 

t 'Talks about Art. By W. M. Hunt. With a Letter 
from J. E. Millais, R.A. (Macmillan, 1878.) 



[5"> S. IX. FEB. 23, 78. 

Translation in the Text Bxod. xxxiv. 29 : When Moses 
came down from, the Mount, he wist not that the Skin of 
his Face shone ; where the Vulgar has [quod cornuta etset 
fades sua] a very easie mistake. The Hebrew word 
7P 1 ? there used signifying both a Horn and any glorious 
Irradiation, or Illumination; nay, Honour and Glory it 
self, whence the phrase of lifting up their Horns," &c. 

As to the rendering of the Hebrew I do not 
pretend to speak ; but, right or wrong, the passage, 
as above, is to be found in the Vulgate, and 
it is more likely, I think, that Michael Angelo 
and others should follow it in their repre- 
sentations of Moses than that the great painter 
should conceive an idea so far-fetched as that attri- 
buted to him in the work referred to, and that he 
should be followed in it by other masters. 


Although the sign of " The Squirrel" is not men- 
tioned (in the singular number) in Hotten's His- 
tory of Signboards? first ed., p. 163, yet it is by no 
means an uncommon sign for a public-house. 
There is at least one sign of "The Squirrel" that 
deserves mention. It is in Shropshire, in the 
parish of Alvelejr, about eight miles from Kidder- 
minster, on the road to Bridgenorth. In the 
coaching days the coaches from Worcester to 
Shrewsbury, including the famous " L'Hirondelle " 
and " Hibernia," used to stop there. It was also, 
and I believe still is, an inn much frequented by 
anglers who take a holiday to fish in the neigh- 
bouring river, the Severn. But the squirrel of this 
inn sign is chiefly worthy of mention as being a 
heraldic squirrel. It was the armorial bearing of 
the lady on whose property the house was situated, 
Miss Lee, of Coton Hall, who married (the late) 
John Wingfield, Esq., of Tickencote Hall, Rut- 

the heading of a short account of this work in the 
Times of January 15. It is there stated that " it 
was about the time of Charles I. that tapestry 
weaving was introduced, into England, when a 
factory was opened at Mortlake, in Surrey." Now, 
according to Fuller, " this manufactory was set up 
by Sir Francis Crane about the year 1619, under 
the patronage of King James, who gave him two 
thousand pounds to build a house therewith for 
that purpose." In 1623 the celebrated Francis 
Cleyne, a native of Bostock, in Lower Saxony, was 
employed as limner, and he " gave designs, both in 
history and grotesque, which carried these works 
to great perfection." For his services the king 
made him a free denizen, and granted him a 
pension of 100Z. for life. Within two months after 
the accession of Charles I. he granted an annual , 
pension of 2,000?. to Sir Francis Crane for ten I 
years, one moiety of which was in satisfaction of a j 
debt of 6,000?. for two suits of gold tapestry de- | 

livered for his use, and the other a gift for the 
maintenance of the " Work of Tapestries which 
the said Sir Francis lately brought into England." 
It was not until after the Restoration that Charles 
II. sent for Verrio. Sir Francis Crane's tapestry is 
supposed to have been of some superior kind, for 
Dugdale says "the art itself was brought into 
England by William Shelden, Esq., about the end 
of the reign of Henry VIII." EMILY COLE. 

PLATFORM. The way in which this word was 
formerly used, as contrasted with its modern mean- 
ing, was discussed by various correspondents in 
the second, third, and fourth series of " N. & Q." 
It was shown by MR. SALA (3 rd S. ii. 426) that 
" platform " was used in the sense of ground-plan 
until quite the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. But it is curious that, while it was usually 
so employed during the preceding century, it was 
also sometimes used at that time in the modern 
sense of esplanade or raised walk. The first scene 
in Hamlet is, " Elsinore ; a platform before the 
castle " ; and yet in another place (Henry VI., 
Part I. Act ii. sc. 1) Shakspeare makes " platform " 
the equivalent of plan: 

" To gather our soldiers, scatter'd and dispers'd, 
And lay new platforms, to endamage them." 

The word can hardly be used here in the military 
sense of ramparts. JAYDEE. 

TOWN. The author of Old and New London, in 
his notice of this hostelry, enters into some in- 
genious speculations as to the origin of the name. 
I would suggest, as a more probable derivation 
than any that have been advanced, that seme anti- 
Jacobite Boniface of the period christened his 
house from the name of the ship, the Brill, which 
brought William, Prince of Orange, to our shores 
when he came to supplant his father-in-law as 
ruler of these realms. W. S. JOHNSTONE. 

THE EAR-LOBE. If the ear-lobe hangs below 
;he conventional limit of the line of the mouth, 
and is in the line of the chin, the possessor will be 
.langed such is the orthodox faith. Such an 
ear in England would be regarded as a deformity, 
even among the lower classes, and be repulsive. 


CHERUB. The seal of William Crab, burgess of 
Aberdeen, appended to a charter granted by him 
.0 the Carmelite monastery in that city in 1499, 
>ears his arms, with helmet, crest, and supporters 
see Laing, Catalogue of Scottish Seals, vol. ii. 
3. 41). The arms are a chevron between two 
fleurs-de-lis in chief, and a crab in base. The last- 
named charge is, of course, allusive to the name, 
as is also the crest, which is a cherub in profile 
(head and wings). I take this as an indication 

5* S. IX. FEB. 23, 78.] 



that at the date of the seal the modern pronuncia- 
tion of the Greek -^pov(3, with the soft ch, which 
I suppose we derive from the French cherubin, had 
not been introduced. 

I have lately heard of one or two instances in 
which clergymen have resumed the old mode of 
pronunciation, but it sounds a little affected to 
modern ears. J. WOODWARD. 



[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

"HEADS OF THE PEOPLE." This book, first 
published eight and thirty years ago by the Vize- 
tellys, has just been reissued, in two handsome 
volumes, by the Messrs. Routledge. The " Heads" 
were drawn by Kenny Meadows, and engraved on 
wood by Orrin Smith, the descriptive letterpress 
being written by Douglas Jerrold, William [Make- 
peace] Thackeray, Sydney Laman Blanchard, 
Samuel Lover, Leigh Hunt, R. H. Home, Mrs. 
Gore, Win. Howitt, and other popular and rising 
authors. The editor was, I believe, Laman 
Blanchard. The new edition is an exact reprint 
of the old, Kenny Meadows's sketches being repro- 
duced with all their original force and individuality. 
The editor, in his preface, lays stress on the claim 
to the merit of fidelity for these so-called " Portraits 
of the English"; but to us of a later generation 
they seem to have been broad caricatures. I have 
had the good or ill fortune to see two or three 
"Fashionable Authoresses," "Young and Old 
Lords," "Ketired Tradesmen," and "English 
Paupers" of the present day, and making due 
allowance for change in style of dress and some 
little mental progress, I can scarcely bring myself 
to believe that Kenny Meadows's " Heads " wery 
faithful portraits of the respective types delineated. 
I shall be glad to have some information respecting 
Miss Winter, who wrote the article on " The 
Family Governess"; E. Howard, who described 
"The Midshipman," "The British Sailor," and 
" The Greenwich Pensioner"; J. Ogden, who con- 
tributed the papers on "The Chimney Sweep" 
and "The Retired Tradesman"; E. Chatfield 
("Echion"), who wrote "The Old Lord"; and 
Richard Brinsley Peake, who represented " The 
Theatrical Manager." I shall be greatly obliged 
also to any readers of " N. & Q." who can identify 
for me the following anonymous contributors, viz., 
"Alice" ("The Old Housekeeper," "The Farmer"); 
"A Knight of the Road" ("The Commercial 
Traveller"); "Hal. Willis" ("The Street Con- 
juror"); "Godfrey Grafton, Gent." ("The Excise- 
man") ; " An M.P." (" The Whig," " The Tory") ; 
"James Smythe, Junr," ("The Poor Curate"); 

"A Bachelor of Arts" ("The Dowager," "The 
Collegian"); "Nimrod" ("The Coachman and 
Guard," "The Sporting Gentleman," "The 
Jockey") ; " Arthur Armitage" [qy. is this a nom 
de plume?] ("The Spitalfields Weaver"); and 
"Akolonthos" ("A Radical M.P."). "Paul 
Prendergast " is, according to the " Contents " 
pages, P. [qy. Percival 1] Leigh. 


" GROUSE." I should be greatly obliged to any 
one who would furnish me with an instance of the 
use of this word (in whatever fashion it may be 
spelled) older than 1603, when it occurs in an Act 
of Parliament (1 Jac. I. cap. 27, sect. 2). I should 
also be glad to learn whence the late Mr. Yarrell 
could have obtained the information that our word 
grouse " is considered to be derived from the 
Persian word, groos." He would certainly have 
never made this assertion, which he published in 
1840, without some authority for it. I am told 
by Persian scholars that there is no such word in 
that language, and it would seem as if grouse were 
cognate with the old French greoche or griais the 
modern grieche.' ALFRED NEWTON. 

Magdalene College, Cambridge. 

P.S. I take the opportunity, which correcting 
the proof of the above affords me, of adding that, 
since I wrote it, I have found gryse used in an Act 
of the Scottish Parliament (1551), but what it 
actually means there seems open to doubt. 

THE MARQUIS ESTERNULIE. In a work entitled 
Les Faux Don Sebastien, Etude sur I'Histoire de 
Portugal, par Miguel d'Antas, Paris, 1866, p. 27, 
the following allusion to the creation of an Irish 
marquis by the Pope appears : 

" Un Anglais, Thomas Esternulie, nouvellement cree 
Marquis de Lenster par le Pape, avait embarque cette 
petite troupe a Civita Vecchia, sur un navire genois, 
pour la conduire en Irlande et combattre avec elle les 
soldats de heretique reine Elizabeth." 

In a note upon this passage the author says : 

" Nous ne garantissons pas 1'orthographe du nom de 
1'Anglais commandant les Italiens. Conestaggio le 
nomine le Marquis Thomas Esternulie ; Fr. Bernardo da 
Cruz, Estucli, Marquis de Lenster; et Mendoga, le Mar- 
quis Sternoile. Aucune de ces orthographes ne nous 
parait toutefois etre la vraie. Peut-etre serait-ce Sterling 
ou Stucley." 

Can any one inform me who this so-called 
Marquis Esternulie was, and what was the real 
name or title 1 It is almost certain that he was 
killed in Morocco when Don Sebastian was killed 
and his army annihilated. A. LEARED, M.D. 
12, Old Burlington Street. 

Indirectly connected with the Junius mystery 
is the question of the authorship of The Con-Test. 
I am aware that it is usually attributed to Dr. 
Francis. What is the evidence? In the last 


. ix. FEB. 23, 78. 

number, issued August 6, 1757, the writer says 

" he has not been a little pleased -to hear men eminently 
distinguished for their learning, judgment, and probity, 
named as the author of this paper. But his pride hag 
been most signally flattered by a French translation of 
The Con-Test, published abroad, wherein this performance 
is attributed to a gentleman no less admired for his 
genius than esteemed for his morals. And the writer 
hopes to be excused for not having hitherto corrected a 
mistake which did him so much honour, and gave his 
writings such authority." 

Who was the translator of The Con-Test ? 


GENTLEMEN. You have pretty well exhausted 
esquires. Will you allow me to ask wherein con- 
sisted the difference between esquires and gentle- 
men in the last century? In a list of Poor-Law 
Guardians, dated 1792, I find gentlemen, clerks, 
and esquires ; and in a list of benefactors to 
Shrewsbury School there is an entry dated 1609, 
in which one " Thomas Baldwine of Duddlesbury " 
is described as " in the County of Salop, Gentle- 
man," but the last word is erased, and " Esq." 
substituted. A. E. 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 

one who knows "what's what," and something 
also of what is coining, give advice as to the 
arrangement in binding of the E.D.S. publica- 
tions ? A paper cover is not calculated for long 
service, and I am thinking of getting a more last- 
ing uniform in its place. Now a dictionary or a 
glossary has as much right as an alderman to be 
portly ; and to my mind no work of the E.D.S., 
with perhaps one exception, is sufficiently bulky 
to claim a binding for its own exclusive accommo- 
dation. I should like to keep together, as much 
as possible, the dialects of the same county or of 
adjacent districts, but shall be glad to know how 
others think the glossaries, &c., may be most con- 
veniently grouped for reference. 


" GIVE PEACE IN OUR TIME." It is deplorable 
that any of the petitions of the Church in her 
magnificent Litany should be unintelligible. To 
me, as to many of my friends, the petition for 
peace has an unfortunate resemblance to that 
peace " which passeth all understanding." What 
is the precise meaning of " in our time " ? What 
are we to understand by the assigned reason for 
the urgency of the petition 1 Surely " in reason's 
ear," and to our ordinary common sense, there 
need be no anxious desire for peace if the Almighty 
fight for us. "If God be for us, who can be 
against us?" (Rom. viii. 31.) The whole thing 
reads to me as if some clause had been wrongly 
omitted on revision : e.g., " Give peace in our 
time, Lord ; but if thou wilt send us war, ' the 
weapons of our warfare are not carnal,' for there is 

none other that fighteth for us, but only thou, 
Lord." JABKZ. 

Athenseum Club. 

Miss L. S. COSTELLO was author of Lady Mary 
Worthy Montagu, a burletta, acted at the Lyceum 
Theatre in the Easter season, 1839. Is this piece 
in print ] 

In Genest's History of the Stage it is mentioned 
that on March 15, 1817, Miss Costello, from Chel- 
tenham, appeared at Covent Garden as Imogen in 
Cymbeline. Was this lady from Cheltenham Miss 
L. S. Costello ? and did she perform in any other 
characters at Covent Garden ? E. INGLIS. 

carried on the business of John Colvill, of Lom- 
bard Street, who was Pepys's own goldsmith, and 
who died circa- 1672-77, after losing a large sum 
in the Exchequer ? His widow, Dorothy, married 
John Lyndsay, or Lindsay, a goldsmith in a con- 
siderable way of business. 

Is it known who succeeded to the businesses of 
the following great goldsmiths ? Hinton & Co., of 
the Flower-de-Luce, Lombard Street ; Thomas 
Eowe, of the George, Lombard Street ; Joseph 
Hornboy, of the Star, Lombard Street; John 
Snell, of the Fox, Lombard Street ; Thomas Kir- 
wood, or Carwood, over against the Exchange. 
They were all in existence in Charles II.'s days, 
and the last five are named in the list of gold- 
smiths in the Little London Directory of 1677. 

Temple Bar. 

I have picked up within the last few days, from an 
old bookstall, a nice little copy of " Poems on 
Several Occasions. By Mr. John Phillips, late 
Student of Christ Church, Oxon. The Third Edition. 
London, printed for J. Tonson, E. Curll, and T. 
Jauucy. MDCCXX." It contains the pcems, " The 
Splendid Shilling," "Cyder," "Blenheim," "Ode 
to Henry St. John, Esq.," &c., with " The Life and 
Character of Mr. John Phillips. By Mr. Sewell. 
The Third Edition. London, printed by E. Curll, 
next the Temple Coffee-house in Fleet Street. 
MDCCXX." Can anyone inform me whether copies 
of that edition are scarce ? FATHER FRANK. 


COAT OF ARMS. Can any correspondent tell 
me, from my unskilled description, to what fami- 
lies the following arms belong? Dexter half of 
shield, a bend between two muzzled bears, sitting ; 
sinister, on a bend three fleurs-de-lys, between 
two horses' heads erased. The arms are on a brass 
in a Norfolk church. Both the effigy and inscrip- 
tion are gone. JAYDEE. 

A PRINT. Can any of your readers help me to 
find the painter and engraver of an engraving, and 

5'h s. IX. FEB. 23, 78.] 



also its value ? It is a proof before letters, I think. 
It was bought for a Bartolozzi. On the left side 
is an old man, resting on a tombstone, talking to 
three females ; two females standing in the centre, 
the one on the right apparently dressed in white ; 
on the right is a female sitting on a grave with her 
hands crossed, and a dog sitting down by her side. 
Between second and third female is a small church, 
with tower fully shown, surrounded by trees ; in 
the right rear houses, and in the left background 
-a mansion. What church is it 1 

2, Cavendish Road, N.W. 

de Bellomont, surnamed the Pauper, who was the 
youngest son of Robert de Bellomont, Earl of Lei- 
cester, obtained the earldom of Bedford from King 
Stephen, with the daughter of Milo de Beauchamp, 
upon the expulsion of the last-named personage. 
Dugdale adds that, " being a person remiss and 
negligent himself," this Hugh de Bellomont " fell 
from the dignity of an earl to the state of a knight ; 
and in the end to miserable poverty." Where can 
further particulars be found? Thoroton, in his 
Antiquities of Nottinghamshire, mentions Sabina, 
widow of Hugh de Bellomont. Was this the 
daughter of Milo de Beauchamp ? A. E. L. L. 
Highfield, Nottinghamshire. 

GIPSIES IN ENGLAND. What is the earliest 
notice we have of the existence of gipsies in Eng- 
land ? K. P. D. E. 

SHANDYGAFF, a drink compounded of beer and 
ginger-beer. What is the derivation of the word ? 

F. G. W^ 
Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall Mall. 

SEPULCHRAL MOUND. On the beach at the 
head of a bay variously called Towyn, Two, or 
War Horses Bay, a short distance from the South 
'Stack lighthouse, Holyhead, is a large mound or 
hillock composed of human bones and dry sand. 
The apex of the mound is covered to a depth of 
two feet with a mixture of peat and pebbles, and 
over that a layer of flat stones. The side towards 
the land is covered with grass, but that towards 
the sea has been partly swept away by the action 
-of the weather. About a quarter of a mile inland 
is a large stone set on end. I inquired of various 
inhabitants in the neighbourhood, and the only 
information I could get was that a great battle 
had been fought here, and a prince killed and 
buried where the stone stands. Can any one give 
me further information ? B. B. 

LIUM." Is this treatise, announced in the Novem- 
ber number of the foreign book circular of an Eng- 
lish publishing house, the same as one advertised 
a year or two ago in a London periodical, by the 

same author (E. Soloweyczyk), under the title 
La Bible, le Talmud, et VEvangile ? Does it give 
any information regarding the views entertained 
by the Jews (modern or ancient) concerning the 
Bible, the Talmud, and the Gospel, or does it 
represent merely the author's individual position 
towards these three books ? JAY AITCH. 

WRESTLING IN FRANCE. I want to get some 
information about the past and present history of 
wrestling in France in which province most prac- 
tised ; whether more popular among the peasantry 
or the inhabitants of towns ; at what seasons of 
the year the meetings are generally held ; what 
prizes are given ; and any other particulars per- 
taining thereto. Does any book of travels or 
other work contain a description of the pastime a^ 
witnessed in France ? I do not want an account 
of French wrestlers in England. 


THOMAS DE CHEDDAR. In the chancel of 
Cheddar Church, Somerset, is a brass memorial of 
Isabel, wife of Thomas de Cheddar, with her arms, 
Vert, three fleurs-de-lis and a label of three points or 
(and these were repeated in the windows before 
the recent restoration). Of what family was she ? 
I have searched the county histories, but they do 
not give the required information. S. 

The former is invariably used by the English, and 
the latter by the Scotch. Taking the English 
usage to be the correct form of expression, I should 
be much obliged if any critical contributor to 
" N. & Q." would be good enough to inform me 
why it is so. THOMAS WATKIN. 

Gazette, in an article on the passage of the Darda- 
nelles by the Russian admirals Orloff and Elphin- 
stone, asserts that fire-ships were then, in 1770, 
" as great novelties as torpedoes are now." This 
is hardly true ; for, to go back no further than the 
Spanish Armada, we find that it was " eight fire- 
ships " which, at the very crisis of the engagement 
off Gravelines, turned the scale in favour of the 
English. Is not the use of these instruments of 
naval warfare, however, of much older date than 
the sixteenth century ? D. C. BOULGER. 

" LE DELUGE." Can any one give me infor- 
mation as to the whereabouts of a picture called 

Le Deluge," painted by Charles Gleyre, a Swiss 
artist ? The picture came to England in 1 855, and 
has since been lost sight of. V. W. 

CHANDOS. In what edition of Pope, or in what 
other literary production, can a full copy of 
Chandos's letter to him be perused I Johnson 
comments on an extract, which alone he gives. 



S. IX. FEB. 23, 78. 



(5 th S. vii. 241, 264, 296, 338, 471 ; viii. 304.) 
My friend Mr. Van Voorst has not only kindly 
placed at my disposal some particulars of editions 
of White's Natural History of Selborne not seen 
by me, but has also given me a copy of two which 
I had not before possessed. I am thus enabled to 
supplement my former notes. The most important 
information I am now in a position to furnish is 
with respect to the quarto edition of 1813, men- 
tioned by several writers, but erroneously supposed 
by me to be but a large- paper copy of the octavo 
(in 2 vols.) of the same year. This edition proves 
to be sdlf-standing, and to the generosity of my 
friend I owe a very good copy. Its description is 
as follows : 

*1813. The | Natural History | and J Antiquities | of | 
Selborne, | in the | County of Southampton. | To which 
are added, | The Naturalist's Calendar ; | Observations 
on Various Parts of Nature ; | and Poems. | By the late 
Rev. Gilbert While, j formerly Fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford. | A New Edition, with Engravings. | London : | 
Printed for White, Cochrane, and Co. ; | Longman, Hurst, 
Rees, Orme, and Browne ; J. Mawman ; S. Bagster ; | 
J. and A. Arch; J. Hatchard; R. Baldwin; and T. 
Hamilton. | 1813. 4to., pp. x-588. 

There are twelve copper-plates ; eight of the nine 
from the original edition unaltered, except that the 
line containing the. date of publication, &c., is 
wanting. The missing plate, that of " Charadrins 
himantopus" has been re-engraved, and is the 
same as that in the 8vo. edition of 1813. A 
" View of the Kesidence of the late Eev. Gilbert 
White " is inserted as a tailpiece to the biographi- 
cal sketch, as well as a " Copy of a Pictureln Sel- 
borne Church, supposed to be painted by John de 
Maubenge ; the Gift of the late Benjamin White, 
Esq.," which faces p. 314, but does not seem to be 
mentioned in the letter-press ; while, finally, the 
well-known plate of the "Hybrid Pheasant" is 

Mr. Van Voorst tells me that some copies of 
this edition were issued on large paper, one of 
which, a splendid example, is in Prof. Bell's 

The next addition and correction I have to make 
refers to Jesse's edition before mentioned by me 
(5 th S. vii. 264). This formed a volume of Bohn's 
"Illustrated [not Scientific] Library," and the title 
runs thus : 

*1851. The | Natural History | of | Selborne; | with | 
Observations on Various Parts of Nature ; | and | the 
Naturalist's Calendar. J By the late | Rev. Gilbert White, 
A.M. | Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. | With Additions, 
and Supplementary Notes by | Sir William Jardine, Bart., 
F.R.S.E., F.L.S., M.W.S. | Edited, with further Illustra- 
tions, a Biographical Sketch of the Author, ) and a Com- 
plete Index, by | Edward Jesse, Esq. [ Author of "Glean- 
ings in Natural History," &c.&c. 1 With Forty Engravings. 

| London : | Henry G. Bohn.York Street, Covent Garden* 
I MDCCCLI. 8vo., pp. xxiv-416. 

Mr. Van Voorst has given me a memorandum 
stating that this was first issued with the date 
1849, and no doubt such was the case, though I 
have not seen such a copy. That which I possess 
has the engravings (which, except the frontispiece, 
are woodcuts) on separate leaves, and they are of 
a very ordinary character. Some are copied from 
Bewick's ; the best are signed " Whymper." 

The other notes furnished to me by Mr. 
Van Voorst indicate an earlier issue of the fol- 
lowing, edit. Jardine (Constable's Miscellany) 
in 1826, and edit. New York in 1843, besides two 
others bearing-date 1860 and 1862 (the last pub- 
lished by Bell & Daldy), but concerning them I 
can say nothing. These notes only show that I 
have not exhausted the subject. 

Finally, I have to record the recent appearance 
of an edition of this classic work which may be 
fairly said to throw all its predecessors into the 
shade. Its description is 

*1877. The | Natural History and Antiquities | of | 
Selborne, I in the County of Southampton. | By the late 
| Rev. Gilbert White, | formerly Fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford. | Edited by | Thomas Bell, F.R.S.,F.L.S., F.G.S., 
&c., | Professor of Zoology in King's College, London. I 
London : | John Van Voorst, 1, Paternoster Row. | 
MDCCCLXXVII. 2 vols., 8vo. Vol. i. | Natural History, 
Antiquities, | Naturalist's Calendar, | Observations on 
Various Parts of Nature, and Poems. | Pp. lx-508. 
Vol. ii. | Correspondence, Sermon, Account Book, | 
Garden Kalendar, Animals and Plants, Geology, [ 
Roman-British Antiquities, &c. 1 Pp. 4]0. 


Magdalene College, Cambridge. 

&c. (5 th S. ix. 81.) Although 1 have nothing to 
say about the " bore " on the Severn, the subject 
recalls to my mind some personal experiences of the 
violence of the " bore " on the river Hooghly. To 
such of your readers as may have been resident in 
Calcutta, this tidal wave will remind them also of 
an exciting scene often witnessed there, and of its 
dire effects upon the shipping and thousands of 
boats and other small craft, moored or afloat, off 
the Strand Road, running between the City of 
Palaces and the river. When the spring tides are 
on, the observer, at low water, may notice nothing 
but a long slimy bank, fringing a dull stream, 
when suddenly the air is rent by the shouts and 
cries, all along the line in a seaward direction, of 
multitudes of boatmen flying to secure their dingles- 
and other craft ; for the dreaded bore is in sight as 
it rounds the point at Fort William, and is down 
upon them, crashing, smashing, and overwhelming 
everything, and at once converting the placid 
stream into an impetuous flood, violently rocking 
about the shipping outside, and sometimes break- 
ing adrift the vessels from their inner moorings 

5* S. IX. FEB. 23, 78. J 



at once filling the river and covering its bank 
with the stranded boats taken unawares, and to( 
late to reach the comparative safety of the offing 
It is now many years since I obtained my own 
personal acquaintance with the effects of the 
Hooghly bore. The Hindoo festival of the Doorgf 
Pooja affords the Calcutta folk a fortnight's holi 
day, and on the occasion of one of these breaks in 
Indian life I and a couple of friends elected to 
recreate ourselves in a river trip. Chartering j 
suitable budgerow, and charging it with a suffi 
ciency of creature comforts, books, guns, &c., we 
set out, in the month of October, in an up-country 
direction, visiting Barrackpore, the foreign settle- 
ments of Serampore, Chandernagore, and Chin- 
surch, all now exchanged by the Danes, French 
and Dutch for small extensions of territory at 
their own sea-board stations. When the time for 
our return approached, we 'bout ship, and com- 
menced dropping back to Calcutta ; but, having 
a friend at Dukinsore, we anchored there, and 
spent our last evening on shore. The night was 
one of the calmest, and the moonlight the finest I 
ever saw. On returning on board at ten o'clock, 
after directing our manjee to drop down to Cal- 
cutta during the night, we proceeded to prepare 
for rest, and were half undressed when the well- 
known cry of " The bore ! the bore I" saluted our 
ears ; and before we could take any precautions the 
crest of the wave came dashing down upon us, 
starting the budgerow from her mooring, flooding 
her deck and cabins, and but for our friend on 
shore, who had heard the alarm, we should have 
been swept into the seething waters, the dingy he 
had pushed off to our aid just reaching us as our 
boat sank. Luckily we had a refuge with our 
friend. At low water, in the morning, we had 
access to the wreck, but found everything mashed 
up, and had to find our way to Calcutta by dawk 
(palanquin conveyance), reaching our homes cer- 
tainly more in the character of distressed mariners 
than that of holiday excursionists. J. 0. 

With reference to the tidal bore, I may say I 
have had some little experience of the phenomenon. 
At the beginning of 1857 I went to live at Bridg- 
water. That town is situate about six miles 
from the bay of that name. The river Parret, 
after running from the bay in serpentine form a 
distance of twelve miles, passes through the town 
of Bridgwater, where, a few days after I went to 
live there, the bore made its appearance. It was 
estimated by those who witnessed it (including 
myself) that the tidal wave was from, six to ten 
feet high. Probably it would be nearer six feet 
than ten, but it certainly exceeded six. For- 
tunately there were not many vessels in port at 
the time, but some of them were drifted from their 
moorings by the force of the wave, and considerable 
damage was done. The bore had only been seen 

in the Parret, I believe, once before 1857 by any 
one living, and I believe I am correct in saying 
that it has not been seen there since. The bore 
on the Severn only appears at long intervals, and 
I have spoken with those who have seen it many 
years ago. I should say that the account given by 
Mr. Buckland in the Times about three years ago 
as to the bore which then appeared on the Severn 
was not at all exaggerated when it was stated to 
have been six feet high. I have always under- 
stood that these remarkable occurrences were con- 
fined to the Severn, the Parret, and the Humber, 
and I should doubt whether the Trent has ever 
been much affected by them. J. INGAMELLS. 
Newcastle, Staffordshire. 


ix. 87.}Coquille certainly, as MR. THOMPSON 
suggests, means in Cotgrave inter alia " the shell 
of an egg," but might not the derivation of the- 
Norwich Ash Wednesday bun be connected more 
likely with " Pain coquille, a fashion of a hard- 
crusted loafe, somewhat like our Stillyard Bunne,"* 
which occurs in Cotgrave also 1 The coclcet-bread 
of many of our old dictionaries may be also sug- 
gested, of which Coles (1701) says, "Wheaten 
next to wastel or white bread " ; Kersey (1715), 
" The finest sort of bread or cakes " ; Minshew 
f!627), "A distinction of bread in the statutes of 
bread and ale made anno 51 Hen. III., where you 
have mention of cocket-breadrf wastell-bread, bread 
of trete (bran ?), and bread of common wheat."' 
As to Stillyard bun, we find in Minshew : 

' Stilliard, Guilda Teutonicorum. is a place in London 
where the fraternitie of the Easterling merchants, other- 
wise the merchants of the Haunse and Almaine, are 
wont to have their abode. It is so called Stilliard, of a 
broad place or court, wherein steele was much sold, q. 
teele-yard, upon which that house is now founded." 

!n Blount's Glossographia, 1656, this is almost 

word for word repeated, and the following added r 
' The place is now only famous for Khenish wine, 

neat's tongues, &c. The Lord Herbert (of Cher- 
ury) in his Henry VIII. calls it the stilly art,. 
ut gives no reason for that denomination." The 
ocality is moreover given as " near the Thames," 
ind Bailey, who boils down the foregoing con- 
iderably, says, "Still-yard, a place in Thames- 

Street," &c. Among, therefore, the et ceteras of 
oreign delicacies which follow the Rhenish and 
he neat's tongues, I presume the Stillyard bun is 
o be added, and this or a similar foreign cake 

might, through the agency of Easterling merchants, 
ave also been naturalized at Norwich. The very 

* " Cook-eel, a cross-bun, Eastern Counties." So- 
lalliwell; but MR. THOMPSON'S spelling seems prefer- 

f Possibly related to cochet, a present in meat, wine, 
r money, which a newly married man made to his com- 
atdons (Gloss, in Ducange, and Carp. Supplem. in v. 
Cochetua "). 



[5th s. IX. FEB. 23, 78. 

homely pastime of cockle-bread may, or may not, 
have been named from this foreign cake, but need 
not here be further alluded to. 
cockall is probably quite distinct, 
what schoolboys now play as " knucks " or " dibs, 
cockall being given in Torriano, the Nomenclator, 
and Minshew's Spanish Diet, as a knuckle-bone.* 
The ancient and still surviving romp of hot cockles 
is probably not connected in any way with the 
Norwich bun. HORATIO. 

When at school at Norwich more than fifty 
years since, Valpy's boys at some time of the year 
I do not remember the precise time had a sort 
of Bath bun for breakfast. They were about two 
inches square and had a slight flavour of allspice. 
I do not think they were made with eggs, but 
merely dough. We were glad of a little butter to 
eat with them. They were ticketed in the shops 
as cookeals. D. T. M. 

S. ix. 27.) Dr. Cririe put out a feeler in his Address 
to Loch Lomond, anon., n.d. but 1788, before he 
published his bulky three guinea volume. The 
first was transmitted to Robert Burns by Peter 
Hill, his bookseller, and acknowledged by the poet 
in a glowing commendation upon the unknown 
author. I have a copy of the Address, a thin 
quarto which was incorporated in the larger Scot- 
tish Scenery of 1803. Burns upon the specimen 
offered adjudged the doctor an equality with 
Thomson, a rank not confirmed apparently by the 
coldness with which the larger work was received. 
The Edinburgh Review and other critics seemed 
to ignore the poet in their high approval of the 
publisher's spirit in venturing upon so expensive 
ii work, with its fine illustrations and notes. Dr. 
Cririe was one of the masters of the Edinburgh 
Hio-h School when he published his specimen, and 

was advanced as Rector of the High School of 
Leith, where he introduced the monitorial system. 

The game, of I In March, 1795, he was preferred as one of the 
It is much masters of the High School of Edinburgh. 

'" " " ''"" " ' Licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Edin- 
burgh on March 30, 1791, he was on Sept. 17, 

1801, ordained minister of Dalton in the presbytery 
of Lochmaben. The University of Edinburgh, in 

1802, conferred on him the degree of D.D. He 
died Jan. 5, 1835, in his eighty-third year. Dr. 
Cririe was an accomplished linguist. His Scottish 
Scenery, which appeared in 1803, is his only 
publication. CHARLES ROGERS. 

Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill, S.E. 

I do not know Loch Kettrin, but would remark 
upon the various ways in which the word is given, 
until it settled down to the familiar " Katrine." 
Sir Walter Scott, who may be said to have " dis- 
covered " this lake and its surroundings so far as 
tourists were concerned was at first disposed to 
call it Loch Cateran, from the Caterans, or out- 
laws, who lived in the caves of Ben Venue and 
Rob Roy's country (see his notes to the Fair 
Maid of Perth). MacCulloch also calls it Loch 
Cateran. The author of the memoir of a curious 
(referred to in Scott's introduction to Rob 
Roy), The Trials of James, Duncan, and Robert 
McGregor, three Sons of the celebrated Rob Roy 
(Edinburgh, 1818), calls it Loch Kettern. In 
The Travellers' Guide through Scotland, published 
in the same year, 1818, it is called Loch Catherine, 
and it so appears in a large map, 14 in. by 16 in., 

A Guide to Loch Catherine and Loch Lomond ; 
inscribed, by permission, to Walter Scott, Esq., 
1818." In Sir Robert Gordon's map, 1653, the 
name appears as Kennerin ; and it is also thus 
given in Alexander Gordon's " Itinerarium " map, 

"27. In a proclamation issued by the Privy 

at I later period minister at Dalton' Dumfriesshire, Council, in 1610, against the excesses of the Kernes 
and died in 1835. > Notwithstanding the Ayrshire I and Caterans, it is spoken of as Loch Catrme. . 
poet's high appreciation of the doctor's Address, I 
do not find that the poets fraternized when they 
had the opportunity of becoming better acquainted. 

J. 0. 

Of this reverend gentleman biographical parti- 
culars will be found in Dr. Thomas Murray's 
Literary History of Galloway, Dr. W. Steven's 
High School of Edinburgh, Dr. Scott's Fasti, and 
other works. Born at Newabbey in April, 1752, 
he was, by the early death of his father, necessi- 
tated to engage as a cow-herd. Nearly self-taught, 
he became schoolmaster at Lochrutton, and in 
May, 1777, was elected master of Wigton Gram- 
mar School. In 1781 he was promoted to the 
mastership of the Grammar School of Kirkcud- 

Walter Scott's poem of The Lady of the Lake was 
published in May, 1810, and introduced "Loch 
Katrine " to many a reader who had never heard 
of such a lake. In fact, MacCulloch wrote to 
Scott that he had " a Scottish map in which it 
was not even inserted." CUTHBERT BEDE. 

FRANCIS COTES (NOT COATES) (5 th S. ix. 67), 
born in London in 1726, died 1770, was one of 
the first members of the Royal Academy, and an 
eminent portrait painter in crayons and oil. He 
was a pupil of Knapton. His fine drawing of 
Queen Charlotte, with the Princess Royal asleep on 
her knees, was exhibited by the Duke of North- 
umberland in the Portrait Exhibition in 1867. 

Tt f P VI * m iT -XT OI u i^~ The Duke of Argyll possesses a portrait of one of 
bright, from which office he, m November, 1/8/, | l s 

* So Cotgrave also : " Osselet, a little bone; osselets, 
the game termed cockall, or hucklebones." 

the beautiful M Gunnings bC otes, in crayons. 
Sir Brook Bridges, the Earl of Hardwicke, and 
the Rev. W. Weller Poley possess excellent ex- 

5' h S. IX. FEB. 23, 78.] 



amples of Cotes's skill as a portrait painter in oil. 
Many of his portraits have been engraved. 

5, Gt. Newport Street, W.C. 

Francis Cotes, R.A., was the son of an apothe- 
cary of great respectability, who lived in Cork 
Street, Burlington Gardens. His full-length por- 
trait of the queen of George III., with the infant 
Princess Royal in her lap, was engraved by Win. 
W. Ryland. Walpole names several portraits by 
him. In 1766 he was a member of the Society of 
Incorporated Artists of Great Britain ; but, serious 
contentions arising in that body, he withdrew, and 
with three other of the seceding artists successfully 
petitioned the king to favour the establishment of 
-an academy, and thus became one of the founders 
of the present Royal Academy of Arts, the first 
exhibition of which was opened in 1769. Cotes 
did not, however, live to enjoy his triumph, as, 
having been afflicted early in life with stone, 
he fell a victim to that disease before he had at- 
tained the age of forty-five, on July 20, 1770. He 
died at his residence in Cavendish Square, and 
was buried at Eichmond, Surrey. 

There was also a younger brother, Samuel Cotes, 
who painted miniatures, and who was a constant 
exhibitor in the early years of the Royal Academy. 
See Walpole, Painters in the Reign of George II. ; 
Edwards, Anecdotes of Painting ; Pye, Patronage 
of British Art. Jos. J. J. 

" INKLE-WEAVER " (5 th S. ix. 7.) The proverb 
referred to is well known here, and often used 
in a ludicrous sense, or by persons who perhaps 
know no more of the subject than the traditional 
sound, yet who have somehow a notion that it is 
a forcible expression. The author of the couplet 
quoted by HORATIO must have belonged to the 
latter class. Where inkle is still remembered, 
the mode of its manufacture, and the smallness of 
profit it could ever have brought, the idea of inkle- 
weavers as convivial drinkers or riotous livers is 
absurd and unknown. The only distinction that I 
am aware of between those who wove inkle and 
weavers of larger webs was the small space and 
simple frame required for the former, while the 
latter must have ample space, fixed looms, and 
ponderous appliances. Moreover, I have only 
heard of inkle (one of the smallest of domestic 
industries) as made by women ; a row or a circle 
of whom might sit on the same bench, or by the 
same fire, each with her frame on her knees (I 
have seen fringe made on such a frame), except 
that for the inkle there was no roller for the warp. 
That was usually run, or passed round some post, 
in an apartment behind ; the same might have 
served several workers, to circle round to them as 
it was wanted, and they chose to draw it, and thus 
they were close, or thick, in proximity and interest 
while their work lasted, seldom more than a day at 

once. The adjective thick, kind, intimate, in its figu- 
rative sense, would give increased significance to the 
phrase. No doubt there was a good deal of gossip 
and kindly unity among those whom I imagine to 
have been the inkle-weavers referred to, in days 
when, in the great houses, many women were 
employed in spinning, and by whom, after the 
more important spinning for household use, the 
inkle was made. It was made in country houses, 
I suppose, generally ; and in Shakespeare's time, 
we know, for sale carried about by pedlers, and 
by poor persons later, till superseded by smoother 
fabrics, when it was sometimes irreverently called 
" beggar- inkle." 

I am in possession of a frame of dark polished 
oak, on which I have seen an aged relative make 
inkle. She died, many years ago, at the age of 
eighty-seven ; and, when spinning was quite left 
off, used to buy knitting cotton to make the inkle, 
which she always thought so much better for many 
household purposes than bought tape, or anything 
from shops. I could give a specimen, if HORATIO 
would like it, taken from the hanging of a bed- 
stead, of inkle of unbleached linen thread, at least, 
I believe, a hundred years old, in proof of its not 
being " bad "it is apparently as tough as ever 
and one also of that made of knitting cotton, soft 
and pliable, and very durable, though not smooth. 

M. P. 


Cowper, writing to Lady Hesketh from Weston 
Underwood, under date May 6, 1788, says : 

" When people are intimate, we say they are as great 
as two inkle- weavers, on which expression I have to 
remark, in the first place, that the word c/reat is here 
used in a sense which the corresponding term has not, so 
far as I know, in any other language ; and, secondly, 
that inkle-weavers contract intimacies with each other 
sooner than other people, on account of their juxta- 
position in weaving of inkle." Southey's Coifrper, 
p. 153. 

W. F. E. 

* Lord ! why she and you were as great as two inkle- 
weavers. I am sure I have seen her hug you as the 
Devil hugg'd the witch." Swift, Polite Conversation 
(conv. i.). 

Pear Tree Vicarage, Southampton. 

KEATSIANA (5 th S. ix. 128.) Fanny Brawne 
married Mr. Lewis Lindo, who afterwards changed 
his name to Louis Lindon. A. C. 

The exact date of the birth of Mr. Charles 
Armitage Brown could be ascertained by a letter 
to his son, his Honour, Major Charles Brown, 
Taranaki, New Zealand. Miss Brawne became 
the wife of a Mr. Lindon, and left several children 
who are still alive. Keats was not much more 
than five feet in height. IX 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for Feb., 1874, 


[5ti. S. IX. FEB. 23, 78. 

ZERO will find an interesting article, "Recollections 
of John Keats," by the late Charles Cowden 
Clarke. Charles Armitage Brown was evidently 
by many years the poet's senior. 


SIKES AND SYKES (5 th S. viii. 468.) My family 
has the honour or dishonour to spell its name 
with an i. Like Mr. Weller, we are very particular 
about the spelling ; and, whenever the taste .and 
fancy of the speller would insert a y, we at once 
exclaim, " Put it down an -i, put it down an i ! " 
Why I know not, as Bill Sikes is not one to be 
proud of. The name is, I believe, derived from 
the Anglo-Saxon sick, interpreted by Somner as 
sulcus aquarius, a water-course or water-furrow. 
Northern topography abounds with the word syke, 
which is usually applied to a small running stream 
or rivulet. The arms in use, from a remote period, 
are derived from the same source, being Argent, 
a chevron .sable, between three heraldic fountains, 
or sykes. Has the above derivation anything to 
do with the Staffordshire expression, "Don't syke," 
when a person catches his breath in bathing ? 


Godolphin Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Sikes is the surname of an old Yorkshire family 
appearing in deeds from 1300. The usual spelling 
now is Sykes ; but it was formerly written Sicks, 
Siches, Sikes, and Sykes indifferently. The York- 
shire Archceological Journal gives a photo, of a 
thirteenth century deed referring to the Flockton 
Sykeses, and I have seen numerous references at 
Wakefield dating from that time. There is no 
reason to doubt the etymology is from sike, a 
ditch. The name appears as del (of the) Siche. 
Blount's Diet, gives " Sich, a little current of 
water, inter duos sikettos." It occurs frequently 
as a local name Slead Syke, Shaw Syke, &c. 


College House, Idle, Leeds. 

I can introduce SIKES to at least one family 
who held to the Sikes orthography. They are 
traceable to Lutterworth, in Leicestershire (where 
Nichols says that the name was not uncommon, 
and where it was also, to my own knowledge, to 
be found in the parishes of Markfield and Ashby 
de la Zouch), but were long connected with Hack- 
ney according to the inscription on the family 
tomb, " upwards of one hundred years," and, in 
fact, 170 years, since John Sikes is found to have 
purchased the manor of Kingshold, in Hackney 
(which he resold in 1698 to Francis Tyssen), in 
1694, and his great-grandson, Henry Sikes, the 
last male representative of the family, died anc 
was buried there, at the age of ninety-one, in 1864 
The arms they bore Gu., three clusters of sedges 
or seem still to point, if less directly than the 
Sykes bearing of three fountains, to the traditiona" 

derivation of the name from sike=& rill or foun- 

There will be found in the March, April, and 
Tune numbers for last year of Miscellanea Genea- 

ica et Heraldica (Mitchell & Hughes) some 
Sikes memoranda contributed by me. 

Is it possible that the two names can ever have 
Deen distinguished by a different pronunciation ? 
[n some early wills I have found the former spelt 
Siks and Sicks. H. "W. 

jtfew Univ. Club. 

I have carefully looked over the West Riding 
Directory, and cannot find a single instance of 
Sikes amid its numberless Sykeses. The Smiths, 
on the contrary side, predominate over the Smyths 
11 but to the same extent. About the origin there 
LS no difficulty. It is local from sike, North Eng- 
lish (especially Yorkshire) for a burn, streamlet, 
or gutter. Your American correspondent may 
look upon it as a fact that his progenitor was a 
"Tyke." The desinent s occurs in all local names of 
this class ; as, for instance, Burns, Brooks, Briggs, 
Bridges, Hayes, Styles Styles reminds us that 
Stiles is almost unknown. *C. W. BARDSLEY. 


N.B. Speaking of a Tyke reminds me that 
Yorkshirenien spell this word tike and tyke. 

OLD STORIES (5 th S. ix. 86.) A French version 
of the story related by I. M. P. occurs in Les 
Contes ou les Nouvelles Recreations et Joyeux 
Devis de Bonaventure des Periers (edd. P.-L. 
Jacob, Bibliophile, et Charles Nodier, Paris, 1841, 
Nouvelle xxii.). It is told of three brothers, sent 
by their father to study for the Church at Paris, 
where they wasted their time in diversion and 
idleness, and found themselves without a word of 
Latin when he suddenly summoned them home. 
The three phrases which they then contrive to 
learnare, "Nos tresclerici," "Pro bursaet pecunia," 
" Dignum et justum est." In a Cantire variation 
given in Cuthbert Bede's White Wife (London, 
1865, pp. 100-103), it is three Highland drovers 
who are near being hanged through their know- 
ledge of English. The phrases are, "Us three 
Highland men," " The money in the purse," " The 
right and good reason." I. M. P.'s communication 
is very interesting, and any similar drafts on his 
memory would, I venture to think, be acceptable 
to other readers of " N. & Q." besides myself. I 
have been trying without success to trace among 
unbound back numbers a note of the same character, 
and possibly from the same source, about some old 
Argyllshire stories. One was the same story with 
No. xvi. of A C. Mery Talys (ed. Hazlitt, London, 
1864), Of the Mylner that Stale the Nnttes of the 
Tayler that Stale a Shepe ; Wolf's Hessian story, 
Das Beste Essen von der Welt (Deutsche Haus- 
mcirchen, von J. W. Wolf, Gottingen und Leipzig, 
1851, pp. 404-407) ; and Croker's Nutcracker of 

5' h S. IX. FEB. 23/78.] 



Aghadoe (Killarney Legends, a new edition 
London, Tegg, s.a., cap. vii.). I have versions 
from Galway and Belfast, in the former of which 
the tale is made to explain a common Irish proverb, 
" 'Nuair is cruaidh don chailigh, caitfid si rith ' 
(" When it goes hard on the old woman she must 
run ") Among out-of-the-way printed variations 
may be named one from Inis-Eoghain (Inishoiven, 
by Maghtochair, Derry, 1867), and one in A Neu 
Eiddle Book or a Whetstone for Dull Wits (Derby 
s.a.), a chap-book. DAVID FITZGERALD. 


M. W., A DUBLIN SILVERSMITH (5 th S. ix. 49.) 
If I mistake not, the reference here is to Matthew 
West, of No. 15, Skinner Row, Dublin, and, if so, 
your correspondent cannot, I think, have any 
difficulty in ascertaining particulars of his honour- 
able and successful career in business. Matthew 
West ( 1 the same) was one of the sheriffs of 
Dublin, 1810-11 ; Alderman Jacob West was 
Lord Mayor, 1829-30, having previously served as 
sheriff; and James West was sheriff, 1856. The 
name, I may add, is well known in Dublin. 


F. M. would be able to get the information he 
requires at the Dublin Assay Office. I find that 
they marked plate, &c., previous to 1646. I should 
think they could tell him about M. W. AGA. 

THE FIRST LOCAL NEWSPAPER (3 rd S. i. 287,351, 
398, 435, 479 ; ii. 38, 92 ; 5 th S. viii. 72, 140, 153, 
179, 232, 330 ; ix. 12, 98.) I have consulted all 
the references to the Stamford Mercury which 
have appeared in " N. & Q." within the past ten 
years, and while I admit that no one has been 
able to furnish direct proofs of its existence prior 
to 1712, there still remain one or two points which 
I should like to have cleared up. When was that 
numbering adopted which would seem to give 
colour to the claim to date from 1695 1 The late 
MR. ALEXANDER ANDREWS, in an explanatory 
note (4 th S. x. 357, Nov. 2, 1872), gives the pro- 
prietors as his authority for the statement which 
appeared in his History of British Journalism, 
published in 1859. The earliest issue of Mitchell's 
Newspaper Press Directory in my possession is that 
for 1857, and here I read, under the head Lincoln, 
Rutland, and Stamford Mercury, the following : 
" Established 1695, and has been uninterruptedly 
printed weekly for 159 years." There is evidently 
either a clerical or a typographical error here, as 
159 years dating back from 1857 would give 1698, 
not 1695. This is corrected in 1858, when 159 is 
found to have grown during the twelve months to 
163, and in 1877 it stood at 182. The last issue 
at the date of writing is that for February 1, 1878, 
the number being 9537, and assuming the weekly 
publication to have been uninterrupted, this would 
throw the date of its commencement back to the 

latter part of 1695. Now as the numbers on the 
earliest known copies would make the date of 
the commencement the early part of 1712, and as 
the volumes were then half yearly ones, when did 
the present system of annual volumes and number- 
ing from 1695 commence ? And what were the 
circumstances which led to this change being 
introduced 1 Satisfactory answers to these ques- 
tionsand of course to be satisfactory they should 
be supported by evidence would set the vexed 
question finally at rest. The first query might 
easily be answered by a reference to the office files, 
which are stated by one correspondent to be 
complete from 1770 ; and as the paper is too well 
established to be dependent for its reputation and 
standing upon a spurious antiquity, I have no 
doubt but the proprietors would willingly afford 
any correspondent of " N. & Q." residing in Stam- 
ford or its neighbourhood access to the files. If it 
was in existence from 1695 to 1712, the latter was 
probably the date of its re-establishment under 
a new proprietary-; but there ought, to justify 
the modern claim, to be some evidence forth- 
coming respecting the first seventeen years of its 
history. If there is no better authority given for 
adopting the date 1695 than a mere ipse dixit, I 
shall certainly throw that date to the winds. I 
quite agree with MR. RAYNER that the subject of 
fixing the dates at which early provincial news- 
papers were commenced is one surrounded with 
difficulties. It is no unusual thing for the pro- 
jector of a new journalistic venture to adopt the 
title of a defunct newspaper, and foist his bantling 
upon the world as a full-fledged print of thirty, 
forty, fifty, sixty, or seventy years' standing. Mr. 
Grant was misled by several of these pretenders in 
writing his third volume of the Newspaper Press, 
and I could give names, if necessary, of other 
papers which are now in a similar way sailing 
under false colours. Again, the majority of our 
present provincial dailies were originally published 
weekly, and in many cases there is nothing to show 
in the press directories that they were not always 
dailies. A compiler who would set himself to the 
task of hunting up and supplying dates in cases 
of the above nature where such are wanting would 
confer a boon both upon the newspaper world and 
upon the community at large. 


[MR. W. HODGSON is referred to vol. iii. of Grant's 
Neiospaper Press for the history of the Mercurius 

A " TUCKING " MILL (5 th S. ix. 68) is a fulling 
mill, i.e. for scouring, cleansing, and thus pressing 
md smoothing woollen cloths, such as kerseys, 
serges, and the like, and "tucker" is an old and 
common word for a fuller. Skinner (Etymolog. 
Anglic., s.v.) says : " Tucker, fullo a Teut. tuch, 



[5> S. IX. FEB. 23, '78. 

pannus, vel potius a Teut. trucken, Fr. Th. thrucJcen, 
premere, comprimere, Dan. tryeker, premo." His 
first derivation, however, from tuch, cloth, seems 
the better one. The word was very common in 
Devonshire, as also Tucker as a surname. Fulling 
or tucking mills are said to have been introduced 
into England in the thirteenth century ; and at 
Tiverton, in Devon, there were fifty-six fulling or 
tucking mills about the year 1730, according to 
Dunsford (Hist, of Tiverton, part iv. p. 216). The 
name has in some places survived the art, for a 
mill near Southmolton, Devon, on the river Mole, 
though now only used for grinding grain, is still 
called the Tucking Mill. E. A. D. 

Now that my Notes to Piers Plowman are 
printed, a simple reference to the index helps me 
to answer several questions. I quote the following 
from p. 26 : "A tucker, now chiefly used as a 
proper name, is the same as a fuller of cloth ; and 
a tucldng-mill means a fulling-mill for the thicken- 
ing of cloth. A description of the process of 
fulling or felting may be seen in The English 
Cyclopaedia, 1861, Arts and Sciences Division, 
vol. viii. col. 1000." And see Piers Ploivman, 
text A., prologue, 1. 100. 


2, Salisbury Villas, Cambridge. 

To the noise made by the hammers used in the 
process of " tucking " we are indebted for " the 
unparalleled adventure achieved by the renowned 
Don Quixote with less hazard than any was ever 
achieved by the most famous knight in the world." 


A complaint was made to Edw. IV. (Stat. of 
Realm, vol. ii. p. 474) that hats, caps, &c., hitherto 
made in the wonted manner with hands and feet 
(" mayus et pees "), are now made in an inferior 
manner by the use of mills, i.e. tucking mills. 

In the days of its prosperous woollen trade 
Bristol had its Guild of Tuckers, with its Hall in 
Temple Street. The trade also gave a name to a 
street, a short bit of which remains to this day. 



" POMPS" (5^S. ix. 78.) When the villagers 
on the Mendips could not " pomps" to use certain 
remedies for their complaints, they meant to say 
that they could not " promise " to use them. Not 
unfrequently to the question in the Catechism, 
" What did your godfathers and godmothers then 
for you?" they reply, "They pomps and vows 
three things in my name." THOMAS CONEY. 

Your correspondent A. T. has not, I think, given 
quite accurately either the word or its meaning. 
It should be " pompster," which is rightly explained 
by Mr. Williams, in his Somersetshire Glossary, 
as " to tamper with a wound, or disease, without 

knowledge or skill in medicine." It is also applied, 
in a general way, to tampering with anything 
without knowledge. W. F. E. 

IRISH CERAMICS (5 th S. ix. 68.) Let me refer 
MR. PATTERSON for some interesting particulars 
of Henry Delemain and his widow to 4 th S. iv. 
573 ; v. 50. I recommend him also to consult (if 
he has not done so already) Mr. Chaffers's Maries 
and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain, and he 
may find an answer to his inquiry. I do not 
happen to have a copy of the work at hand. 


EAR-RINGS : GEN. xxiv. 22 (5 th S. viii. 361, 453 ; 
ix. 133.) The Breeches Bible (1599) gives the 
word " abillement," with a marginal note " eare- 
ring." Nose-rings were and are at least as com- 
mon as ear-rings. The juvenile commentator 
referred to in 5 th S. viii. 453 should know that a 
single ear-ring is not uncommon, however. 


viii. 367; ix. 110.) The following quotation from 
a marble tablet in the parish church of Brechin 
bears upon this subject, so far as relates to Scot- 
land : " Mr. Blair, about the year 1760, insti- 
tuted a Sabbath Evening School in Brechin, the 
first, it is believed, that was opened in Scotland." 
Mr. Blair, who was a St. Andrews student, and 
licensed by the Presbytery of Dundee in 1728 
(Scott's Fasti), was appointed first to the church 
of Lochlee, next, in 1733, to the second, and sub- 
sequently to the first, charge of Brechin. He died 
in 1769, and left a family by his wife, Christian 
Doig, who was heiress of the property of Cook- 
stone, near Brechin. A. J. 

S. ix. 87, 114, 138.) I first read the story in 
vol. i. of Chambers's Book of Days, pp. 2 and 3, 
and although the subject has also been mentioned 
in " N. & Q.," 2 na S., it might be well to say that 
the name given in " The Thirteenth Chime " may 
be Huntly, but his real name was John Hatfield. 
He died at his house in Glasshouse Yard, Alders- 
gate, June 18, 1772, aged 102, and a notice of him 
appeared in the Public Advertiser a few days 
afterwards. GIBBES EIGAUD. 

Long Wall, Oxford. 

HERALDRY (5 th S. ix. 108.) The Bolton family 
(Lane, and Yorks) bear the following arms : Ar., 
on a chev. gu. three lions pass, guard, or (another, 
ar.). Crest : A buck's head erased ar., attired or, 
gorged with a chaplet vert, pierced through the 
neck with an arrow of the second. See the British 
Herald, vol. i., by Thomas Kobson, 1830. 

E. J. TAYLOR, F.S.A. Newc. 


5th s. IX. FEB. 23, 78.] 



" UXORICIDE " (5 th S. ix. 105.) I am no grea 
friend to new words, but this is a perfectly legiti 
mate formation. And why is it worse than 
infanticide? C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. 

BACON'S ESSAY " OF A KING " (5 th S. $ ix. 108. 
This is said not to be by Bacon, and is placec 
in the appendix of S. W. Singer's edition of the 
Essays, Lond., 1857, p. 223. For this reason see 
p. xxxiv. ED. MARSHALL. 

SWEET-HEART (5 th S. ix. 84, 111.) I did not 
really neglect Chaucer, but quoted the phrase from 
him in my inquiries among the " authorities," oi 
whom one objected that in Chaucer the meaning 
was not a lover, but merely sweet heart. I am 
very glad MR. SKEAT says otherwise. 


A plain prose instance of sweetheart : 

"Myne owyn swete hert, in my most humylwyse, I 

recomaund me on to you, desyryng hertly to here of your 

welfare." Paston Letters, No. 866 (Gairdner's edition), 

dated A.D. 1482 (from a wife to her husband). 


MODERN GREEK BIBLE (5 th S. ix. 68, 95.) I 
am much obliged by MR. SCHRUMPF'S reply. Will 
he kindly add a few words about " Oikonomos" and 
its bearing on the Seventy ? There would seem, 
then, to be of the Old Testament a version by the 
Archimandrite Hilarion (Home, Introd., vol. ii. 
part ii. p. 91) from the LXX. ; another by the 
Archimandrite Neophytos Vambas from the 
Hebrew ; and, besides these, one of the Bible 
Society from the English version of the Hebrew. 
Of the New Testament we have a version by 
Maximus CsMiergi (so Home, ii. ii. 91), Geneva, 
1638, 4to. (two columns, old and new Greek), 
altered and printed at Chelsea and London, 1810, 
12mo. (two columns, old and new), and again at 
London, 1814, 12mo. (new only), beside other re- 
prints of the Genevan quarto of 1638 at the 
beginning of the last century. The Bible Society's 
New Testament, appended to their Old in the 
Holy Scriptures (Oxford, 1872, 8vo.), differs greatly 
from that in those former editions as being more 
anciently worded more like to the old Greek text. 
The versions of Scripture in the two modern Greek 
editions of the Book of Common Prayer (Bagster's 
edition, 1820, and that of the Society for Promot- 
ing Christian Knowledge, 1839) differ somewhat 
from each other, as they both do from the Bible 
Society's translation, and in a much greater degree 
from that of London (1814), Chelsea and London 
(1810), and Geneva (1638), all above mentioned. 
The earliest version is the most vernacular. 

W. J. BLEW. 

SHEEP LED BY THE SHEPHERD (5 th S. vii. 345, 
477 ; viii. 79, 218, 377, 478.) CUTHBERT BEDE 
Bays that the custom on the Cheviots of the sheep 
following the shepherd was " a realization of Scrip- 

ture reading, and a Northern picture of Eastern 
life," and that he has " never witnessed the sight 
elsewhere." CUTHBERT BEDE has only to cross 
over to this pretty seaport and take a walk into the 
country to see the shepherd and dog in front and the 
sheep following, the custom being common all over 
France and Italy, and from this custom came the 
expression sheep- followers. The chief use of the 
dog is to keep the sheep within bounds where 
there are no hedges, by parading up and down or 
round and round, as indicated by the simple 
motion of the hand of the shepherd. In Italy the 
shepherd usually carries one of those long, light 
Italian reeds, and if a sheep should stop to crop 
the grass he gently taps it on the back with the 
reed, and the sheep immediately moves on. 

Quai de la Douane, Boulogne-sur-Mer. 

(5 th S. viii. 388, 494.) I shall be glad of a note of 
any tracts by, or pertaining to, Ralph Wallis, ia 
addition to 

Magna Charta ; More News from Rome, 1666. 

Room for the Cobler of Gloucester, 1668. 

The Life and Death of Ralph Wallis, 1670. 

The Young Cobler of Gloucester, 1718(7). 

With any other scraps upon shoe-making or shoe- 
makers for a bibliographical list of broadsides, 
ballads, histories, &c. JOHN TAYLOR. 


ANTLERS OF THE RED DEER (5 th S. viii. 428, 
458.) On this point the late Mr. Collyns of Dul- 
verton, in his interesting Notes on the Chase of the 
Wild Red Deer, writes : 

"The ancients imagined that the horn of the stag 1 
possessed great medicinal virtues, especially the right or 
off horn, which it was said was rarely found, and con- 
sequently was the more highly prized. To account for 
;he scarcity of shed or cast horns, a notion obtained 
currency that the hind is in the habit of eating the horn, 
and I think Mr. Scrope says that the late Duke of Athol 
once found a dead hind which had been choked by part 
of a horn that remained sticking in her throat, and 
quotes this as a circumstance corroborative of the popular 
>elief. I may say that I have not found any mention of 
this habit in the old works to which I have had access, 
.lid which 1 have consulted, although the ancient writers 
on hunting were certainly men of great observation, and 
)y no means unwilling to give credence to and report 
",ny peculiar habit or property attributed to deer." 

During a short visit that I recently paid to Scot- 

and, I made many inquiries on this subject, and I 

was informed by keepers and hillmen of great 

xperience and undoubted veracity that it is a 

common occurrence for the hinds to eat the cast 

lorns ; and they go so far as to say that unless the 

iorns are picked up within a short time after they 

ire dropped, the chances are that they will be found 

mutilated and partially destroyed by the hinds. 

n our country I have never, from my own ex- 

)erience or from reliable information, discovered 



[5 8. IX. FEB. 23, 78. 

.or ascertained that this curious habit prevails, and 
as the stags generally retire to the thick and deep 
coverts at the season of shedding the horns, it is 
seldom that the discarded antlers are discovered. 

" Plinie saith that the first heade which an hartbeareth 
is dedicated and given to nature, and that the foure 
elements do every of them take a portion. Isodore is of 
another opinion, saying that the hart doth hyde his first 
lieade in the earthe in suche sort that a man shall hardly 
finde it." Art of Venerie, p. 42. 



CAROLS (5 th S. viii. 491 ; ix. 32.) With regard 
to carols, a name sometimes given to recesses in 
cloisters, in my note (ante, p. 32) I ought to have 
mentioned that Cornish has crow or crou, meaning 
a house of some kind. The three Gaelic dialects 
(Scotch Gaelic, Irish, and Manx) often begin words 
with c or g, where the Kymric dialects (Welsh, 
Cornish, and Armoric) begin them with d or t. 
At the same time each of the two groups has a 
few instances where both ways are followed. It 
would take up too much space here to give a list 

A BOTANICAL PUZZLE (5 th S. viii. 146, 294, 
378 ; ix. 12.) It may be added to the notes on 
this subject that the Rev. W. Jackson, M.A., 
F.K.S., in his recently published Handbook to 
Weston-super-Mare and its Vicinity, in speaking 
of Worlebury, draws attention to the occurrence of 
the Cochlearia officinalis, which, he says, was 
" unknown in the neighbourhood before the Worle- 
bury pit circles were examined, when its seeds were 
thrown out from the pits and germinated after a 
sleep of many centuries " (p. 65). And again : 
" Below Spring Cove, and near the first turnpike, 
the botanist may be pleased to observe Scurvy- 
wort (Cochlearia officinalis), self-sown from the 
ancient Celtic pits, and now abundant" (p. 165). 
Very abundant the plant certainly is now, with its 
glossy succulent leaves, amid the old hut circles, 
and down the rocky sides of the fortress-city. I 
do not gather from Mr. Jackson's work when the 
excavations of which he speaks were made, but 
from a paper by the Rev. F. War re in the Trans- 
actions of the Somerset Arch. Society I imagine 
they took place in 1851. It would, I think^ be 
very interesting to learn the precise grounds for 
the statement, and whether care has been taken to 
eliminate possible sources of error. One must in 
inferences of this kind beware of the post hoc ergo 
propter hoc theory. In a little work, The Flora of 
Wcston, published in 1856, the plant is mentioned, 
with no note of its being in any way a recent in- 
troduction. Brean Down is there given as another 
"habitat," W. F. R. 

Worle Vicarage. 

At Framlingham, in Suffolk, is a slight elevation 
immemorially called Broom Hill. The origin of 

the name has long been a mystery. No broom 
grew there. Botanists could not find a specimen 
there or anywhere near. Old men had been told 
by their fathers that they had inquired of the 
oldest inhabitant, and no one for three generations, 
at least, had ever known or heard of broom grow- 
ing there or anywhere else in the parish. 

About twenty years ago, however, in the con- 
struction of the Framlingham branch of the 
G. E. R., a cutting was made through Broom Hill, 
and the banks of the cutting proceeded to justify 
the name of the place by producing the following 
year a profuse crop of broom, which still thrives 
there luxuriantly. Whence came the seed? If 
it was produced by plants that flourished on and 
gave name to the spot not less than a century 
before, we have an instance of very protracted 
vitality. If, however, it was recent wind-borne 
seed, it must have come from a considerable dis- 
tance, and was fortunate in finding a suitable soil, 
in an unoccupied spot, possessing the singular ad- 
vantage of being ready named for its reception. 

G. 0. E. 

Inner Temple. 

AUTHORS OF BOOKS WANTED (5 th S. ix. 129.) 

Mi/ New Pittayatees is by Samuel Lover. It will be 
found in a cheap edition of his works published by 
Charles H. Clarke, Paternoster Row, in a series called 
" The Parlour Library." EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

My New Pittaytees, by Samuel Lover, is given at p. 159 
of Carpenter's Penny Headings in Prose and Verse for 
Dec., 1865. H. G. C. 


" Pray less of your gilding," &c. 

The epigram MR. CLARKE inquires for, though he has 
not quoted it correctly, is no doubt one to be found at 

SI 59 of Hunting Songs and Miscellaneous Verses, by 
. E. Egerton Warburton (second edit., 12mo., London, 
Longmans, 1860) : 

" ' You see,' said our host, as we entered his doors, 
' I have furnished my house a la Louis Quatorze.' 
' Then I wish,' said a guest, ' when you ask us to eat, 
You would furnish your board d la Louis Dixhuit. 
The eye, can it feast when the stomach is starving? 
Pray less of your gilding, and more of your carving.' " 
There is something like the last line but one in Martial's 
epigram ; but the play on the word " carving," on which 
the point of the epigram turns, is necessarily peculiar to 
the English, and this is merely a versification of what I 
have seen related as a joke by Lord Alvanley on a dinner 
at Mr. Greville's; but I cannot give a reference. 

" Plus negabit," &c. 

I have met with a note made by me in which this is 
attributed to Dr. Johnson, on the authority of Quarterly 
Preview, vol. 1. p. 520. ED. MARSHALL. 

(5th s. ix. 108, 139.) 
" In the glow of thy splendour." 

Vide a fair translation of Metastasio's Hymn to Venus 
("Scendi propizia," &c.) by E. Kenealy in Ainswortlis 

5th s. IX. PKB. 23, 78.] 



Magazine, p. 138, Aug., 1842, in original metre. Other 
Italian poemetti are also to be found in that year's 
magazine by the same hand, which in p. 139 has baptized 
theelder Disraeli by Israel instead of Isaac. 


The Life of John Milton. By David Masson. Vols. IV. 

and V. (Macmillan & Co.) 

THE new volumes of Mr. Masson's Life of Milton cover 
the whole period of Milton's career from the execution 
of Charles I. to the restoration of his wandering son. 
The sudden changes of English government during 
this epoch might have induced any biographer to 
stray somewhat from the strict range of his subject, 
but Mr. Masson i'alls a willing victim to the temptation. 
The cause of every alteration in government from 
Commonwealth to Protectorate the never-ending 
changes fell at last into disunion and anarchy, and ended 
in the return of Charles II. is minutely described. 
Under all these varied forms of rule the services of 
Milton were employed in state administration, and many 
of the changes were supported by his pen. While we 
allow that his biographer could not omit to mention 
the actions in Church and State in which he was en- 
gaged, we cannot but add that in Mr. Masson's volumes 
the life of the poet and letter-writer is often sacrificed to 
the discussion of internal politics. In the first sixty-four 
pages of the fourth volume the name of Milton is men- 
tioned but once. More than one hundred and fifty pages of 
its successor are occupied with the history of the Protec- 
torate of Richard Cromwell and the events which led to 
the restoration of Charles; in only two of them will the 
name of Milton be found. The industry and accuracy of 
Mr. Masson must ever extort admiration, but for a living 
picture of Milton's life we must wait until a biographer 
has arisen who can make a fit use of the materials which 
Mr. Masson's labours have collected. 

Exactly a fortnight after the king's death, and four 
days after the publication of Eikon Basilike, Milton 
issued a bold and singularly opportune vindication of 
the conduct of the Parliament in deposing and killing 
their sovereign. This pamphlet secured for him the 
prominent position of " Secretary for Foreign Tongues " 
to the Council of State, and led them to impose 
upon him the task of counteracting the sympathy 
roused in every heart by the circulation of thousands 
of copies of the royal book. From that time he 
was immersed in controversy with Salmasius and his 
satellites. They poured upon him all the expres- 
sions of abuse which their knowledge of the refined 
vocabulary of the Latin language could supply, and 
received in return a good deal more than they gave. 
For these controversies Milton's dream of a History of 
England was neglected, for them the compilation of a 
Latin dictionary was abandoned as soon as it was con- 
templated. The lines of Paradise Lost which were 
written in these years can be counted on the fingers of 
the hands. Poetry was discarded for politics, and when 
Milton was not engaged in his chamber in repelling the 
attacks of foreign disputants, he was summoned to the 
council chamber to turn into Latin Cromwell's stirring 
despatches on behalf of the suffering Protestants of the 
Continent. Only a few sonnets remain to prove that his 
affection for the Muses was undiminished, but these must 
be ranked among the highest products of his poetic 
genius. The stateliness of thought embodied in the 
noble sonnets to Cromwell and Vane, and the deep feel- 
ing breathing through the simple words of his sonnet to 
his " late espoused saint/' he never surpassed. 

Though the chapters which depict the struggles of 
English politics must draw from the reader the frequent 
expression of a wish that Mr. Masson had adhered more 
closely to the legitimate lines of his biography, they often, 
throw fresh light on the events of English history. 
There are many lessons to be learned from the list of 
members (v. 453) of the restored Rump Parliament of 
1659, carefully annotated to show the parts they had 
played in the successive changes of the Commonwealth. 
The substance of a crowd of pamphlets is condensed in 
the histories of the new sects (v. 15-27) which swarmed 
in the first Protectorate of Cromwell. In a few pages 
Mr. Masson has sketched the careers of the English men 
of letters during the rule of Cromwell, and has drawn up. 
instructive tables of those who cordially adhered to his 
cause, and those who tacitly obeyed or actively opposed 
his government. His researches have illustrated the 
lives of Marvell, Needham, and the friends who solaced 
by their conversation the vacant hours of the blind 

In the last days of 1651 Milton was forced by ill health 
to remove' from his chambers in Whitehall Palace to a 
"pretty garden-house" in York Street, Westminster. 
Sadly had the neighbourhood deteriorated in two cen- 
turies and a quarter, but the house still remained (to use 
the words of Jeremy Bentham's tablet) " Sacred to Milton, 
Prince of Poets," and but little altered in its structure 
from the time when the blind bard groped from one 
room to another. Never more will the eager pilgrim 
forget the squalor of the neighbourhood in gazing on the 
house of Milton ; last year it vanished, and his desire to 
realize its appearance must be satisfied by the descriptions 
of Hazlitt and Mr. Masson. Milton entered it in De- 
cember, 1651, and he occupied it until the threatening 
pamphlet of L'Estrange, full of eager anticipations of 
the vengeance of Charles against the controversialist 
who had justified the death of his royal father, warned 
him to seek safety in obscurity. Mr. Masson's next and 
last volume will deal with Milton's life in seclusion, and 
there will be less justification in his forgetting the sub- 
ject of his biography in describing the history of his- 

Poetry for Children. By Charles and Mary Lamb. To- 
which are added Prince Dorus and some Uncollected 
Poems by Charles Lamb. Edited, Prefaced, and Anno- 
tated by Richard Herne Shepherd. (Chatto & 

AT length Charles Lamb's many lovers have the luck to 
recover the lost " Poetry for Children, Entirely Original, 
by the Author of Mrs. Leicester's School." Every collec- 
tion of Lamb's works hitherto made has had to dp with- 
out it, because no copy was forthcoming to print it from 
till last year. Now Messrs. Chatto & Windus gain much, 
credit by the issue of a careful, handy, pretty reprint of 
this collection, of the newly recovered humorous poem 
"Prince Dorus," known to be Lamb's by an entry in 
Crabb Robinson's Diary, and of a few other uncollected 
trifles of Lamb's that were worth collecting. Mr. R. H. 
Shepherd, as editor, gives useful bibliographical details, 
and attempts to apportion the Poetry for Children 
between Lamb and his sister not very successfully, but 
also by no means dictatorially. Lamb told Manning 
that his poems were " but one-third in quantity of the 
whole " ; three poems are known to be his ; and Mr. 
Shepherd suggests twenty-six others on supposed internal 
evidence. They are by no means the twenty-six best ; 
and one point in the evidence is in some cases fallacious : 
thus, three poems are left to Mary Lamb's account 
because we "cannot imagine" Charles "making sex 
rhyme with protects,... withdrawn vfith forlorn,... or Anna, 
with manner " ; yet, in the course of the poems ascribed 



[5th S . IX. FEB. 23, 78. 

to Lamb, we find such desperate rhymes as Louisa with 
please her, and Rebecca with Quaker (p. 9), lady with 
laby (p. 20), dessert she with curtsy (p. 150), and at p. 158 
the unimaginable inversion 

" I find in all this 

Fine description, you've only your young sister Mary 
Been taking a copy of here for a fairy" 
while in his acknowledged poem " The Three Friends " 
<p. 74) is no less lax a rhyme than feature and greater. 
The book is a priceless one, and all lovers of Lamb must 
get it ; but the apportionment of the poems will probably 
have to wait till some authentic and decisive document 
turns up, as in the case of Hood and Reynolds's Odes and 
Addresses to Great People. 

Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, and House 
of Commons and the Judicial Bench, 1878. (Dean & 

FOURTEEN years ago we welcomed the reappearance of 
Debrett amongst the Peerages as that of an old friend 
with a new face, adding that Debrett was for years the 
(if not the only) Peerage which the fashionable world 
consulted. We may now add that so many improvements 
"have taken place in it, arid such additions made to its 
usefulness, that it bids fair to resume the important 
place which it once held as a high authority on all 
matters connected with the titled classes of this country. 
One only has to compare Debrett of the past year with 
that for the present one to appreciate the improvements 
that have been effected by Dr. Mair. A special feature 
of the present issue is that the succession to Peerages, 
which will be separated on the demise of the present 
incumbents, is set forth in a manner at once brief and 

MESSES. PARKER & Co., Oxford, and Mr. Murray, 
London, have just published two volumes of very remark- 
able interest The Catacombs of Rome and Tombs in and 
near Rome, Sculpture among the Greeks and Romans, 
Mythology in Funeral Sculpture, and Early Christian 
.Sculpture. These are two more splendid volumes, giving 
additional illustrations of both life and death in ancient 
and in Christian Rome, which volumes we owe to Mr. 
John Henry Parker, C.B., to whom we are already in- 
debted for an attractive volume on the Colosseum as 
compared with other amphitheatres. Although the 
reader may not invariably agree with his learned and 
modest guide, Mr. Parker's volumes deserve the highest 
praise. The text is sufficient for the reader, who may 
pleasantly and profitably spend hours over the numerous 
illustrations, all giving a history and offering suggestions 
to be th ought over independent of what may be found in the 
author's text. Between text and plates the reader passes 
through very unwholesome places without any fear of 
catching the Roman fever, though these books may well 
tempt him to risk the malaria. 

the controversy at present going on in the Times, 
respecting God Save the King, errors are so abundant 
that it would require many pages to expose them all. 
The latest assertion is that Carey spelt his name without 
an e. Fact is better than fiction, and I possess over two 
hundred works published by himself, in all of which he 
spells his name Carey. The same form was adopted by 
his son, John Saville Carey. 

I may add that it is my intention to write the history 
of God Save the King, and to publish, for the first time, 
evidence I have recently acquired respecting Bull's MS. 
and also two forgeries in connexion therewith. 


Brackley Villa, Thurlow Park Road, Duhvich, S.E. 

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK. I am writing a life of my 
friend and my father's friend, George Cruikshank. 
May I, through your columns, appeal to any friends of 
his who may have characteristic notes, letters, sketches, 
anecdotes, or facts about him to favour me with them ? 
Information about his early days will be particularly 

Reform Club, Pall Mall. 

A COMPLETE set of the Second Series of " N. & Q.," 
half calf, may be had of our publisher. 


ON all communications should be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

H. A. B. " Lumen de caelo " is, we believe, the 
correct version of the prophecy concerning the late 
Pope's successor. For the prophecies of St. Malachi 
respecting the Popes, see " N. & Q.," 3 r<1 8. i. 49, 77, 173, 
359 ; 4th S. viii. 1 12, 296. Please forward your other query. 

OLIM ("Shakspeariana"); H. ("Christchurch, Hants") ; 
B. ("Letter of Bp. Racket"); BEDALE ("Exelby 

Family "); and ("Rev. R. Clarke "), have sent no 

name and address. In the last instance the query is in- 

W. D. B. Four different forms of expression may be 
used : ^ "tanto, quanto"; " quanto " alone; " cosi, 
come"; " altrettanto che." The natural correlative of 
tanto is of course quanto. though the form to which you 
allude may be used colloquially. 

K. H. B. In the wedding ceremony at these marriages 
the left hand is given. The children resulting from such 
unions, though considered legitimate, are not entitled to 
succeed to their fathers' estates. 

SETH WAIT. We have forwarded your communication 
to our correspondent MR. C. H. E. CARMICHAEL, New 
University Club, S.W.,who will be glad to hear from 

ECLECTIC. Are not the people mentioned still living ? 
The question should be referred to some lawyer prac- 
tising in the Divorce Court. 

A. IRELAND. A proof shall be sent with pleasure. 

F. ROSENTHAL. You mentioned certain misprints 
which we should wish to see corrected in the margin of 
the copy to be sent. 

A. G. W. should apply to some flag-maker to the 

REV. W. ROTHERHAM. Letter forwarded. In due 

H. KREBS. Your query is suited to Science Gossip 
(Hardwicke, Piccadilly). 

ST. SWITHIN. Az. and an?, are the proper abbrevia- 
tions. Proof shall be sent. 

S. should refer to the Hon. Mrs. Norton's works in the 
Free Library at Manchester. 

TIBIA AMNE having referred to ante, p. 135, will pro- 
bably deem it necessary to rewrite his reply. 

S. F. Forwarded to MR. THOMS. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "at the Office, 20, 
Wellington Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print ; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

5th s. IX. MAR. 2, 78.] 





NOTES- /V Lady Contemporary of Queen Katbarite of 
Valois, 101 Early Allusions to Shakspeare, 162 Chaucer- 
The Son of Theodore, King of Corsica, 163 A Welsh Parson 
of the Seventeenth Century "Lozenge," 164 Curiosities of 
Cricket -Dante's " Purgatorio," 165 A Mediaeval Bell- 
George III. at Weymouth The " Cirrus "Prayer and Creed 
The Order of the Garter an Epicene Order, 166. 

QUERIES: J. Carver A Washington Letter " Marquis " 
v. "Marquess" Dove Family The Reporters' Gallery in 
the House of Commons -The Royal Crown over a Civilian 
Crest University of London Warton and Johnson Queen 
Anne and George II., 167 Norfolk a Big Goose-green 
Friesic Legends A Painting by Guercino da Cento 
"Charlotte" Urchenfleld -The Lincoln Missal-Brampton 
Park, Hunts -William, third Baron of Wormleighton An 
Engraving A Banbury Story The Lord of Burleigh In- 
vitation Cards, 168" The Lass of Richmond Hill "Tom 
Tompier Sir Francis Burdett Authors Wanted, &c., 169. 

REPLIES : Personal Proverbs, 169-John Cooke, the Regi- 
cide St. Ismael, 172 Common Aryan Words for Agricul- 
tural Institutions, 173 " Callis" The Irish House of 
Commons The "Cow and Snuffers "Pascal, 174 The 
Anglo-Saxon O Sutton Mutton Quakers and Titles, 175 
Milton Queries Pope and "The Rehearsal"" The Palace 
of Truth" "The Whole Duty of Man," 176-The Isle of 
Man F. Bartolozzi, R. A. " Cat-Gallas." &c. "Nine Men's 
Morrice," 177 Pelham Family : Manor of Pelham, Sussex 
"Dataler" The Windsor Sentinel and St. Paul's -The Dia- 
mond Necklace of Marie Antoinette St. Paul's School- 
London Fogs "In Ranconten "Authors Wanted, 178. 

Notes on Books, <fec. 


The re-interment of the remains of Queen 
Katharine of Valois recalls to my mind an in- 
teresting hour which I spent with a second cousin 
of her husband's, a lady exactly contemporary with 
the queen herself, on March 5, 1875, an account 
of which may not be uninteresting to your readers. 

While the restoration of the choir of Tewkes- 
bury was being carried on, it was considered by 
the committee that the opportunity ought to be 
used for the purpose of gaining further information, 
if there was any to be gained, respecting the great 
families of De Clare and De Spencer, who repre- 
sented the founder, and whose bodies had been 
buried there for many generations. Several dis- 
coveries were made, and not the least important 
among them was that of the body of Isabel, great- 
granddaughter of Edward III., and second wife of 
the great Earl of Warwick and Albemarle, who 
succeeded the Duke of Bedford as Kegent of 
France, and who is commemorated by the well- 
known brazen effigy in the Beauchamp Chapel at 

This lady was the daughter and only child of 
Thomas Despencer, thirteenth Earl of Gloucester, 
who was put to death at Bristol six months 
before her birth, which took place on July 26, 
1400, and of Constance, the daughter of Edmund 
of Langley, fourth son of Edward III. At eleven 

years of age she was married to Richard Beau- 
champ, Earl of Abergavenny and Worcester, and 
four years afterwards bore him a daughter at 
Hanley Castle, the Lady Elizabeth Beauchamp, 
from whom the families of Abergavenny and 
Despencer are descended. The Earl of Aber- 
gavenny was killed at the siege of Meaux, on 
March 18, 1421, and was buried between the 
pier of the tower and the first pillar of the arcade 
on the north side of Tewkesbury choir, a beautiful 
chantry, which is the original model of the still 
more beautiful Beauchamp chantry at Warwick, 
being erected by his widow over his grave. 

Two years and a half afterwards, on Nov. 26, 
1423, the Lady Isabel was married to her late 
husband's cousin, who was also named Richard 
Beauchamp, and was the fifth Earl of Warwick. 
The British Museum possesses a very beautiful 
pictorial life of this earl, drawn in sepia by Rous, 
one of his chaplains, the forty-six quarto-sized 
drawings illustrating his career from his birth to 
his burial. His attendance at the marriage of 
Henry V. gives occasion to a fine drawing of that 
ceremony, in which it is not too much to suppose 
we find a contemporary portrait of Katharine of 
Valois as she appeared on the most interesting day 
of her life. Lord Warwick died at Rouen Castle 
on April 30, 1439, and his body was brought 
home to England by his widow and their son 
Henry, afterwards Duke of Warwick and King of 
the Isles of Wight, Guernsey, and Jersey. The 
sorrowing lady could travel no further than London, 
and went to be nursed by the loving hands of the 
sisters minoresses of St. Clare, whose house stood 
in the Minories, near the Tower. Here Henry VI. 
went to visit her, and after acceding to some 
parting request which she made respecting her son 
and Tewkesbury Abbey, the good king took his 
leave of her with the words. " May God, whom 
you worship with an upright heart, grant thee thy 
heart's desire and fulfil all thy mind." 

The Countess of Warwick died on St. John the 
Evangelist's day, December 27, 1439, and there is 
a pen-and-ink drawing of her as she lay upon her 
deathbed, and in the act of delivering her will to 
the Abbot of Tewkesbury, in a MS. volume in the 
possession of Sir Charles Isharn. On January 
13, 1440, she was buried with much state in the 
choir of Tewkesbury Abbey, an inscription around 
the top of the Abergavenny chantry stating that 
her grave was " I. choro I. dextra patris sui," her 
father's grave being elsewhere recorded as being 
" under the lamp which burned before the Blessed 
Sacrament." The will handed to the abbot gave 
minute directions respecting her monument, which 
is said to have been " a very handsome marble 
tomb, exquisitely carved." Her orders were 
" that her statue should be made all nakyd with 
her hair cast backward, according to the design 
and modell that one Thomas Parchalion had for 



[5'h s. IX. MAK. 2, 78. 

that purpose, and Mary Magdalen laying her 
hands acrosse, with S. John the Evangelist on the 
right side, and on the left S. Anthony ; and at her 
feet a Scocheon impaling her arms with those of 
her late husband,* supported by two Gryphons ; 
but on the side thereof the statues of poor men 
and women in their poor array, with their beads 
in their hands " (Dugdale's Warwick., p. 330, ed. 
1656, from a copy " ex dono Authoris"). 

The monument has entirely disappeared ; but, 
guided by the inscription on the chantry, I searched 
for the grave on the south side of the choir, a little 
to the right of the spot under the key-stone of the 
groining of the easternmost bay. We soon came 
upon a large stone, the top surface of which had 
remains of ancient mortar upon it, and which, 
being on the old level of the floor, was no doubt 
the base of the monument. On the under side of 
this stone was inscribed a long cross in shallow 
lines, together with, here and there, intersecting 
circles, that looked like sketches of designs for 
tracery, such as I once found, in a more finished 
stage, on the under side of stall desks at Over, in 
Cambridgeshire. Across the upper limb of the 
cross there was deeply cut, in black-letter of 
fifteenth century date, the inscription, "Mercy 
Lord Jhu." Beneath this slab there was a grave 
of very fine masonry, 1 ft. 0| in. long, 2 ft. 5 in. 
wide, and 3 ft. deep. At the bottom lay the body 
of Lady Warwick, wrapped in a close shroud of 
linen, which had become of a rich brown colour, 
tinged either by age or by the spices used in 
embalmment. The left arm and hand protruded 
through the shroud, and indicated that nothing 
but bones remained within, at least in that part of 
the body. The rest of the body was perfectly 
enclosed in its envelope, but a small opening 
occurred above the forehead, and through this was 
seen a mass of auburn hair in its natural con- 
dition, but perhaps coloured, like the shroud, by 
the embalming spices. Around the body lay the 
fragments of a wooden coffin, which had been 
covered, on the outside as well as the inside, with 
a damasked purple silk, of Oriental fabric, such as 
that which was often used for lining the leather 
flaps covering episcopal seals. The body measured 
5 ft. 8 in., but as the feet lay straight this was 
more than the natural height of the living person. 

When these facts had been observed, a tile was 
placed in the grave with the inscription, " This 
grave was opened during the restoration of 1875, 
and, after having been inspected, was reverently 
closed and restored to its original condition," the 
inscription being signed by the chairman of the 
restoration committee and myself. The covering 
slab was then replaced, and now lies (as do the 

* Dugdale gives an engraving of the countess kneeling 
at a prayer-desk, and clad in a mantle with her own and 
her husband's arms upon it, from the east window of the 
Lady Chapel, Warwick. 

other graves which were discovered) under a thick 
stratum of concrete, on which the new floor will 
be laid. 

The Earl of Warwick was a friend and com- 
panion of both Henry V. and Henry VI., and the 
latter heaped titles and honours of every kind 
upon the young Duke of Warwick his son, who 
died, at the early age of twenty-one, at Hanley 
Castle, and was buried at Tewkesbury. It is not 
too much to conjecture that Lady Warwick was 
also a friend of Queen Katharine, and it is a 
curious coincidence that, both being born in the- 
same year and dying in the same year, their 
respective relics should have come to light almost 
at the same time. J. H. BLUNT. 

Beverston Rectory. 

In one of the elegies addressed by Milton to 
Charles Deodate there are some lines which purport 
to describe certain dramas witnessed by the young 
poet during a visit to town in 1626. Two of the 
tragedies are thus particularized : 

" Puer infelix indelibata reliquit 
Gaudia, et abrupto flendus amore cadit 
Seu ferus e tenebris iterat Styga criminis ultor 
Conscia funereo pectora torre movens." 

The only guess at these allusions (known to me) is 
that of Warton in his edition of Milton's Poems 
(Lond., 1785). He says : "By the youth in the 
first couplet he perhaps intends Shakespeare's 
Borneo. In the second either Hamlet or 
Richard III." This opinion, so far as Romeo and 
Hamlet are concerned, is also tacitly adopted by 
Prof. Masson in his Life of Milton, but as charac- 
terizations of Shakespeare's dramas it is difficult to- 
see any special appositeness in these pictures. It 
is at least doubtful how far " indelibata " could be 
used with propriety in connexion with Juliet, and 
the turn of the second couplet reminds one of the 
Spanish Tragedy rather than Hamlet. But do the 
lines necessarily refer to plays actually performed 
in London 1 In the previous lines, dealing with 
comedy, the allusions are to the plays of Terence, 
to Ruggle's Ignoramus, and perhaps to Howes's 
Fraus Honesti, none of which the writer is likely 
to have seen upon Bankside. It would seem, 
therefore, that illustrations taken from the ancients, 
or, at any rate, from, modern academical dramas, 
would accord better with the scholarly idealism 
which pervades this graceful little poem. 

Peter Anthony Motteux, the projector and editor 
of the Gentleman's Journal, was probably the first 
Frenchman who was able to appreciate our great 
poet. His journal has several passages which 
illustrate the state of popular opinion about Shake- 
speare. In December, 1692, there is a notice of 
the Rymer controversy : 

" Mr. Rhymer's Book, which the Ingenious expected 
with so much Impatience, is published, and is call'd 

5th s. IX. MAR. 2, 78.] 



A Short View of Tragedy, <Dc., being dedicated to the 
Right Honourable the Earl of Dorset. Mr. Rhymer, 
like some of the French that follow Aristotle's Precepts, 
declares for Chorus's, and takes an occasion to examin 
some Plays of Shakespear's, principally Othello, with the 
eame sevirety and judgment with which he criticised 
some of Beaumont and Fletcher's in his Book called, The 
Tragedies of the last Age. The ingenious are somewhat 
divided about some Remarks in it, though they concur 
<with Mr. Rhymer in many things, and generally acknow- 
ledge that he discovers a great deal of Learning through 
the whole. For these Reasons I must forbear saying any 
more of it, and refer you to the Book it self." 

Dennis's reply is also noticed : 

" We are promised a second Part [of the Impartial 
Critick}, wherein Mr. Dennis designs to prove, that, tho 
Shakespear had his faults, yet he was a very great 
Genius, which Mr. Rymer seems unwilling to grant. 
I am only sorry that the time, which the perusal of the 
many excellencies which are diffus'd thro Shakspear's 
Plays, requires, will keep Mr. Dennis very long from 
giving us that Book." 

In February, 1693, the editor printed Sir Charles 
Sedley's lines on Shakespeare : 

" We have had a Comedy, call'd The Wary Widow, or 
Sir Noisy Parrot, by Henry Higden, Esq. ; I send you 
here the Prologue to it by Sir Charles Sedley; and you 
are too great an Admirer of Shakespeare, not to assent 
to the Praises given to the Fruits of his rare Genius, of 
which I may say as Ovid to Graecinus, 

Quos prior est mirata, sequens mirabitur JStas, 
In quorum plausus tota Theatra sonant." 

It is satisfactory to find that Shakespeare was 
properly estimated by the first English literary 
journal. About this time, however, the small fry 
of contemporary dramatists appear to have looked 
upon his writings in the light of a vast quarry of 
old material, free to be carted away when wanted, 
dealing with him very much after the manner of 
the grantees of the old abbeys with their noble 
ruins. One of the most honest of these men was 
Charles Burnaby, who in the preface to his Love 
betrayed, 1703, says bravely : 

" Part of the Tale of this Play I took from Shakespear, 
and about Fifty of the Lines ; Those that are his, I have 
mark'd with Inverted Comma's, to distinguish 'em from 
-what are mine. I endeavour'd where I had occasion to 
introduce any of 'em, to make 'em look as little like 
Strangers as possible, but am affraid (tho' a Military 
Critick did me the honour to say I had plunder'd all from 
Shakespear) that they wou'd easily be known without 
my Note of distinction." 

Here is a specimen of Burnaby's treatment of the 
" strangers," from a speech of Moreno, Duke of 
Venice : 

" Poor Csesario ! thou art too young for Cares, 

Or thou hadst known, they follow us in Sleep. 

Physicians poyspn in their Sleep, 

Lawyers undoe in their Sleep, 

Courtiers get new Grants in their Sleep 

Nothing in Nature 's quite at rest, 

But the slick Prelate." 

Amongst earlier allusions not given in the 
Century of Prayse are the following : an allusion 
to Venus and Adonis in Cornelianum Dolium. 

1638 ; a mention of Falstaff by Lord Chancellor 
Jeffreys in Lady Ivy's case, 1684, reported in the 
State Trials ; two interesting allusions to Shake- 
peare in Sir John Suckling's Letters. A quota- 
tion from the Merry Wives, written by the fifth 
Earl of Montgomery in a copy of Inigo Jones's 
Stonehenge, was printed in the second volume of 
your Fifth Series. C. ELLIOT BROWNE. 

BEGONNE." I think I have found out yet more 
solution of difficult passages in Chaucer. A well- 
known puzzle is that in 1. 52 of the Prologue : 
" Ful ofte tyme he had the lord bygonne 
Aboven alle naciouns in Pruce. " 

The difficulty is, does it mean that the knight had 
been placed in the seat of honour at table, or that 
he had "begun the tournament," whatever that 
may mean ? Now the usual meaning of bord is 
certainly " table." The puzzle is to know if there 
was such a phrase as " to begin a board " in the 
sense of sitting highest at table. The answer is 
yes ; and all the while it occurs in Gower, Conf. 
Amantis, ed. Pauli, vol. iii. p. 299, where every 
one has overlooked it hitherto. The whole passage 
in Gower is most explicit, and should be con- 
sulted : 

" At souper tyme netheles 
The king, amiddes al the pres, 
Let clepe him up among hem alle, 
And bad his mareschal of his halle 
To setten him in such degre, 
That he upon him mighte se. 
The king was sone set and served ; 
And he, which hadde his pris deserved, 
After the kinges owne worde, 
Was made begin a middel borde, 
That bothe king and quene him sigh." 

That is, he occupied the place of honour at a 
table in the middle of the hall. 


On the night of Wednesday, February 1, 1797, an 
old man walked from a coffee-house at Storey's 
Gate to Westminster Abbey. Under one of the 
porches there he put a pistol to his head and shot 
himself dead. He proved to be Col. Frederick, 
son of Theodore, King of Corsica, who, about forty 
years before, had been buried in a pauper's grave 
in the churchyard of St. Anne's, Soho. The Colonel 
was a benevolent, eccentric, moneyless gentleman, 
well known in -London. The son of the King of 
Corsica once dined at Dolly's with Count Ponia- 
towski, future King of Poland, when they had not 
enough money between them to pay the modest 
bill. Distress, it is said, drove the poor Colonel 
to suicide. Such is the accepted fact ; but con- 
temporary history had another and a very curious 
version of the Colonel's death. The account below 



. IX. MAR. 2, 78. 

is taken from the Sun newspaper for Friday, 
February 3, 1797 : 

" MURDER OF COL. FREDERICK. On Wednesday night 
last, about nine o'clock, the above unfortunate Gfntle- 
man, Son of the late Theodore, King of Corsica, was 
found murdered under the West Porch of Westminster 
Abbey, facing Tothil-street. No fire-arms were found 
near the place, nor any thing that could lead to a dis- 
covery of the means by which the deed was perpetrated. 
After a minute inquiry yesterday, the following is a cir- 
cumstantial account of the transaction, as related by a 
lad who was near the place at the time of the murder, 
William Colvin by name. About half after nine o'clock 
on Wednesday night, he states his being at a pump near 
the church-yard of the Abbey, when he saw two men 
talking together near the Porch door, one of whom he 
heard say to the other, If you don't give me some 
money, 1 '11 blow your brains out.' The other (whom 
he describes to be the Colonel) replied, * If you don't get 
about your business, I shall call out for assistance, and 
have you taken into custody.' That immediately after 
he heard the report of a pistol, and saw the Gentleman 
fall ; the other then turned round to look if any body 
was near, and on seeing this lad, ran after him, and took 
him by the collar ; that his mouth was then stopped 
with a handkerchief, to prevent his calling out ; in this 
state the fellow brought him back to the place where 
the deceased was lying, and swore if he made the least 
noise he would blow his brains out. He then held him 
between his knees whilst he searched the deceased's 
pockets, and saw him take out of his breeches pocket a 
green purse (as he believes), containing some money, and 
out of his coat pocket a red and white handkerchief, 
which he put into his breast ; that he then took a paper 
out of his own waistcoat pocket, and put it into that of 
the deceased ; it contained something, but cannot say 
what it was. The lad further states, that he was then 
released by the man, who, on going away, gave him a 
violent blow on the breast, which stunned him. After 
recovering himself, he ran after him, and saw him ram 
something into his pistol. He overtook the ruffian, and 
caught hold of the skirt of his coat ; the man disengaged 
himself, and ran towards the House of Commons. On 
the lad calling out 'Stop Thief, 1 a person near the place 
threw a pail after him, which hit the man's heels; after 
which he saw no more of him. To corroborate the above 
account, the Colonel's dress was exactly as the boy had 
described it. When the body was taken to St. Margaret's 
bone-house, the paper was found in the waistcoat pocket, 
which had been stated to have been put in by the man 
who shot the Colonel, and which paper contained some 
gunpowder. The most diligent search is making after 
the villain who perpetrated the deed." 

Of course lie was never discovered. D. N. 

CENTURY. The following story is perhaps known 
to Lord Macaulay's schoolboy, in which case I 
must apologize for offering it to " N. & Q." But 
Lord Macaulay himself has not referred to it in 
the notes to his famous third chapter. It may be 
one of the " sources too numerous to mention " 
from which he drew the materials for that chapter. 
I found it the other day, when looking for some- 
thing else, in an anonymous law book, The Game- 
ster's Law, a 12mo. of about 130 pages, published 
in 1708. It is the one gleam of humanity in a 
chaos of dog-Latin and Norman French. After 

speaking of the two books of sports, James's in 
1618 and Charles's in 1633, the writer goes on as 
follows, " in his old language," as Gibbon would 
say : 

" But tempora mutantur ; our Gracious Queen [Anne) 
and our Reverend Bishops will not Patronize any such 
Custom or Allowance. And, that the ignorant People 
were misled, and thought such Pastimes Innocent sort 
of Mirth appears by this story of a Welsh Parson, John 
( a poor Boy) was bred up at School, and being a plodding 
Lad at his Books, used to assist some Gentlemens Sons 
that went to the same school. Afterwards John took a 
trip to the University and got a Degree and Orders : He, 
in process of time, upon some occasion comes for London 
in a tattered Gown : One day a Gentleman that had gon 
to School with him, meets him, and knew him; Jack 
(saith the Gentleman) I am glad to see thee, how dost 
do 1 ? I thank you (Noble Squire) replied Jack. The 
Gentleman invited him to the Tavern, and after some 
Discourse of their School and former Conversation, the 
Gentleman ask'd him where he lived 1 Jack answered 
in Wales. The Gentleman askt him if he were Married ? 
The Parson replied he was, and that he had a Wife and 
seven Children. Then the Gentleman enquired of the 
value of his Benefice, the Parson answered it was worth 
9. per Annum. Pugh ! quoth the Gentleman, How- 
canst thou maintain thy Wife and Children with that, 
O ! Sir, quoth Jack, shrugging his Shoulders, we live by 
the Church-yard, my Wife sells Ale, and I keep a Bear, 
and after Evening Service (my Parishioners being so 
kind to bring their Dogs to Church) I bring out my Bear 
and bate him, and for about two Hours we are at Heave 
and Shove, Staff and Tail till we are all very hot and 
thirsty, and then we step in to our Joan, and drink 
stoutly of her Nutbrown Ale, and I protest (Squire) 
saith he, we make a very pretty Business of it." 

The tutoiement of the "Noble Squire," the 
deference of poor Jack, the slight and contemp- 
tuous way in which his education, his " trip to the 
University," and his taking Orders are spoken of, 
as if he had gained nothing, socially or intellec- 
tually, by these things all this is significant, 
though by no means novel. Perhaps Jack was- 
ordained by one of those Whig bishops who con- 
trived to bring the Church in Wales into such 
utter disrepute. A. J. M. 

ETYMOLOGY OF "LOZENGE." Webster gives 
the following meanings of this word : 1. A figure 
with four equal sides, having two acute and two 
obtuse angles ; a rhomb ; 2. a small cake of sugar, 
&c., often'medicated, originally in the form of a 
lozenge or rhomb, but now usually round. He 
gives Fr. losange, Gr. Ao^os, oblique ; yun'ia, a 
corner. Dufresne gives losengina,lozengia, "tessella 
scutaria." I find no losange, lozange, or lozenge in 
Littre" for the sweetmeat. He renders losange: 

"1. Terme de blason. 2. Parallelogramme dont les- 
quatre cotes sont egaux sans que les angles soient droits. 
3. Terme de plain chant. Note figuree en losange et 
qui vaut la moitie de la carree ou breve ; la losange est 

done une semi-breve Etym. Berry, osange. Origine 

incertaine. Scheler, d'apres Gachet, pense que ce mot 
n'est pas autre que 1'ancien francais losange, louange, 
flatterie, qui est une autre forme de louange; voici 
comme il deduit : jadis les armes des families etaient 

5 lh S. IX. MAR. 2, 78.] 



encadrees dans les rhombes ; on auradit que ces armoiries, 
destinees a exalter les seigneurs par des allegories, etaient 
des losanyes ou louanges ; puis le nom de losange aura 
passe & 1'encadrement meme. Cela est ingenieux, pro- 
bable meme, car le sens du blason est le premier et le 
plus ancien ; mais il faudrait quelque intermediaire pour 
le rendre eur." 

Bescherelle, who gives the parallelogram as the 
primitive meaning of the word, says, " losange, 
lozange, du Lat. Barb, laurengia ; fait de laurus, 
laurier, par ce que cette figure ressemble a quelques 
egards a la feuille de laurier ; selon d'autres, du 
Gr. Aoo9, oblique, parce que les angles du losange 
ne soiit point droits." Fleming and Tibbings's 
Diet, has " losange, lozange (figure a quatre cotes 
egaux, ayant deux angles aigus et deux obtus), 
lozenge." Cotgrave gives " losenge, a losenge, the 
form, or a thing of the forme, of an ordinarie 
quarrel 1 of glasse, &c., as in lozenge " ; and 
" lozenge, a lozenge ; a little square cake of pre- 
served herbs, flowers, &c. ; also a quarrell of a 
glasse- window ; any thing of that forme ; also 
guile, deceit, fraud, cousenage." The sweetmeat 
is rendered m modern French by pastille, and, 
when not of a round form, by tablette. That the 
word for the sweetmeat may be altogether a 
different word is quite possible. I am, however, 
disposed to think it is the primitive word from 
which the others have been derived. It would 
appear to be from the Arabic lawzinaj, a confec- 
tion of almonds (laivziydt, sweatmeats in which 
almonds are used, almond confections ; laiuzat, 
preserved fruit ; Persian lawzina, any food in which 
almonds form a part) ; from laiuz, an almond 
(Mod. Arab, luza, Heb. nb, luz, the almond tree) ; 
found also in Syriac. Freytag (Lex. Arab.-Lat.} 
gives " laws, nom. gener., lawzat, nom. unit., 
amygdalum ; lawzinaj (Pers. lawzlna), dulciarium 
opus ex amygdalis " (quoting Kam.\ Meninski 
has " Arab, lews, amygdalum ; Uwzinej, dulciarium 
ex amygdalis ; Pers. lawzlne, id." Kieffer and 
Bianchi (Diet. Turc.-Frang.) have " levzinedj et 
levzine, s. Arab., patisserie d'amandes ; levz, amande, 
s. Arab., levz ul-hind, coing (fruit)." Shakespear 
(Hindustani Diet.} gives " lauz, an almond, a kind 
of sweetmeat, s. Arab " ; " lauz-iydt, sweetmeats in 
which almonds are mixed, s. Arab." ; " lauz-ma, a 
confection of almonds, Arab. Pers." The Sanscrit 
has three words for the sweetmeat, and six for the 
quadrangular figure. K. S. CHARNOCK. 

Junior Garrick Club. 

CURIOSITIES OF CRICKET. Amongst the novel 
matches of last season was one played at Shalford 
(Surrey), between eleven Heaths and eleven 
Mitchells, the former all belonging to Shalford, 
while the latter team was composed of men from 
Holm wood, Felday, Ockley, and Littleton. The 
Mitchells won on the first innings by seventeen 
runs. It was stated in the newspaper (Surrey 
Advertiser) from which this is derived that the 

victors had already vanquished eleven Mileses and 
eleven Muggeridges, and that they were about to 
challenge eleven named Lucas. These eleven 
(Lucases), all connected by family ties, had then 
recently played a match near Horsham. During 
the same season eleven women of Elstead " handled 
the willow " and defeated eleven ladies of Thursley, 
the Thursley team having previously beaten the 
Elstead. One of the fair ones was described as 
being " a batswoman of considerable local repute." 
Another showed " an excellent defence" until " she 
was well caught by the bowler." When Thursley wen t 
in (first innings) " they were quickly disposed of," 

the bowling of Mrs. - and Mrs. " proving 

of so destructive a character that no less than 
seven ' ducks' eggs ' appeared in the score." A 

Miss is described as "a promising young 

player," " her defensive powers as a cricketer being 
well brought out." Two other ladies "each batted 
in good form." Elstead scored forty-four and 
twenty-eight ; Thursley, seventeen and forty-nine. 
I did not learn whether the tie was played off, 
each team, as I have said, having won a game. I 
find it recorded that in 1846 eleven brothers 
Colman were in one set, and in a previous year a 
Mr. Pagden, with four of his sons and six of his 
nephews, won a match. More recently the 
Brotherhoods mustered an eleven in Gloucester- 
shire, and it is said that eleven Lytteltons, with 
the late baron at their head, once took part in a 
match. KINGSTON. 

[A few years ago there was a match at the Surrey Oval 
between eleven Greenwich pensioners with one arm and 
eleven other Greenwich pensioners with one leg. There 
was excellent play on both sides. The one-armed lost. 
They were less handy than their fellows in picking up 
the ball.] 

DANTE'S " PURGATORIO." In Mrs. Oliphant's 
Dante, the first of the series of " Foreign Classics 
for English Readers," there is a mistranslation 
(p. 117) which should be corrected in the next 
edition. In the third canto of the Purgatorio, 
11. 118-120, Manfredi says to the poet, 

" Poscia ch' i' ebbi rotta la persona 
Di due punte mortali, io mi rendei 
Piangendo a Quei che volentier perdona." 

Mrs. Oliphant has rendered the last line, " Weep- 
ing to Those who willingly pardon," instead of " to 
Him who willingly pardons." Quei, although 
usually plural (for Quelli), is here singular. Volpi, 
in his Indice, says, in reference to this passage, 
" Quei per quello in terzo caso " ; and Cary, 
Wright, and Longfellow all translate it as Him. 
The singular verb perdona shows that the pronoun 
is also singular. I have thought it possible that 
Mrs. Oliphant may understand the poet to mean 
the Trinity, as she writes " Those " with a capital ; 
but I think there can be no reasonable doubt that 
he simply means God, and this is the view which 



[5*8. IX. MAR. 2, '78. 

the above-mentioned translators appear to hav 

Bexley Heath, Kent. 

A MEDIAEVAL BELL. In a Birmingham paper 
of about a year ago there are the following parti 
culars of an old bell, which may be of interest to 
some of your readers : 

" Efforts are being made to collect sufficient funds for 

the restoration of the parish church of Brailes, Warwick 

shire. The tower of this ancient church contains one of 

the heaviest peals of six bells to be met with in this 

country. Unfortunately they are so badly hung and ou 

of repair that twenty men and boys find it a toilsome 

and difficult task to bring out their melody, and the 

tenor and third bells are badly cracked. The former is 

a mediaeval bell, weighing about 34 cwt., and much ad 

mired by archaeologists. It bears the arms of the 

Underbill family, with the following legend, probably a 

stanza of some ancient Ascension hymn : 

' Gaude quod post ipsum scandis, 

Et est honor tibi grandis 

In celi palacio.' " 

It is proposed to recast this bell, exactly repro- 
ducing its interesting features, and also the other 
cracked bell. F. S. 


I had been writing to a lady, upwards of seventy 
years of age, and in my letter had said something 
about Weymouth. In her reply the lady thus 
wrote : 

" I never think of Weymouth without an anecdote of 
our old king, George III. My mother was one day walk- 
ing there when she saw a little girl run up to the king, 
saying, ' Mr. Ting ! Mr. Ting ! I have dot on a new 
flannel pettitoat ! ' at the same time affording him ocular 
demonstration thereof. Whereupon the king, with his 
well-known good-nature, patted the child on her head, 
bestowing seemly commendation on the utility of the 
newly acquired article. Such was the simplicity of child- 
hood and the benevolence of riper years." 

If, as I imagine, this anecdote has not yet been in 
print, I think that it deserves preservation in these 

THE " CIRRUS." Looking for a word in Rich's 
Illustrated Companion to the Latin Dictionary my 
eye fell, as one's eye always does, on something 
elsej and that was : 

u Cirrus in vertice. A tuft of hair drawn up all around 
the head, and tied into a bunch on the occiput, as was the 
practice of athletes, wrestlers, boxers, &c." 

Any one who has noticed lately the mural decora- 
tions of the metropolis must have observed an 
animated portrait of a celebrated clown, "Little 
Sandy," that exhibits a cirrus in vertice most 
strikingly. Now I would ask, is this a whim of 
" the drollest of the droll," as he is termed in the 
bills, or is it a tradition of the circus that has come 
down to us from the time of the Romans ? I have 
observed that the Spanish bull-fighters have their 
hair cut very short with the exception of a cirrus. 

not in vertice, but at the back of the head, to which 
is attached a black rosette. I have also seen in 
old French pictures clowns whose caps represent a 
bald head with the exception of one tuft. 


PRAYER AND CREED. Subjoined is an entire 
transcript of a small Anglo-Saxon text, which I had 
some years since, but it is no longer in existence ; 
and I hesitate to send even this printed copy, 
because I doubt if I could find another if you 
should not print it. It was a small vellum leaf, 
in the finest preservation, having perhaps been 
kept between the leaves of some old book of 
devotion. It may have come from Byland Abbey, 
since a large collection of the charters of that 
abbey was also in the same house. Except that, 
to accommodate the printer, it was necessary to 
render the characters proper to Anglo-Saxon into 
ordinary letters, I can answer for its literal exact- 
ness, having collated the proof with the original. 
Her is gebed & geleafa 

Hit gedafnath th 

Ic lufige & wurthige 

God ana & symle 

Faader Sunu & Halgan gast 

Wast ic sothe wile 

Thurh godes gife 

Sy god fultume 

A. on minum gebede 

Swa his wylla sy; 

A M H N 

As I remember, the final N was uncommonly 
protracted in length. THOMAS KERSLAKE. 


ORDER. The following not generally known fact 
's extracted from an article entitled "Petticoat 
Knights," in All the Year Mound for February of 
he present year an article to which I would 
direct the attention of your readers : 

" The Order of the Garter, itself the most glorious of 
extant orders of knighthood, was originally founded for 
,he benefit of both sexes, and was worn by them for the 

first hundred and fifty years of its existence In the 

reign of Richard the Second, the two daughters of the 
Duke of Lancaster Philippa, wife of John, King of 
Portugal, and Catherine, wife of Henry, Prince of As- 
turias were also Knights of the Garter. I am quite 
aware that, up to this point, the Garter Roll proves no 
more than that the ladies of the family of the sovereign 
were admitted to the order ; but in the succeeding reigns 
he limits of knighthood were largely extended. Among 
he names occur those of the Countesses of Buckingham, 
'embroke, Salisbury, Huntingdon, Kent, Derby, West- 
moreland, Arundel, Warwick, and Richmond ; the Ladies 
Viohun, Le Despencer, Poynings, Swynford, Fitzwalter, 
De Ros, Waterton, and Burnell. The last lady Knight 
of the Garter was Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Rich- 
mond, mother of Henry the Seventh." 

H. Y. N. 

5'h S. IX. MAK. 2, 78.] 



[We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct.] 

JOHN CARVER. The first governor of the Pil- 
grim Fathers was John Carver. He appears in 
the compact as bringing his wife to New England, 
and his family numbered eight (Baylie's Memoirs 
of Plymouth Colony}. His son Jasper died on 
Dec. 6, 1620, before the landing. John Carver, 
the governor, died from a sunstroke on April 5, 
1621, and his wife died six weeks later. He is 
" supposed to be one of Robinson's church who 
emigrated from England to Holland, and first 
appears as the agent of the church. It is also 
said that he had once possessed a large property 
which had been impaired during his exile" (Baylie's 
Memoirs). Dr. Belknap, in his American History, 
says, " We have no particulars of the life of Mr. 
Carver previous to his appointment as one of the 
agents of the Congregational church in Leyden." 

I have an idea that Governor Carver was pos- 
sibly descended from Deryk Carver, a Brighton 
brewer of good property, who was burned at the 
stake at Lewes, Sussex, in 1554 (see Foxe's Book 
of Martyrs}. Perhaps some of your American 
readers could throw light on the subject. 



A WASHINGTON LETTER. At a sale, June 2 and 
3, 1830, by Messrs. Southgate, Grimstone & Wells, 
of No. 22, Fleet Street, there was sold an auto- 
graph letter, written by John Washington to 
Messrs. Gary & Sons of London, containing in- 
structions concerning a tombstone. If the present 
possessor of that letter will communicate with COL. 
CHESTER, 124, Blue Anchor Road, S.E., he will 
confer a great favour. 

" MARQUIS " v. " MARQUESS." I recently ob- 
served on the visiting card of a nobleman holding 
a prominent public position that he adopts marquis 
for the orthography of his title. Having always 
been under the impression that marquess is the 
preferable form of spelling, it wduld be interesting 
to others as well as to myself if some of your corre- 
spondents could throw light on the subject, and at 
least collect instances of the various ways in which 
the word has been spelt by noblemen of historical 
celebrity. MARCHIO. 

DOVE FAMILY. About the year 1700 the 
Governor of "Plymouth Dock," as it was then 
called, was a man of the name of Dove. I should 
be much obliged to any of your correspondents 
who could give me any information about him or 
his family (ancestors or descendants). I have 
reason to believe that he belonged to the family of 

Camberwell, co. Surrey, and I should much like 
to verify this belief. This family is referred to in 
Manning and Bray's .History and Antiquities of 
the County of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 427, where it is 
mentioned that there is a pedigree of the said 
family in one of the Surrey Visitations. 

I should be grateful also for any information 
about this family. Manning and Bray say nothing 
more than that they trace their descent to Henry 
Dove, who fell on Bos worth Field fighting for 
Richard III., and that the wife of this Henry 
Dove was a daughter of Thomas Brereton, of 
Cheshire. P. E. D. 

COMMONS. Who first called the Reporters' Gallery 
in the House of Commons a fourth estate of the 
realm? Macaulay adopts the expression in his 
essay on Hallam and in the third chapter of the 
History. P. C. 

[The expression is often applied to the Press, and 
therefore may possibly have been extended, by analogy, 
to the gallery occupied by its representatives.] 

A county militia regiment, having the designation 
of " Royal," and as such entitled to bear the in- 
signia of royalty, has lately adopted for its badge 
the crest of its colonel. Would it be right or 
wrong, in ordering a die for the plate or paper of 
the regiment, to put a royal crown over the civilian 
crest, with the name of the regiment underneath 1 
or should the royal crown be divided in some way 
from the crest or badge, so as to show that the 
person bearing the crest is not himself entitled to 
bear also a regal crown 1 C. T. J. M. 

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. I have never seen 
the name of my University in Latin, and, as there 
is more than one Latin form which the name might 
legitimately take, I should feel obliged if some 
one would say whether there is any official docu- 
ment issued by, or relating to, the University in 
that language, or what the Latin terms are (if any) 
in any way used or recognized by the Senate or by 
Convocation to designate the University itself, and 
the handsome Government edifice in Burlington 
Gardens at present officially styled in English 
" University Building." 


WARTON AND JOHNSON. Where is the anecdote 
to be found of Dr. Johnson saying to Dr. Warton, 
"I am not accustomed to be contradicted," and 
Dr. Warton's answer, " It were better for yourself 
and your friends, sir, if you were " ? J. R. B. 

brown pottery tankard (gallon size), with the in- 
cised date 1730, and the name of the owner, 
** Mary Bayly." Round the rim of the tankard is 



[5th s. IX. MAR. 2, 78. 

the inscription, " Dr&k about, boys, to the pious 
memory of Queen Anne." Below this inscription 
is an effigy of the queen in royal robes ; on each 
side of her are two beefeaters. Underneath* is an 
outline of a church, while the base of the tankard 
is surrounded with hounds in full cry after a stag. 
I am desirous of ascertaining how it happened 
that in the reign of George II. Queen Anne should 
have formed the subject of the toast. S. J. 

brated character (such as Charles Fox) has said of 
Norfolk that it is (or was) one big goose-green in- 
terspersed with hamlets, or a succession of hamlets 
connected by a goose-green. I shall be greatly 
obliged if any of your readers can give me a refer- 
ence to the original, or the name of the author of 
the saying. T. S. 


FRIESIC LEGENDS. The titles of any collection 
of Friesic legends or popular songs will be welcome 
to the querist. He has Scheltema's Friesche 


F. L. 

some of your learned friends complete the follow- 
ing fragment, which appears on the open book held 
by a Cumrean Sibyl painted by Guercino ? 




I should be glad to be able to put it in an intelli- 
gible shape. E. A. 

" CHARLOTTE." Derivation wanted of this term, 
peculiar to French and English cookery-books, as 
applied to a "charlotte "russe," "charlotte de 
pommes." The result being a " little house " for 
the apples, &c., can it be corrupted chalet, 
chalotte, charlotte ? Is there any etymological dic- 
tionary of culinary terms ? GREYSTEIL. 

URCHENFIELD. It is a curious fact, hitherto 
unexplained, that in a large district of Hereford- 
shire at least five of the peculiar legal customs of 
Kent were anciently in force, though unknown in 
other parts of England. In Urchenfield the 
Arcenefelde of Domesday a territory lying all 
around King's Capley, the inhabitants, like the 
men of Kent, possessed the customs of (1) partible 
descents, (2) freedom from escheat for felony, (3) 
dower of half the husband's lands, (4) devisa- 
bility of "purchased" lands, and, according to 
Domesday, the still more remarkable Kentish 
right of (5) being placed in the van of the army 
'Cum exercitus in hosteni pergit, ipsi per con- 
suetudinem faciunt avauntwarde, et reversione 
redrewarde "). Can any of your readers suggest 
how this identity of customs arose, or inform me if 
any trace of it still survives ? CYRIL. 

THE LINCOLN MISSAL. Maskell, in his An- 
cient Liturgy of the Church of England, describing 
the Sarum, York, Hereford, and Bangor Missals, 
expresses a hope that some day " the lost Lincoln 
use" may be discovered. Has such a discovery 
been made since Maskell wrote 1 and, if so, what 
salient feature is there by which a Missal of that 
use could be identified 1 J. D. A. 


BRAMPTON PARK, HUNTS. I have an impression 
from a well-engraved plate, octavo size, of this 
place. On it is : " Published Dec., 1823, by Kack- 
ham, 39, Strand." The view is " drawn by W. 
Finley, and engraved by T. Higham." The plate 
has probably appeared in some serial, as at one 
end of it is a sitting female figure, entitled "Even- 
ing Dress." I should be glad to be referred to the 
work in which the view may have appeared, or to 
any other description of the park. 


33, Bloomsbury Street. 

Who were the "other issue" of this nobleman, 
mentioned under the family of Spencer, under the 
head of Marlborough, and what became of them 1 


Lowbourne, Melksham. 

AN ENGRAVING. I have a very fine circular 
engraving of three foxhounds' heads, the darker 
coloured hounds on each side, and a lighter 
coloured hound in the centre. Can any of your 
readers tell me from whose painting it is engraved 
and the probable engraver ? It is a " proof before 
letters." L. 

A BANBURY STORY. In The Hunting Horse, 
by Nicholas Cox, 1696, I read : 

"Now, by the way, let me give you this necessary 
caution : be sure whilst you are dressing your Horse let 
him not stand naked, his Body being expos'd to the 
penetration of the air, whilst you are telling a Banbury 
story to some comrades that accidentally come into the 

What is a " Banbury story " ? 


THE LORD OF BURLEIGH. Your readers will be 
familiar with The Lord of Burleigh, the ballad in 
which Tennyson gives a poetic rendering of a 
romantic incident in the history of the house of 
Exeter. Can any of them supply me with the 
prose version upon which it is likely the Laureate 
founded his poem 1 JOHN TAYLOR. 


TURY. A friend of mine has, among others, an 
invitation to an evening party from Sir Horace 
Mann and one from a Duchess of Beaufort, both 

5th S. IX. MAR. 2, 78.] 



written on the backs of playing cards. I should 
like to know whether the custom was general ; 
when and whence introduced, and its meaning ; 
and whether such invitations were issued for card 
parties only or otherwise. A. B. H. 

"RoYD." What is the meaning of the word 
royd ? It is used in many places in this district, 
such as Longroyd Bridge, Highroyd (district), 
Coteroyd (house), Royd House, Eoyd Hall, &c. 


GODMOROCKE. In the year 1636 Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges, of Ashton Phillips, co. Somerset, 
granted to Arthur Champernowne, of Dartington, 
two large tracts of land lying on the extreme 
south-western frontier of Maine, in New England, 
one to be called Dartington, and the other God- 
morocke. The latter was not then a local name 
in New England. Its origin, like Dartington, 
must be found in England. I have not been able 
to find Godmorocke in any English gazetteer or 
county history. I shall be obliged to any one who 
can tell me anything about it. 

Boston, U.S.A. 

ville, who was slain with his father, Earl Eivers, at 
Edgecot Field, leave an only daughter and heiress, 
Anne, who was married to Sir John Helwell of 
Whissendine 1 A descent from this match is 
claimed in Nichols's Leicestershire for the Sherards 
of Stapleford, on the faith of " two very old pedi- 
grees on vellum." Can the statement be proved, 
or disproved, on more satisfactory evidence ? 


LANCASHIRE. Will some correspondent of 
" N. & Q." give what information he can respect- 
ing the Wood family of or about Leigh, Lan- 
cashire ? One of them, Elizabeth Wood, I believe, 
married about 1734 Edward, the son of Thomas, 
eldest son of Baron Leigh, of Stoneley, Warwick- 
shire. All information will be thankfully received 

24, Clarendon Street, Cambridge. 

for some weeks endeavouring to discover the author 
of the above song, and whether the Richmond is 
in Surrey or Yorkshire. One very circumstantial 
account gives " McNolly," author of JRobin Hood, 
as the composer, and the county as Yorkshire ; while 
a great authority of the present day states it to 
have been composed by Mr. James Hook, grand- 
father of Theodore Hook, and Surrey as the county. 
Can any of your readers place the matter beyond 
a doubt 1 QUAVER. 

CHARLES LAMB. When he left Islington he 
hired that " gamboogey " furnished cottage at 
Chaseside, Enfield, which he quitted after a 
year to board and lodge at Westwood's, next door. 
Was the " gamboogey " cottage Leishman's, with 
whom he had formerly boarded and lodged? 
Whereabouts in Edmonton was his first removal 
before finally going to Mr. Walden's, Church 
Street, where he died ? QUIVIS. 

[Charles Lamb died Dec. 27, 1834.] 

TOM TOMPIER. A picture of this person is re- 
presented with a clock. Is he known to fame ? and 
if so, who and what was he ? W. P. 

DR. CHILLINGWORTH. Does any portrait of 
Chillingworth exist ? If so, where is it 1 and has 
it been engraved 1 J. J. P. 

ST. SUNDAY. Where shall I find any notice of 
this saint? There was at Drogheda, in 1649, "a 
strong round tower next the gate called St. Sun- 
day's." See Carlyle's Lett, and Speeches of Oliver 
Cromwell , ii. 53. ANON. 

SIR FRANCIS BURDETT. One of our customers 
is in possession of a large silver vase, which was 
purchased at the sale of Sir Francis Burdett's 
effects after his death. He has been given to 
understand that it was a presentation vase, either 
commemorating Sir Francis's return from imprison- 
ment in the Tower, or his retirement from Parlia- 
ment. We have been requested to ascertain its 
history, and have been advised to make applica- 
tion to " N. & Q." The Hall mark on the vase 
would seem to be of the year 1810, but of this we 
are not certain. T. & W. BANTING. 

27, St. James's Street. 


Commutation of Tytlies in Ireland injurious not only 
to the Church Establishment, fait to the Poor. London, 
1808. 8vo. 

History of the Campaign on the Sutlej and the War in 
the Punjaub, &c. London, 1846. 8vo. ABHBA. 

" And often in my heart I cry, 
How beautiful is youth ! " 



(5 th S. ix. 47.) 

MR. SOLLY'S interesting note on this subject 
opens out a wide field of inquiry. These appa- 
rently personal proverbs are very numerous in our 
national parcemiology. A list of two or three 
hundred might be without much difficulty com- 
piled. Yet, on more minute investigation, in a 
very large percentage of these no special person 



ix. MA*. 2, 78. 

will prove to be meant' First, all proverbs with 
merely Christian names may be a priori suspected 
not to allude to any one in particular. The in- 
tense realism of the rustic mind seems to feel a 
necessity for connecting a floating adage with some 
visionary Tom, Dick, or Harry.* More than this, 
some passing skit in a town must be connected 
with the mayor of that town as its concrete and 
visible spokesman or representative. When, how- 
ever, a Christian or other name is localized, as in 
MR. SOLLY'S list, "John of Cumberland" and "Old 
Eusse of Pottern," the presumption is greatly 
strengthened that an actual person is meant. 
Next, the proverbs which contain common sur- 
names merely are in many instances impersonal. 
1. Where the surname is different in independent 
versions of the same proverb, or where the same 
surname figures in different proverbs. 2. Where 
there exists an alliterative connexion between the 
surname, which is a common one, and a hingeing 
word in the saying, e.g. 3. Bolt and Bolton. f 3. 
Where the surname comes in as a mere tag in the 
formula, "Quoth Dawkins," "Quoth Mortimer," J 
and the like. 4. The surname may be merely an 
obsolete or corrupted word which is no surname at 
all. But, with all these deductions, there will be 
left a noteworthy residuum where an actual man 
is meant, as Plowden, of whom, we have definite 
information, and some three or four in our present 
list, of whom particulars may be somewhere or 
some day forthcoming. I venture to append a few 
remarks on MR. SOLLY'S list. The interpretation 
of proverbs is the slipperiest of all etymological 
tasks, so that I speak in all cases without the 
smallest wish to dogmatize. H. refers to English 
Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases, by W. Carew 
Hazlitt, 1869 ; E. to Eay's Collection of Proverbs, 
the page references being to the first edition, 
printed at Oxford in 16YO. 

Banbury : As nice as the Mayor of B. Halliwell 
gives, As wise as the Mayor of Banbury, who would 
prove that Henry III. was before Henry II. These 
civic magistrates were favourite proverbial butts. The 
respective mayors of Huntingdon, Northampton, Altrinc- 
ham, Over, Hartlepool, Halgaver (an imaginary place), 
London (in four proverbs), Banbury, York, &c., all 

* When the proverb treats of an animal it becomes 
Tom, Dick, or Harry's animal for the same reason. 

f To avoid repetition, I may say that the following 
numbers in MR. SOLLY'S list seem to be suspiciously 
impersonal from connecting Christian names or common 
surnames with an alliterative match-word HI the pro- 
verb-2, 3, 5, 8, 11, 14, 15, 21. 

| This tag is, I need hardly say, in our language as 
old as Hendyng and his proverbs, and doubtless much 
older. It often winds up a black-letter broadside 

A hasty glance through Ray for the purpose of this 
note has suggested from his pages the following certainly 
alluded to personages : Duke Humphry, Hobson, the 
Cambridge carrier, William of Wickham, Lord Keeper 
Egerton, Lady Donne, Robin Hood and his entourage of 
course, plenty of saints. 

appear, seldom in complimentary situations. The town 
of Banbury itself was a great focus for proverbs. Its 
ale, cakes, cheese, tinkers were all celebrated. 

Bolton : Bate me an ace, quoth B. Implies an alleged 
assertion is too strong (Halliwell). This is said to have 
been the proverb which Queen Elizabeth detected as 
omitted in Heywood's collection when he presented it to 
her (R., p. 163). Without the tag it occurs in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher (Prophetess, Act i. sc. 3), " Nor bate 
ye an ace of a sound senator." In Nares three plays 
are quoted which give the whole proverb. Cf. " The 
best must crave their aces of allowance." Walker, 1672 
(H., p. 358). The alliterative connexion between "bate " 
and Bolton is evident. 

Bolton : Wide ! quoth B. when his bolt flew back. 
Halliwell says "flew backward," which seems more cor- 
rect. H. gives a variation, " Wide ! quoth Wilson," 
p. 475. The latter version shows how these sayings are 
moulded ; when docked of the second half the proverb- 
stood, " Wide ! quoth Bolton." But this would never do, 
alliteration being de riyueur, so any common name with 
a w was substituted. 

Bumsted : Crack me that nut, quoth B. " Heywood 
has TcnaTc me that nut ; but the rest of the proverb is of 
more modern growth seemingly" (H., p. 106). R., 
p. 214, gives as above. Here, as in Weyniark below, the 
tag being an uncommon surname and not alliterative, I 
suspect a real allusion. 

Croker : As coy as C.'s mare. I find this rendered by 
H., p. 60 (but R., p. 202, gives as MR. SOLLY does), " As 
coy as a croker's mare." It may, perhaps, be interpreted 
as quiet as a crocker or crock-dealer's horse, inasmuch as 
a restive jade would smash all the earthenware hawked 
round in such carts. Croker meant also a seller of 
saffron, which is less appropriate. 

Cumberland : The devil and John of Cumberland. 
This should be John a Cumber, a great Scotch magician. 
He appears in Anthony Munday's play, John a Kent and 
John a Cumber, 1595. Here is a quotation from it, given 
by Nares in v. " Cumber " : 

" He poste to Scotland for brave John a Cumber, 
The only man renownde for magick skill. 
Oft have I heard he once leguylde the devill, 
And in his arte could never find his matche." 

Day: Ware wapps, quoth William D. Wapps, most 
likely wasp ; but it may mean a large truss of straw, 
which wapps and whips signify, and the warning may be 
to those walking below some hay-loft. Cf. " Ware skins, 
quoth Grubber," &c. (H., p. 447). 

Dawkins : Dab ! quoth D. when he hit his wife. 
Dawkin, a foolish person; dawkingly wise, self-conceited,. 
North (Halliwell). R. adds more, which is rather too 
homely to quote. I have heard in Berks, " Dab ! said 
Daniel when he in a well." Both Daniel and Daw- 
kins are, I suspect, mythical individuals, for Dawkin 
reappears as the hero of another saying, " Strike, Daw- 
kin, the devil is in the hemp " (H., p. 346). 

De la Mott: As much deformed as D.'s house. One 
gets a glimmer here : houss, large, coarse feet, East 
(Halliwell). Mot, a jade, still in use, but more likely 
dollimop, a servant wench, as altered to de la mott. A. 
house can hardly be called deformed. 

Doddipol : As learned as Dr. D. This does not seem, 
to be a surname. See Richardson in v. " Dodipole or doti- 
pole," "perhaps from dote and pole." Out of four in- 
stances given of its use here is one : " But some will say 
our curate is naught, an ass-head